Music Composers




American Composers


Nineteenth Century

                Stephen Foster - (songs) Oh Susanna, My Old Kentucky Home, Jeannie with the Light Brown

Hair, Beautiful Dreamer, Camptown Races, The Old Folks at Home

                Scott Joplin - The Entertainer, Maple Leaf Rag, (opera) Treemonisha (Treemonisha tries to drive

                                out charlatans after Zodzetrick almost dupes her mother)

Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

                Amy Beach - (first famous US woman composer) Cabildo

Charles Edward Ives - Second Piano Sonata: Concord Mass. (incl. Emerson, Hawthorne, Alcott,

and Thoreau movements), Three Places in New England, The Unanswered Question,

Variations on America, (overtures) Browning, Emerson

John Philip Sousa - Stars and Stripes Forever, Washington Post March, Gladiator, Semper Fidelis,

(autobiography Marching Along, headed Marine Band)

William Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan - The Pirates of Penzance (The Slave of Duty; band of pirates

swashbuckle amidst ordinary Englishmen in Cornwall), HMS Pinafore (The Lass That

Loved a Sailor), The Mikado (The Town of Titipu; Nanki-Poo is supposed to marry Katisha

but loves Yum-Yum, who is supposed to marry Ko-Ko), Iolanthe (The Pear and the Pad),

Patience (Bunthorne's Bride)

                Daniel Emmett - Dixie

Twentieth Century

George Gershwin - Porgy and Bess (lyrics by Ira Gershwin and DuBose Heyward; Catfish Row:

crippled Porgy, gambler Crown, and cocaine-sniffing Sportin' Life love Bess; Porgy kills

Crown), Rhapsody in Blue, Of Thee I Sing, An American in Paris

                Samuel Barber - Adagio for Strings, Vanessa (Anatol is rejected by Erika but marries Vanessa),

Antony and Cleopatra, School for Scandal, Knoxville: Summer of 1915

                Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein - (musicals) Carousel, The King and I, Oklahoma,

Sound of Music, South Pacific, Showboat

                Leonard Bernstein - (musicals) On the Town, Candide, West Side Story

                Aaron Copland - Appalachian Spring (farmhouse built for engaged PN couple), Fanfare for the

Common Man, Billy the Kid, Rodeo

                Glen Miller - Moonlight Serenade

                Aram Khatchaturian - Gayaneh (including Saber Dance)

                Jerome Kern - (musicals) Showboat, Roberta, (songs) Smoke Gets in Your Eyes, Old Man River,

All the Things You Are

                Stephen Sondheim - (shows) Company, A Little Night Music, Sweeney Todd, Sunday in the Park

with George, Into the Woods, A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum, lyrics to

West Side Story and Gypsy

                Andrew Lloyd-Webber - (musicals) Cats, Evita, Jesus Christ Superstar, Phantom of the Opera,

                                Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat

                Frederick Loewe - My Fair Lady, Camelot, Brigadoon

                Ernest Bloch - Israel Symphony

                Philip Glass - (operas) Einstein on the Beach (written by Robert Wilson; about danger of nuclear

war), Akhnaten, The Voyage

                John Adams - Nixon in China (libretto by Alice Goodman; based on Richard Nixon, Henry

Kissinger, Mao Zedong, Jiang Qing, and Zhou Enlai in 1972 meeting), Harmonium,

Death of Klinghoffer

                Virgil Thomson - Four Saints in Three Acts (libretto by Gertrude Stein), The Mother of Us All

                Irving Berlin (born in Russia) - (songs) I'm Dreaming of a White Christmas, Cheek to Cheek,

(shows) Annie get your Gun, Call me Madam, (films) Top Hat, Easter Parade

                Paul Hindemith - Mathis der Maler (about painter Grunewald, includes The Entombment and The

Temptation of St. Anthony movements)



Austrian Composers


Eighteenth Century

                Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (works catalogued by Koechel) -

A Little Night Music (composed while working on Don Giovanni),

Jupiter Symphony,

Requiem Mass,

Prague Symphony,


The Magic Flute (Die Zauberflute; libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder;

Prince Tamino is rescued from monster by Three Ladies of the Queen of the

Night [Flaming Star], who tells him he can marry her daughter Pamina if he

can rescue her from magician Sarastro; Tamino and bird-catching friend

Papageno discover queen is evil and Sarastro is spiritual leader; Tamino

and Pamina marry),

Abduction from the Seragilo (Belmonte comes to Turkish castle of Pasha Selim

disguised as architect to rescue kidnapped Constanza),

Don Giovanni (libretto by Lorenzo Da Ponte; servant Leporello maintains

catalog of women seduced by Don Giovanni, including Zerlina; he invades

Donna Anna's bedroom and slays her father the Commendatore in duel;

Donna Anna and fiance Don Ottavio vow revenge; Donna Elvira loves

Don Giovanni, who mocks the Commendatore's statue in the cemetery

and is dragged to hell)

Cosi Fan Tutte (libretto by Lorenzo Da Ponte based on Orlando Furioso; All

Women Are Like That; on bet with Don Alfonso, officers Ferrando and

Guglielmo test their lovers by disguising themselves as Albanians and

seducing each other's lovers) ,

The Marriage of Figarro (libretto by Lorenzo Da Ponte; Count Almaviva tires of

wife Rosina and woos her maid Susanna, who is engaged to Figaro;

Cherubino loves Rosina, who disguises herself as Susanna to trick Almaviva,

and Susanna tricks Figaro; all are reconciled)

                                                Idomeneo (Ilia offers herself in place of King Idomeneo's son Idamante for sacrifice

to Neptune)

                Bastien and Bastienne (written at age 12; love triangle involving Colas),

The Clemency of Titus (Vitellia attempts to assassinate Titus)

Franz Josef Haydn - Farewell Symphony #45 (musicians blow out candles and exit), Sun Quartets,

The Paris Symphonies, The London Symphonies, Surprise Symphony #94,

Clock Symphony #101, Lord Nelson Mass, (oratorio) The Creation, Miracle Symphony #96

Nineteenth Century

                Franz Schubert - The Trout Quintet, The Tragic Symphony #4, The Unfinished Symphony #8, The Great

                                Symphony #9, Erlkoenig, Winter Journey, Death and the Maiden

                Johann Strauss - The Blue Danube, The Bat, Tales from the Vienna Woods, (operettas) The Gypsy

Baron, Die Fledermaus (libretto by Richard Genee and Carl Haffner; champagne and nostalgia

Viennese style with romantic liaisons and mistaken identities at masked ball)

                Gustav Mahler - Song of the Earth, Titan Symphony #1, Resurrection Symphony #2 (last movement based

on poem by Klopstock), Symphony of a Thousand #8, Songs of a Wayfarer, Songs on the

Death of Children (Kindertotenlieder)

                Anton Bruckner - Symphony #0, Romantic Symphony #4

Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

                Arnold Schoenberg - (12-tone technique), Pierrot lunaire (based on poems by Albert Giraud),

Transfiguration Night (woman confesses she is pregnant by another man but is forgiven),

Gurrelieder, Erwartung, Moses and Aaron, In Memorium Dylan Thomas

                Alban Berg - (operas) Lulu (libretto by the composer; Lulu has loveless liaisons with several men

and Countess Geschwitz; she becomes a prostitute in London and is killed by Jack the Ripper),

Wozzeck (libretto by composer based on Georg Bluchner's play; soldier Wozzeck is abused by

his Captain, experimented on by a mad doctor, and beaten by a drum major having an affair with

his wife Marie; Wozzeck stabs Marie and drowns in a pond; their child plays on a hobbyhorse)

                Anton von Webern (accidentally shot by US soldier at end of WWII) - Passacaglia, Six Pieces for Orchestra



Brazilian Composers


Twentieth Century

Heitor Villa-Lobos - Bachianas Brasileiras, Amazonas, Choros



British Composers


Seventeenth Century

Henry Purcell - (opera) Dido and Aeneas (first performed at Josias Priest's Boarding School for Girls

at Chelsea), The Fairy Queen

Eighteenth Century

John Gay - The Beggar's Opera (musical score by John Pepusch; rivalry of highwayman Captain

Macheath and fence Jeremy Peachum satirizes Robert Walpole and his Whig Cabinet)

                Thomas Arne - Rule Brittania

Twentieth Century

                Edward Elgar - Pomp and Circumstance, The Dream of Gerontius, Enigma Variations (includes Nimrod,

a tribute to August Jaeger, and part about Elgar's wife Alice), The Apostles

                Gustav Holst - The Planets, Egdon Heath, Hymns from the Rig Veda, The Perfect Fool

                Ralph Vaughan Williams - Sinfonia Antarctica, Fantasia on a Theme of Thomas Talus, A London

                                Symphony #2, A Sen Symphony #1, Sir John in Love, The Wasps

                William Turner Walton - Variations on a Theme by Hindemith, Hamlet, Major Barbara

                Benjamin Britten - (operas) A Midsummer's Night Dream, Albert Herring, The Rape of Lucretia,

Peter Grimes (libretto by Montagu Slater based on George Crabbe's poem The Borough;

                                Suffolk fisherman Peter Grimes is suspected of killing an apprentice; despite

schoolmistress Ellen Orford's protests he takes a second apprentice, who is killed

as they flee a mob; Grimes kills self by sinking in his boat), Gloriana, Billy Budd,

Death in Venice, The Turn of the Screw, A Young Person's Guide to the Orchestra,

War Requiem (based on poems by Wilfred Owen)



Czech/Bohemian Composers


Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

                Anton Dvorak - Symphony #9 From the New World, Slavonic Dances

                Leos Janacek - (opera) Jenufa, The Makropulos Affair

                Bedrich Smetana - (opera) The Bartered Bride (Marenka), Ma Vlast (My Country, including The Modau)



Finnish Composers


Nineteenth Century

                Jean Sibelius - Finlandia, The Swan of Tuonela, Karelia



French Composers


Seventeenth Century

                Jean-Baptiste Lully - Bougeois Gentleman, (operas) Alceste, Armide, Pomone, Te Deum

Eighteenth Century

                Jean-Philippe Rameau - Castor et Pollux

Nineteenth Century

                Hector Berlioz - Damnation of Faust, Symphony Fantastique ("Episode in the Life of an Artist",

passion for English actress Harriet Smithson), Roman Carnival, Childhood of Christ,

Romeo and Juliet, (operas) Benvenuto Cellini, The Trojans, Harold in Italy, Benvenuto Cellini

                Charles Gounod - (operas) Faust (libretto by Jules Barbier and Michel Carre based on Goethe's

poem; scholar Faust sells soul to devil Mephistopheles for love of Marguerite, whom he betrays;

Marguerite kills their baby and is imprisoned and dies; Faust kills her brother Valentine in duel

and is dragged to Hell), Romeo and Juliet (libretto by Jules Barbier and Michel Carre; Romeo and

Juliet of feuding Montague and Capulet families fall in love, elope, and commit suicide; Mercutio

has Queen Mab fairy-tale fantasy)

                Jacques Offenbach - (opera) Tales of Hoffmann (libretto by Jules Barbier and Michel Carre based

on ETA Hoffmann's stories; in a tavern, Hoffmann tells his friends about his three loves: the

animated doll Olympia, the courtesan Giulietta, and the singer Antonia; woman he came to

meet leaves with another man), Orpheus in the Underworld

                Camille Saint-Saens - Samson and Delilah (libretto by Ferdinand Lemaire; Delilah seduces

Hebrew warrior Samson and learns the secret of his strength is his long hair; she cut his hair, the

Philistines capture and blind him, but he pulls down their temple and dies), Carnival of the Animals,

Dance Macabre

                Georges Bizet - Assembly Ball, (operas) Carmen (libretto by Henri Meilhac and Ludovic Halevy

based on Prosper Merimee's novella; Seville: soldier Don Jose is arrested when he saves Gypsy

smuggler and cigarette factory worker Carmen from prison; on his release he competes with his

commander for her and joins the smugglers but she leaves him for bullfighter Escamillo and he

kills her), The Pearl Fishers, Children's Games

Claude Debussy - La Mer, Nocturne, Images, (ballet) Ballade, Afternoon of a Faun, Clair de lune, The

Children's Corner, The Prodigal Son, Suite Bergamesque, (opera) Pelleas et Melisande (based on

Maurice Maeterlinck's tragedy; unprecedented style; love triangle among Melisande and half-

brothers Pelleas and Golaud)

                Massenet - (opera) Manon (libretto by Henri Meilhac and Philippe Gille based on Abbe Prevost's

novel; on way to convent, Manon elopes with Chevalier des Grieux; they are accused of gambling

and prostitution and are banished; Manon dies in his arms; the Chevalier vows to be priest)

Twentieth Century

                Maurice Ravel - Mother Goose, Bolero, La Valse, Daphnis and Chloe, The Spanish Hour, (opera)

The Child and the Spells, Spanish Rhapsody

                Paul Dukas - The Sorcerer's Apprentice, Ariene and Bluebeard

                Lili Boulanger - (first woman to win Grand Prix de Rome, 1913) Faust et Helene

                Nadia Boulanger - (Lili's sister, second in Grand Prix 1908) La Sirene

                Gabriel Faure (student of Saint-Saens) - Apres une Reve, Requiem Mass

                Erik Satie - Gymnopedies, Parade, Vexations, Desicated Embryos, Three Pieces in the Shape of a Pear

                Les Six

Darius Milhaud - Creation of the World, Christophe Colomb

Arthur Honegger - Judith, Rugby, King David, Pacific 231

Georges Auric - Moulin Rouge, The Sailors

Louis Durey (Communist) - Flute Sonatina, The Long March

Germaine Tailleferre

Francis Poulenc - Dialogues of the Carmelites (libretto by Ernest Lavery based on novel by

Gertrude von Le Fort; Sister Marie of the Incarnation, a nun of Compiegne, is martyred during

French Revolution), Gloria, Les Bitches



German Composers


Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries

                Johann Pachelbel - Canon in D, (chorales)

            Dietrich Buxtehude (taught Bach)

Johann Sebastian Bach - Mass in B-Minor, Art of the Fugue, Brandenburg Concertos (6), Well-

Tempered Clavier (championed Werckmeister's tuning theory), Goldberg Variations (composed to

treat insomnia of Russian envoy Kayserling), Passion of St. Matthew, Passion of St. John

Eighteenth Century

                George Frederic Handel - Messiah, Music for the Royal Fireworks, Water Music; (operas) Renaldo,

Judas Maccabeus (Judas Maccabee leads revolt of Isrealites against Antiochus IV)

Chrisoph Gluck (rival of Niccolo Piccini )- (operas) Orpheus and Eurydice (libretto by Ranieri Calzabigi;

musician Orpheus plays so well that Hades lets his wife Eurydice, who had died shortly after

their wedding, return to Earth, but she turns back too soon and is returned to Hades), Alcestis

Nineteenth Century

                Ludwig van Beethoven - Emperor Concerto, Egmont, Moonlight Sonata, (opera) Fidelio (libretto

by Jean Bouilly; Leonore, disguised as boy Fidelio, outwits prison warden Pizarro to rescue her

husband Florestan), Eroica Symphony #3, Fate (or Victory) Symphony #5, Pastoral Symphony #6,

Choral Symphony #9 (Ode to Joy by Schiller), Kreutzer Sonato, Sonata Pathetique, The Creatures

of Prometheus, Wellington's Victory (celebrates England's victory at Vitoria)

                Johannes Brahms - A German Requiem, Academic Festival Overture (drinking songs; written for acceptance

of honorary degree from University of Breslau), Variations on a Theme by Joseph Haydn,

Hungarian Dances

                Felix Mendelssohn - Reformation Symphony #5, Italian Symphony #4, Scotish Symphony #3, (overtures)

Hebrides (Fingal's Cave), A Midsummer Night's Dream, (piano) Songs Without Words (includes

three Venetian gondola songs), Elijah Oratorio, (revived Bach's St. Matthew's Passion)

                ETA Hoffmann - Undine (fisherman raises Undine, born in ocean; she loves Uldibrand but he turns to ice)

                Richard Wagner - (operas; had own opera house at Bayreuth)

Parsifal (libretto by the composer; Wagner's last opera; knight Parsifal, on quest for Holy

Grail, defeats magician Klingsor, resists seductress Kundry, and becomes the "pure fool"

who can weild the Sacred Spear),

The Flying Dutchman (man doomed to wander seas in ship Flying Dutchman until loved

by a woman; loves Senta),

Lohengrin (knight Lohengrin arrives at Antwerp on swan-drawn boat, marries king's

ward Elsa and kills the king, bringing peace to the kingdom, and leaves),

Tannhauser and the Singing Contest at Wartburg Castle (libretto by the composer;

Tannhauser leaves Venusburg to return to Wartburg and compete in Hall of Song; his

songs praising Venus scandalize all, he is banished, and the pope refuses absolution; his

beloved Elisabeth dies of broken heart and he dies),

Tristan and Isolde (based on 1100s tale; Irish princess Isolde and Cornish knight Tristan

love each other; its performance is so demanding that its staging was given up the first

two times and the first tenor to play Tristan died),

The Ring of the Nibelungen (libretto by the composer; four operas: #1 The Rhinegold, #2

The Valkyrie, #3 Siegfried, #4 The Twilight of the Gods; myths about Volsung race and

the Nibelung treasure),

The Mastersingers of Nuremberg (libretto by the composer based on Hans Sachs;

Walther wins holiday songwriting contest run by Nuremberg cobbler Hans Sachs,

gaining the hand of his beloved Eva; opera satirically attacks Beckmesser [based on

Eduard Hanslick])

                Robert Schumann - The Spring Symphony #1, Rhenish Symphony #2, Kreisleriana

                Giacomo Meyerbeer - The Huguenots, Robert the Devil, The African Maid

                Carl Maria von Weber - Die Freischutz (The Freeshooter; forester Max accepts Black Hunstman's magic

                                bullets; last bullet hits his beloved Agathe), Oberon (Weber learned English to write it)

                Engelbert Humperdinck - (opera) Hansel and Gretel (libretto by composer's sister Adelheid Wette

based on Grimm's Fairy Tales; siblings Hansel and Gretel find a witch's house when lost in the


Twentieth Century

                Richard Strauss -

Death and Transfiguration,

Thus Spake Zarathustra,

Don Quixote,

Till Eulenspeigel's Merry Pranks,


Don Juan,

A Hero's Life,


Salome (based on Oscar Wilde's tragedy; after being promised a wish for her

Dance of the Seven Veils, Salome demands on a platter the head of King Herod's

prisoner Jochanaan [John the Baptist], who had refused her advances),

The Rose-Bearer (Der Rosenkavalier; libretto by Hugo von Hofmannsthal; Field

Marshal von Werdenberg's Viennese wife the Marschallin has affair with

Octavian; her cousin Baron Ochs von Lerchenau comes and loves Sophie von

Faninal but also shows interest in Octavian, who has disguised himself as

servant girl Mariandel to escape; Marschallin chooses Octavian to bear silver

rose to Sophie for Ochs but he falls in love with her),

Elektra (libretto by Hugo von Hofmannsthal; Orest, with sister Elektra's help,

kills mom Klytemnestra and her lover Aegisth; Elektra dies),

The Woman without a Shadow,

Ariadne on Naxos (libretto by Hugo von Hofmannsthal; gentleman requests

simultaneous performance of opera on Greek myths and commedia dell'arte

farce to get them over with; noble Ariadne abandoned on island longs for

death and speaks with comedians, including Zerbinetta; Composer is exasperated)

                Carl Orff - Carmina Burana

                Kurt Weill - (operas) The Threepenny Opera (libretto by Bertolt Brecht; includes Mack the Knife song),

The Rise and Fall of the City of Mohogany (libretto by Bertolt Brecht; Cuban mulatto Jenny),

Street Scene



Hungarian Composers


Nineteenth Century

                Franz Liszt - A Faust Symphony, Hungarian Rhapsodies (includes Rakoczy March and Carnival in Pest),

Mezeppa, The Preludes, Dante Symphony, Mephisto Waltzes

Twentieth Century

                Bela Bartok - (opera) Bluebeard's Castle (bloody torture chamber and other horrors behind five doors,

light behind sixth, Judith joins three former wives behind seventh), (ballets) Miraculous Mandarin,

Wooden Prince, Mikrokosmos Suites, Kossuth Symphony

                Zoltan Kodaly - (opera) Hary Janos



Italian Composers and Musicians


Seventeenth Century

                Claudio Monteverdi - (operas) Orfeo, The Roman of Ulysses, The Coronation of Poppaea

Eighteenth Century

                Antonio Vivaldi - The Four Seasons

                Stadivari family - (made violins; Antonio Straivarius taught by Nicolo Amati in Cremona)

Nineteenth Century

                Giusepee Verdi - (operas)

                                Romantic Trilogy

Rigoletto (libretto by Francesco Maria Piave based on Victor Hugo's The King

Amuses Himself; Duke of Mantua seduces Gilda, daughter of his court jester

Rigoletto; Gilda dies to save the duke as Rigoletto seeks revenge; others include

assassin's daughter Maddalena),

La Traviata (The Transgressor; libretto by FM Piave based on Alexandre Dumas

the Younger's La Dame aux Camelias; Parisian cocotte Violeta Valery dies of

consumption at 23, loved by Alfredo Germont),

                                                Il Trovatore (The Troubadour; libretto by Salvatore Cammarano based on

Antonio Garda Gutierrez's play; characters include Manrico and his gypsy

mother Azucena),

A Masked Ball,

Aide (for Suez Canal),


Simon Boccanegra,

Falstaff (libretto by Arrigo Boito based on Merry Wives of Windsor; Verdi's last opera;

old soldier Falstaff sends identical love letters to Mistress Ford and Mistress Page;

Mistress Ford's husband tries to marry their daughter to a wealthy man but she loves

someone else),

Otello (libretto by Arrigo Boito; Lago falsely persuades Moorish general Otello that his

Venetian wife Desdemona has been unfaithful, and he kills her),

Nabucco (based on Biblical book Jeremiah about Chaldean ruler),
La Forza del Destino (libretto by Francesco Maria Piave based on Spanish play Don

Alvaro; Don Alvaro accidentally kills his beloved Leonora's father, she goes to a

monastery, and her brother pursues Alvaro for revenge)

Don Carlos (libretto by Francois Joseph Mery and Camille du Locle based on drama by

Friedrich Schiller; Don Carlos Infante of Spain competes with his father King Philip for

Elisabeth de Valois; intrigues of Princess Eboli; Carlos is imprisoned but rescued from

Spanish Inquisition by grandfather Emperor Charles V)              

Gaetano Donizetti - (operas) Lucia di Lammermoor (Arturo Bucklaw convinces Lucia her love Edgardo has

deserted her; based on novel by Scott), The Elixir of Love (Doctor Dulcamara), Don Pasquale

(libretto by Stefano Pavesi; Don Pasquale tries to prevent nephew from marrying a widow, who,

with Dr. Malatesta's help, pretends to marry Don Pasquale), Lucrezia Borgia, The Daughter of

the Regiment, Anna Bolena

                Gioacchino Rossini -  (ballet) The Fantastic Toyshop, (operas) William Tell,  The Barber of Seville (libretto

by Cesare Sterbini; Rosina's guardian Doctor Bartolo wants to marry her himself but she loves

Count Almaviva, who, with barber Figaro's help, tries to gains access to her disguised as a soldier

and as her music teacher Don Basilio; they plan to elope but are able to marry), The Thieving Magpie,

Cinderella, The Italian Girl in Algiers, Count Ory

                Vincenzo Bellini - (opera) Norma (Druid high priestess Norma in Gaul is burned for having two

sons with Roman proconsul Pollione and delaying her people's revolt against Rome),

La Sonnambula (The Sleepwalker; Elvino loves Amina but dumps her because of her sleepwalking)

Ruggero Leoncavallo - (opera) I Pagliacci (The Clowns; libretto by the composer; Tonio states

verismo creed; during play-within-a-play commedia dell'arte middle-aged actor Canio, portraying

clown Pagliaccio, stabs his young wife Nedda and her lover Silvio), La Boheme

                Niccolo Paganini - (famous violinist), 24 Caprices

                Pietro Mascagni - (opera) Cavalleria Rusticana (libretto by Guido Menasci and Giovanni

Targioni-Tozzetti based on play by Giovanni Verga; Sicily: Turiddu leaves pregnant lover Santuzza

on Easter for Lola, whose husband Alfio kills him in a duel)

Twentieth Century

                Giacomo Puccini - (operas)

Tosca (based on Victorien Sardou's play; Napoleon invades Rome in 1800),

La Boheme (libretto by Luigi Illica and Giuseppe Giacosa based on Henri Murger's

novel; Paris Latin Quarter, 1830: poet Rodolfo falls in love with consumptive seamstress

Mimi in stairway on Christmas Eve and go to Cafe Momus; painter Marcello and Musetta

break up; at the end of winter Mimi leaves; later as Marcello and Rodolfo joke with

musician Schaunard and philosopher Colline, Mimi returns to die),

Madame Butterfly (libretto by Luigi Illica and Giuseppe Giacosa; US naval officer

Benjamin Franklin Pinkerton marries Nagasaki Geisha girl Cio-Cio-San [Madam Butterfly]

and then returns to US; Cio and her servant Suzuki await his return; US consul Sharpless

tells her to marry a Japanese man; Pinkerton returns with American wife who requests their

child; she agrees but kills herself),

Turandot (libretto by Giuseppe Adami and Renato Simoni based on Carlo Gozzi's drama;

Princess Turandot executes her suitors who can't answer her riddle, but Prince Calaf gets

riddle and asks her to guess his name; she tortures loyal slave girl Li to get Calaf's name

but she kills herself)

                                The Girl of the Golden West  (Sheriff Jack Rance searches for the bandit Ramerrez in California)

                                Manon Lescaut

                Ottorino Respighi - The Fountains of Rome, The Pines of Rome

                Arturo Toscanini (conductor)

                Gian-Carlo Menotti (moved to US) - (opera) Amahl and the Night Visitors (libretto by composer;

crippled boy Amahl and his mom receive the Magi on the road to Bethelem), The Saint

of Bleecker Street, The Consul



Mexican Composers


Twentieth Century

                Carlos Chavez - Sinfonia India, Xochipilli



Norweigan Composers


Nineteenth Century

                Edvard Grieg - Peer Gynt (including In the Hall of the Mountain King), Olav Trygvason, Holberg Suite



Moldovian Composers


Twentieth Century

                Georges Enesco - Romanian Rhapsody



Polish Composers


Nineteenth Century

                Frederic Chopin - Piano Sonata in B-flat Minor (incl. Funeral March), F Minor Fantasy, (Polish

mazurkas, polonaises, noctures), Military Polonaise in A, Funeral March

Twentieth Century

                Ignace Jan Paderewski (Polish prime minister) - Manru



Russian Composers


Nineteenth Century

                The Russian (Mighty) Five

Aleksandr Borodin - Prince Igor (including Potovesian Dances; Igor and brother Prince

Galitzky rebel against Mongol chief Kontchak), In the Steppes of Central Asia

Modest Mussorgsky - Night on Bald Mountain, (opera) Boris Godunov (libretto by the

composer; Friar Grigory vows to avenge Boris Godunov's murder of Dmitry,

and returns pretending to be him; guilty Boris dies in Council Hall), (piano)

Pictures at an Exhibition (based on paintings byVictor Hartmann; includes

Bydlo and The Great Gate of Kiev)

                                Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov - The Great Russian Easter, (ballet) Scheherazade; (operas) The

Legend of Tsar Sultan (including Flight of the Bumblebee), The Snow Maiden

(Misgir loves the Snow Maiden, who is rejected by shepherd Lehl), The Golden

Cockerel (titular bird gets revenge on Tsar Dodon, the Astrologer requests the

hand of the Queen of Shemakha), Spanish Caprice

                                Mily Balakirev - Islamey, Tamara, King Lear                                                       

                                Cesar Cui

                Peter Tchaikovsky - (symphonies) Little Russian Symphony #2, Symphony Pathetique #6 (performed

nine days before composer's death), 1812 Overture, (ballets) The Nutcracker, The Sleeping

Beauty, Swan Lake, (operas) Eugene Onegin, The Queen of Spades

                Mikhail Glinka - Ruslan and Ludmilla, A Life for the Tsar, Summer Night in Madrid

Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

                Alexander Scriabin - Mazurkas, Peom of Ectasy, Prometheus Poem of Fire

Twentieth Century

                Igor Stravinsky - Song of the Nightingale, Card Game, Dumbarton Oaks, (ballets) The Wedding,

The Firebird, Carnaval, The Fairy's Kiss, Orpheus, The Rite of Spring (caused a riot at 1913

Paris debut), Petrushka (puppet at country fair dies but returns as ghost), Agon, Apollo,

Palcinella, (opera) The Rake's Progress (libretto by WH Auden and Chester Kallman based on

Hogarth's painting; Tom Rakewell is surrounded by undesirables such as Nick Shadow, the Devil

in disguise, and the long-suffering Anne Trulove), (stage work) The Soldier's Tale, Ragtime,

Oedipus Rex

                Sergey Prokofiev - Peter and the Wolf, Love for Three Oranges, Classical Symphony #1, Alexander Nevsky

(film score), (ballets) Cinderella, Romeo and Juliet, Lieutenant Kije

                Sergey Rachmaninov - Rhapsody on a Theme by Paganini, The Isle of the Dead

                Dmitri Shostakovich - Lady Macbeth of Minsk (Katerina Ismailova and lover Sergey kill her husband),

Leningrad Symphony, Babi Yar (Symphony #13: Russian Jews massacred by German troops)




Spanish Composers and Musicians


Nineteenth Centry

                Isaac Albeniz - Iberia

Twentieth Century

                Pablo Casals - (celloist, interpreted Bach's cello suites)

                Manuel de Falla - The Three-Cornered Hat, Love the Sorcerer