Wars, Battles, Revolutions, Crusades, Rebellions, Revolts, Riots, Strikes, Mutinies, Movements, Uprisings, Massacres, Plots, Conspiracies, Cabals, Scandals, Disasters, Assassinations, Affairs, Raids, Purges, Crises, Marches, and Other Hostile Incidents



Wars and Their Battles


Egyptian Battles

               Kadesh (1274 BC, Syria) - Ramses II (Egypt) defeated Muwatallis (Hittite)

               Carchemish (605 BC, Turkey) - Nebuchadnezzar II (Babylon) defeated Egyptians


Persian Wars

               Marathon (490 BC, Greece) - Miltiades (Greece) defeated Darius (Persia) near Athens;

                              Pheidippides ran to Athens with the news

               Thermopylae (480 BC, Greece) - Leonidas I (Sparta) delayed Xerxex I's (Persia) advance at a

                              narrow mountain path

               Salamis (480 BC, Greece) - Themistocles's (Athens) navy defeated Xerxes I (Persia) near Athens

               Plataea (479 BC, Greece) - Greeks defeated Persian infantry


Peloponnesian War

               Mantinea (418 BC, Greece) - Sparta defeated Alcibiades (Athens)

               Aegospotomai (4 05 BC, Dardanelles) -Lysander (Sparta) defeated Athenians in the Hellespont


Thebes - Sparta War

               Leuctra (371 BC, Greece) - Epaminondas (Thebes) defeated Sparta

               Mantinea (362 BC, Greece) - Epaminondas (Thebes) defeated Sparta and Athens but was killed


Macedonian Battles

               Chaeronea (338 BC, Greece) - Philip II (Macedonia) defeated Athens and Thebes

               Granicus (334 BC, Asia Minor) - Alexander the Great (Macedonia) defeated Persians

               Issus (333 BC, Syria) - Alexander the Great (Macedonia) defeated Darius III (Persia), who had

                              massacred Alexander's injured soldiers at Issus

               Gaugamela (Oct. 1, 331 BC, Iraq) - also Arbela; Alexander the Great (Macedonia) defeated

                              Darius III (Persi)

               Hydaspes (326 BC, India) - Alexander the Great (Macedonia) defeated King Porus

               Ipsus (301 BC, Asia Minor) - Antigonus I was killed, and Alexander's empire was split among

                              Ptolemy I, Seleucus I, and Antigonus's descendants


Second Punic War

               Cannae (216 BC, Italy) - Hannibal (Carthage) destroyed the army of Varro and Paulus Aemilius


               Zama (202 BC, Tunisia) - Scipio Africanus (Rome) defeated Hannibal, ending the war


Roman Battles

               Carrhae (53 BC, Turkey) - Orontes (Parthia) defeated Crassus (Rome), and executed him

               Alesia (52 BC, France) - Julius Caesar (Rome) defeated Vercingetorix (Gaul)

               Pharsalus (48 BC, Italy) - Julius Caesar defeated Pompey the Great

               Philippi (42 BC, Greece) - Antony and Octavian defeated Brutus and Cassius, who had

                              assassinated Julius Caesar

               Actium (Sept. 2, 31 BC) - Octavian and Agrippa defeated Antony and Cleopatra (Egypt)

               Teutoburg Forest (9, Germany) - Arminius (Cherusci) defeated Varus (Rome)

               Milvian Bridge (312, Italy) - Constantine the Great, after seeing a vision of a cross, defeated

                              Maxentius near Rome, converted to Christianity, and became emperor

               Adrianople (378, Turkey) - Visigoths destroyed the Eastern Romans under Valens near Edirne

               Chalons (451, Gaul) - Flavius Aetius (Rome) and Theodoric I (Visigoths) defeated Attila the Hun

                              and Gaiseric (Vandal)


Muslim Battles

               Uhud (625, Arabia) - Khalid (Mecca) defeated Muhammad

               Yarmuk (637, Syria) - Khalid (Muslim) defeated Byzantines and captured Damascus


Medieval Battles

               Tours (732, France) - also Poitiers; Charles Martel (Frank) stopped Moor invasion

               Stamford Bridge (Sept. 25, 1066) - Harold II (England) defeated Tostig and Harold III (Norway)

               Hastings (Oct. 14, 1066, East Sussex England) - William of Normandy defeated Harold II

                                (England) at Senlac Hill; Harold was killed; battle depicted in Bayeux Tapestry

               Manzikert (1071, Turkey) - Alp-Arslan (Seljuks) defeated Romanus IV Diogenes (Byzantium);

                              led to Seljuk conquest of Anatolia

               Bouvines (July 27, 1214, Lille France) - Philip II (France) defeated John (England) and Otto IV

                                (HRE), forcing England out of northern France

               Dunbar (1296, Scotland) - England defeated Baliol (Scotland), who had allied with France

               Stirling Bridge (Sept. 11, 1297, Scotland) - William Wallace (Scotland) defeated Earl of Surrey (England)

               Bannockburn (June 24, 1314, Scotland) - Robert I (Scotland) defeated Edward II (England) at

                              Stirling Castle

               Tannenberg (July 15, 1410, Poland) - also Grunwald; Witold and Ladislav (Poland and Lithuania)

                              defeated Ulrich von Jungingen (Teutonic Knights)

               Flodden Field (Sept. 9, 1513, England) - Earl of Surrey (England), leading Henry VIII's army,

                              defeated and killed James IV (Scotland)

               Pavia (1525, Italy) - Charles V (HRE) defeated Francis I (France)



               First (1095 - 1099) - called by Urban II at Council of Clermont; led by Robert of Flanders,

                              Bohemond of Taranto, Godfrey of Bouillon, and Raymond of Toulouse; captured Jerusalem;

                              set up Edessa, Antioch, Tripoli, and Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem states in "Outremer"

               Second (1144 - 1148) - called by Eugenius III; led by Louis VII (France) and Conrad III (HRE);

                              lost at Dorylaeum and Damascus; freed Lisbon from Moors

               Third (1187 - 1192) - after Saladin retook Jerusalem, Richard I (England), Philip II (France), and

                              Frederick I (HRE) reestablished Latin Kingdom but failed to take Jerusalem; Frederick

                              drowned in Calycadnus River

               Fourth (1199 - 1204) - called by Innocent III; Venetians took Zara in Hungary and


               Albigensian (1208 - 1229) - called by Innocent III and Gregory IX; Louis XIII persecuted

                              believers in dualism (Cathars) in southern France

               Children's (1212) - led by Stephen of Cloyes and Nicholas of Cologne; never reached Holy Land

               Fifth (1228) - called by Gregory IX; Frederick II (HRE) negotiated for control of Jerusalem

               Seventh (1248 - 1250) - Louis IX (France) captured Damietta in Egypt but lost at Cairo


Hundred Years War

               Crecy (Aug. 26, 1346, France) - Edward III and son Edward the Black Prince (England) defeated

                              Philip VI (France); English longbow very effective

               Poitiers (Sept. 19, 1356, France) - Edward the Black Prince (England) captured John II the Good

                              (France), who was held for ransom

               Agincourt (Oct. 25, 1415, France) - Henry V (England) defeated Charles D'Albret (France); French

                              troops trapped in mud slaughtered by English bowmen


Wars of the Roses (English Civil War)

               St. Albans (1455, England) - Margaret of Anjou (Lancaster), wife of Henry VI, defeated Earl of

                              Warwick (York)

               Northampton (1460, England)

               Towton (Mar. 29, 1461, England) - Earl of Warwick (York) and duke of York defeated Duke of

                              Somerset (Lancaster); replaced Henry VI with Edward IV as king; bloodiest battle in England

               Barnet (Mar. 1471, England) - Duke of Clarence and Edward IV (Lancaster) defeated Earl of

                              Warwick (York), who was killed

               Tewkesbury (1471, England) - Edward IV (York) defeated Margaret of Anjou (Lancaster), wife

                              of Henry VI; Henry was murdered in the Tower

               Bosworth Field (Aug. 22, 1485, Leicestershire) - Henry Tudor (Lancaster) defeated Richard III

                              (York); Thomas and William Stanley joined Henry; Richard III was unhorsed and killed


Mughal Battles

               Panipat (1526, India) - Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodi and established Mughal Dynasty.


Ottoman Battles

               First Kosovo (June 15, 1389, Serbia) - Murad I (Ottoman) defeated Lazar (Serbia) on the "Field of

                              Blackbirds"; Murad was killed but his son Bayazid I led Ottomans to victory

               Ankara (1402, Turkey) - Tamerlane captured Bayazid I (Ottoman)

               Second Kosovo (1448, Serbia) - Murad II (Ottoman) defeated Hunyadi (Hungary)

               Constantinople (1453, Turkey) - Muhammad II captured Byzantine capital

               Mohacs (Aug. 29, 1526, Hungary) - Suleiman I (Ottoman) defeated and killed Louis II (Hungary)

               Vienna (1529, Austria) - Ferdinand I (HRE) ended Suleiman I's siege of Vienna

               Lepanto (Oct. 7, 1571, Greece) - Don Juan's (Austria) navy defeated Ali Pasha (Ottomans)


Thirty Years War

               White Mountain (1620, Germany) - Count von Tilly (Catholic), under Ferdinand II (HRE), defeated

                              Frederick V (Bohemia)

               Breitenfeld (Sept. 17, 1631, Germany) - Gustavus Adolphus (Sweden) defeated Count von Tilly


               Lutzen (Nov. 6, 1632, Germany) - Gustavus Adolphus (Sweden) and Bernhard (Protestant)

                              defeated Albrecht von Wallenstein (Catholic) near Leipzig, but Gustavus was killed


English Revolution

               Edgehill (Oct. 23, 1642, England) - indecisive battle between Cavaliers (King) and Roundheads


               Marston Moor (July 2, 1644, England) - Oliver Cromwell (Parliament) defeated Cavaliers

               Naseby (June 14, 1645, England) - Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army under Sir Thomas Fairfax

                              defeated Cavaliers

               Preston (Aug. 17 - 19, 1648, England) - Oliver Cromwell defeated Scots

               Dunbar (1650, England) - Oliver Cromwell defeated Scots


Glorious Revolution

               Boyne (July 11, 1690, Drogheda Ireland) - William III (new Protestant English king) defeated

                              James II (deposed Catholic English king)


War of the Spanish Succession (Queen Anne's War)

               Blenheim (Aug. 13, 1704, Bavaria) - Duke of Marlborough (England) and Eugene of Savoy

                              (Austria) defeated French

               Ramillies (1706, Belgium) - Duke of Marlborough (England) defeated France, forcing them out of

                              the Netherlands

               Oudenaarde (1708, Europe) - Duke of Marlborough (England) and Eugene of Savoy (Austria)

                              defeated the Duke of Vendome (France), forcing Louis XIV to sue for peace

               Malplaquet (1709, France) - Duke of Marlborough (England) and Eugene of Savoy

                              (Austria) defeated French; bloodiest battle of the war


Great Northern War

               Narva (1704, Estonia) - Russians took city from Sweden

               Poltava (July 8, 1709, Ukraine) - Peter I (Russia) defeated Charles XII (Sweden)


War of the Polish Succession

               Danzig (1733 - 1734, Poland) - Stanislaw (Poland) surrendered to Russia, allowing Augustus III

                              to be king of Poland


War of the Austrian Succession (King George's War)

               Dettingen (June 27, 1743, Bavaria) - George II (British) defeated French; last monarch to

                              personally lead troops in battle


Seven Years War (French and Indian War)

               Rossbach (1757, Europe) - Seydlitz (Prussia) defeated France

               Plassey (1757, India) - Robert Clive (British) defeated Bengal

               Plains of Abraham (Sept. 13, 1759, Quebec) - James Wolfe (British) defeated Montcalm (France);

                              both commanders were mortally wounded


American Revolution

               Lexington and Concord (Apr. 1775, MA) - Francis Smith, under Thomas Gage (British), tried to

                              seize colonists' gunpowder; Paul Revere warned of his advance

               Bunker Hill (June 17, 1775, MA) - William Howe (British) dislodged William Prescott and Israel

                              Putnam (US) but endured heavy casualties; Artemas Ward (US) had ordered fortification

                              of Bunker Hill but Americans actually located at Breed's Hill

               Quebec (Dec. 30-31, 1775, Quebec) - Guy Carleton (Canada) defeated Benedict Arnold and Richard

                              Montgomery (US), who had captured Montreal but was killed here; ended US invasion of


               Long Island (Aug. 27, 1776, NY) - William Howe (British) defeated George Washington (US) in

                              Brooklyn; first large battle of the war

               Harlem Heights (Sept. 16, 1776, NY) - George Washington (US) forced William Howe (British) to

                              retreat in Manhattan

               Trenton (Dec. 26, 1776, NJ) - George Washington (US) crossed Delaware River and defeated Johann

                              Gottlieb Rall (Hessian)

               Princeton (Jan. 3, 1777, NJ) - George Washington (US) defeated Charles Cornwallis (British); Hugh

                              Mercer (US) was killed

               Saratoga (June - Oct. 1777, NY) - John Burgoyne (British) surrendered to Horatio Gates, Benedict

                              Arnold, and Daniel Morgan (US); two battles fought at Freeman's Farm

               Oriskany (Aug. 6, 1777, NY) - Nicholas Herkimer (US) helped Peter Gansevoort (US) hold onto

                              Fort Stanwix, under siege by Barry St. Leger (British) and Joseph Brant (Mohawk)

               Bennington (Aug. 16, 1777, VT) - Stark (US) defeated John Burgoyne (British) and Hessians

                              Friedrich Baum and Heinrich von Breymann

               Brandywine (Sept. 11, 1777, PA) - William Howe (British) continued advance from Chesapeake to

                              Philadelphia despite George Washington's (US) resistance

               Germantown (Oct. 4, 1777, PA) - George Washington's (US) attack on William Howe's (British)

                              troops near Philadelphia failed; Nathanael Greene (US) arrived late

               Monmouth (June 28, 1778, NJ) - draw between George Washington (US) and Henry Clinton (British),

                              who continued march to NYC; Charles Lee (US) disobeyed orders and retreated; Molly

                              Pitcher legend

               Vincennes (Feb. 23, 1779, IL) - George Rogers Clark (US) recaptured city and Fort Sackville from

                              Henry Hamilton (British)

               Savannah (Oct. 9, 1779, GA) - Benjamin Lincoln (US) and Comte d'Estaing (France) failed to

                              recapture Savannah from Augustin Prevost (British)

               Camden (Aug. 16, 1780, SC) - Charles Cornwallis (British) defeated Horatio Gates (US) and Baron

                              de Kalb (France)

               Kings Mountain (Oct. 7, 1780, SC) - Americans defeated Patrick Ferguson (British)

               Cowpens (Jan. 17, 1781, SC) - Daniel Morgan (US) defeated Banastre Tarleton (British)

               Guilford Courthouse (Mar. 15, 1781, NC) - Charles Cornwallis (British) defeated Nathanael Greene

                              (US) but sustained heavy losses

               Yorktown (Oct. 19, 1781, VG) - Charles Cornwallis (British) surrendered to George Washington (US),

                              Comte de Grasse, and Comte de Rochambeau (France)


Indian Wars

               Fallen Timbers (Aug. 20, 1794, OH) - "Mad" Anthony Wayne defeated Little Turtle (Indian), Indians

                              were forced to sign the Treaty of Greenville the next year

               Tippecanoe (Nov. 7, 1811, IN) - William Henry Harrison (US) fought the Prophet (Shawnees), brother of


               Rosebud (June 17, 1866, US) - Crazy Horse (Oglala Sioux) defeated George Crook (US)

               Little Bighorn (June 25, 1876, MT) - Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse (Sioux) defeated George

                              Armstrong Custer (US); "Custer's Last Stand"; all 225 soldiers killed


Napoleonic Wars

               Nile (Aug. 1-2, 1798, Egypt) - Horatio Nelson in the Vanguard defeated the French in naval battle

               Marengo (June 14, 1800, Italy) - Napoleon (France) defeated Michael von Melas (Austria), gaining Italy

               Trafalgar (Oct. 21, 1805, near Spain) - Horatio Nelson (British) defeated Pierre-Charles Villeneuve

                              (France) in naval battle, preventing invasion of England; Nelson said "England expects

                              that every man will do his duty" and was killed

               Austerlitz (Dec. 2, 1805, Moravia) - Napoleon had just captured Vienna; he defeated Austrians

                              and Russians

               Borodino (Sept. 7, 1812, Russia) - Mikhail Kutuzov (Russia) stopped Napoleon's (France) advance 70

                              miles west of Moscow; described in Leo Tolstoy's War and Peace

               Leipzig (Oct. 16-19, 1813, Germany) - also Battle of the Nations; Sixth Coalition (Russia,

                              Prussia, Britain, Sweden, Austria) defeated Napoleon; largest battle of the war

               Waterloo (June 18, 1815, Belgium) - Duke of Wellington (British) and Gebhard Leberecht von

                              Blucher (Prussia) defeated Napoleon and Michel Ney (France); attack at La Haye Sainte


War of 1812

               Queenston Heights (Oct. 13, 1812, Ontario) - Stephen Van Rensselaer's (US) troops refused to

                              reinforce Winfield Scott (US), who was forced to surrender

               Thames (Oct. 5, 1813, Ontario) - William Henry Harrison (US) defeated Henry Proctor (British)

                              at the Moravian Mission ("Battle of Moraviantown"); Richard Mentor Johnson (US)

                              killed Tecumseh (Shawnee)

               Chateauguay (Oct. 26, 1813, Quebec) - Charles de Salaberry (Canada) turned back Robert Purdy

                              (US), an advance unit of Wade Hampton's force advancing to Montreal

               Lundy's Lane (July 25, 1814, Ontario) - draw between Jacob Brown (US) and Gordon Drummond

                              (British) near Niagara Falls; bloodiest battle of the war

               Plattsburgh (Sept. 11, 1814, NY) - also Battle of Lake Champlain; Thomas Macdonough (US) defeated

                              George Downie (British) in naval battle; George Prevost (Canada) withdrew from NY

               Bladensburg (1814, DC) - led to George Cockburn (British) burning DC, including the White House

               New Orleans (Jan. 8, 1815, LA) - Andrew Jackson (US) defeated Edward Pakenham (British); war

                              had actually ended two weeks earlier with Treaty of Ghent


Creek War

               Horseshoe Bend (Mar. 27, 1814, AL) - Andrew Jackson (US) defeated Creeks; led to Treaty of Fort

                              Jackson, ceding land in AL and GA


South American Independence Battles

               Chacabuco (Feb. 12, 1817, Chile) - Jose de San Martin and Bernardo O'Higgins defeated Rafael

                              Maroto (Spain) near Santiago

               Boyaca (Aug. 7, 1819, Colombia) - Simon Bolivar defeated Spanish

               Ayacucho (Dec. 9, 1824, Peru) - Antonio Jose de Sucre defeated Viceroy La Serna (Spain), ending

                              Spanish control in South America


Greek Independence

               Navarino (Oct. 20, 1827, Greece) - British, French, and Russian navy defeated Ibrahim Pasha

                              (Ottoman) near Pylos


Texas Revolution

               Gonzales (Oct. 2, 1835, TX) - Texans defeated Mexicans; "Come and Take It" flag

               Alamo (Feb. 23 - Mar. 6, 1836, TX) - Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna (Mexico) captured fort in

                              San Antonio under William Travis, James Bowie, and Davy Crockett (Texas)

               San Jacinto (Apr. 21, 1836, TX) - Sam Houston (Texas) forced surrender of Antonio Lopez de

                              Santa Anna (Mexico); "Remember the Alamo! Remember Goliad!" battle cry


Mexican-American War

               Palo Alto (May 8, 1846, TX) - Zachary Taylor defeated Mariano Arista (Mexico) near Brownsville

               Buena Vista (Feb. 22-23, 1847, Saltillo Mexico) - Zachary Taylor (US) defeated Antonio Lopez

                              de Santa Anna (Mexico); Jefferson Davis led the "MS Rifles"

               Vera Cruz (Mar. 9, 1847, Mexico) - Winfield Scott (US) landed at Vera Cruz and began march to Mexico


               Cerro Gordo (Apr. 17-18, 1847, Mexico) - Winfield Scott (US) continued advance from Veracruz to

                              Mexico City despite resistance of Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna (Mexico)

               Contreras (Aug. 19-20, 1847, Mexico) - Gabriel Valencia (Mexico) repelled Gideon Johnson Pillow's

                              (US) advance unit of Winfield Scott's army, but Robert E. Lee (US) regrouped and captured

                              the hill guarding the route to Texcoco

               Chapultepec (Sept. 12-13, 1847, Mexico) - Winfield Scott (US) captured inner defenses of Mexico City

                              from Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna (Mexico)


Crimean War

               Balaklava (Oct. 25, 1854, Russia) - Russian attempted to raise siege of Sevastopol failed; "Charge

                              of the Light Brigade" under Earl of Cardigan commemorated in a Tennyson poem


Italian Independence

               Magenta (June 4, 1859, Italy) - Napoleon III (France) and Sardinia defeated Franz Cyulai


               Solferino (June 24, 1859, Italy) - Napoleon III (France) and Sardinia defeated Francis Joseph I

                              (Austria); inspired Henry Dunant to found Red Cross


American Civil War

               Fort Sumter (Apr. 12-14, 1861, SC) - Robert Anderson (Union) surrendered to P.G.T. Beauregard

                              (Confederate) near Charleston

               First Bull Run (July 21, 1861, VG) - also First Manassas; P.G.T. Beauregard (Confederate), reinforced

                              by Joseph E. Johnston, stopped Irvin McDowell's (Union) advance to Richmond; Barnard Bee

                              gave Thomas Jackson "Stonewall" nickname

               Pea Ridge (Mar 7-8, 1862, AR) - also Elkhorn Tavern; Samuel Curtis (Union) defeated Earl Van Dorn

                              (Confederate), protecting MO

               Hampton Roads (Mar. 8-9, 1862, VG) - Virginia (Confederate) sunk Congress and Cumberland

                              (Union) but was stopped by the Monitor (designed by John Ericsson); first ironclads battle

               Shiloh (Apr. 6-7, 1862, TN) - also Pittsburg Landing; draw between Ulysses S. Grant (Union) and

                              Albert Sidney Johnston (Confederate); Johnston was killed and P.G.T. Beauregard took over;

                              Don Carlos Buell reinforced Grant; Grant was advancing towards Corinth MS; "Hornet's Nest";

                              Sarah Bell's Peach Orchid, Owl Creek

               Harpers Ferry (1862, VG) - Thomas Jackson (Confederate) defeated Dixon Miles (Union); largest Union

                              surrender of the war

               Seven Days Battles (June 25 - July 1, 1862, VG) - Robert E. Lee (Confederate) stopped George

                              McClellan's (Union) Peninsular Campaign; battles included Mechanicsville, Gaines' Mill,

                              Harrison's Landing, Garnett's Farm, Golding's Farm, Savage's Station, Allen's Farm, White

                              Oak Swamp,Glendale, and Malvern Hill

               Second Bull Run (Aug. 29-30, 1862, VG) - also Second Manassas; Robert E. Lee (Confederate), with

                              James Longstreet and Thomas Jackson, defeated John Pope (Union); forced Union out of VG;

                              followed by Battle of Chantilly

               Antietam (Sept. 17, 1862, MD) - George McClellan (Union) forced Robert E. Lee (Confederate) to retreat

                              to VG; Union success led to Emancipation Proclamation; William French and Israel Richardson

                              (Union) drove A.P. Hill (Confederate) out of "Sunken Road" or "Bloody Lane"; Ambrose

                              Burnside fought Hill

               Fredericksburg (Dec. 13, 1862, VG) - Robert E. Lee (Confederate) stopped Ambrose Burnside's (Union)

                              drive to Richmond; Burnside had just replaced George McClellan in command of the Army of

                              the Potomac

               Stones River (Dec. 31 1862 - Jan. 2 1863, TN) - also Murfreesboro; draw between William Rosecrans

                              (Union) and Braxton Bragg (Confederate); highest casualty rate of the war

               Vicksburg (Apr. - July 1863, MS) - Ulysses Grant (Union) laid siege to and captured Vicksburg, defended

                              by John C. Pemberton (Confederate); battles at Champion Hill and Big Black River

               Chancellorsville (May 1-3, 1863, VG) - Thomas Jackson (Confederate) stopped Joseph Hooker's (Union)

                              advance on Richmond; Jackson was accidentally killed by his men while spying

               Brandy Station (June 9, 1863, VG) - also Battle of Fleetwood Hill; largest Civil War cavalry

                              fight; J.E.B. Stuart (Confederate) forced retreat of Alfred Pleasonton (Union)

               Gettysburg (July 1-3, 1863, PA) - George Meade (Union) defeated Robert E. Lee (Confederate); James

                              Longstreet (Confederate) attacked Union's left; George Pickett (Confederate) charged Cemetery

                              Ridge at Little Round Top, defended by Daniel Sickles and George Sykes

               Chattanooga (Sept. - Nov. 1863, GA & TN) - Braxton Bragg (Confederate) defeated William Rosecrans

                              (Union) at Chickamauga GA Sept. 19-20, but George Henry Thomas and Ulysses Grant (Union)

                              defeated Bragg at Lookout Mountain (Battle above the Clouds, led by Joseph Hooker) and

                              Missionary Ridge Nov 24-25; Union gained control of TN

               Wilderness (May 5 - 8, 1864, VG) - draw between Ulysses Grant and George Meade (Union) and Robert

                              E. Lee (Confederate); Grant suffered greater casualties but continued towards Spotsylvania

               Spotsylvania (May 8-18, 1864, VG) - Robert E. Lee (Confederate) stopped George Meade (Union), but

                              Ulysses Grant continued drive to Richmond; attack on "Bloody Angle", center of Lee's line

               Cold Harbor (June 3, 1864, VG) - Robert E. Lee (Confederate) defeated Ulysses Grant (Union) decisively

               Cherbourg (June 19, 1864, France) - John Winslow, captain of the Kearsarge (Union) sunk Alabama

                              (Confederate), captained by Raphael Semmes

               Kennesaw Mountain (June 27, 1864, GA) - Joseph E. Johnston (Confederate) failed to stop William

                              Tecumseh Sherman's (Union) Atlanta campaign

               Winchester (Sept. 19, 1864, VG) - Jubal Early and Robert Rodes (Confederate) failed to stop Philip

                              Sheridan's (Union) Shenandoah Valley Campaign

               Cedar Creek (Oct. 19, 1864, VG) - Philip Sheridan (Union) returned from a conference in Washington to

                              lead a counterattack defeating Jubal Early (Confederate)

               Franklin (Nov. 30, 1864, TN) - John Schofield (Union) continued advance to Nashville despite

                              resistance of John Bell Hood (Confederate), who tried to get William Tecumseh Sherman to

                              follow him into TN

               Nashville (Dec. 15-16, 1864, TN) - George Henry Thomas (Union) forced John Bell Hood (Confederate)

                              to retreat to MS

               Appomattox Courthouse (Apr. 9, 1865, VG) - Robert E. Lee (Confederate) surrendered to Ulysses S.

                              Grant (Union)


French Invasion of Mexico

               Puebla (May 5, 1862, Mexico) - Ignacio Zaragoza (Mexico) defeated invading French forces

               Queretaro (1867, Mexico) - Maximilian surrendered to Porfirio Diaz and Benito Juarez


War of the Triple Alliance (Paraguayan War)

               Cerro Cora (1870, South America) - Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay defeated Francisco Solano Lopez



Seven Weeks War (Austro-Prussian War)

               Koniggratz (July 3, 1866, Austria) - also Sadowa; Helmuth von Moltke (Prussia) defeated Austria


Franco-Prussian War

               Sedan (Sept. 1, 1870) - Helmuth von Moltke (Prussia) defeated Maurice de MacMahon and Felix de

                              Wimpffen (France), and captured Napoleon III


War of the Pacific

               Point Angamos (1879, South America) - Chile, which had captured Antofagasta, defeated Hilarion Daza

                              (Bolivia) and Peru; Chile then occupied Tacna and Arica, gaining nitrate-rich Atacama


African Colonial Battles

               Blood River (Dec. 16, 1838, South Africa) - Afrikaners defeated Zulus during Great Trek

               Adowa (March 1, 1896, Ethiopia) - Menelek II (Ethiopia) defeated Italy

               Khartoum (1898, Sudan) - Horatio Herbert Kitchener (British) defeated Mahdi (Sudan), who had

                              massacred Charles George Gordon's forces there in 1885

               Fashoda (1898, Sudan) - Horatio Herbert Kitchener (British) captured fort from Jean-Baptiste

                              Marchand (France)


Spanish-American War

               Manila Bay (May 1, 1898, Philippines) - George Dewey (US) defeated Spain in naval battle

               San Juan Hill (July 1, 1898, Cuba) - William Shafter (US) and Theodore Roosevelt's Rough Riders

                              captured hill


Russo-Japanese War

               Port Arthur (1904, Russia) - Russians surrendered after Japanese shelling

               Mukden (1905, China) - largest land battle of the war

               Tsushima (May 27-28, 1905, Sea of Japan) - Japan defeated Russia in naval battle; first time an

                              Asian nation defeated a modern European nation


World War I

               Tannenberg (Aug. 1914, East Prussia) - Paul von Hindenburg and Erich Ludendorff (Germany)

                              defeated Alexander Samsonov (Russia), who committed suicide

               First Marne (Sept. 5-10, 1914, France) - Joseph Joffre (France), along with Ferdinand Foch,

                              Franchet d'Esperey (France), and John French (British), forced retreat of Alexander von

                              Kluck, Karl von Bulow, and Helmuth von Moltke (Germany); battles included Ourcq,

                              Petit Morin, Gond Marshes, and Vitry le Francois

               First Ypres (Oct. - Nov. 1914, Belgium) - John French (British) stopped German drive to capture

                              French ports; it ended the "race to the sea" after First Marne

               Coronel (Nov. 1, 1914, near Chile) - Graf Maximilian von Spee (Germany) decisively defeated

                              Christopher Cradock (Britain), who had wanted to protect trade routes off South America

               Second Ypres (Apr. 22 - May 25, 1915, Belgium) - draw between Allies and Germany; first use

                              of poison gas by Germany

               Gallipoli (Apr. 25 1915 - Jan. 8 1916, Turkey) - Ataturk (Turkey) and Otto von Sanders (Germany)

                              prevented Ian Hamilton (British) from advancing; Charles Monro (British) evacuated;

                              physicist Henry Moseley killed

               Verdun (Feb. 21 - Nov. 26, 1916, France) - Philippe Petain, Robert Nivelle, and Charles Mangin

                              (France) stopped Erich von Falkenhayn's (Germany) advance; Petain said "they shall not


               Jutland (May 31 - June 1, 1916, North Sea) - draw between John Jellicoe (British) and Reinhard

                              Scheer (Germany); only major naval battle of WWI; German fleet never again left port

               First Somme (June 24 - Nov. 13, 1916, France) - draw between Douglas Haig (British) and Germans;

                              largest one-day casualties in British history; last use of cavalry in W Europe; first use of

                              tanks by British

               Vimy Ridge (Apr. 1917, France) - Julian Byng (British) captured the ridge from Germans

               Caporetto (Nov. 1917, Italy) - also 12th Battle of Isonzo; Otto von Below (Germany) and Austria

                              forced retreat of Luigi Cadorna (Italy)

               Cambrai (Nov. 20 - Dec. 3, 1917, France) - Julian Byng (British) advanced against Germans along

                              Hindenberg / Siegfried Line, but was then driven back; first large-scale use of tanks

               Second Somme (Mar. 21 - Apr. 5, 1918, France) - Douglas Haig (British) and Ferdinand Foch

                              (French) stopped Erich Ludendorff's (Germany) advance, at high cost

               Second Marne (July 15-17, 1918, France) - Allies stopped Erich Ludendorff's (Germany) offensive

               Chateau-Thierry, Saint Mihiel, Meuse-Argonne (fall 1918, France) - large American involvement

                              under John J. "Black Jack" Pershing; Meuse-Argonne was largest US involvement in the war


Chaco War

               Ballivian (1934, Bolivia) - Paraguay defeated Bolivia


Spanish Civil War

               First Battle for Madrid (1936-1937, Spain) - Republicans, aided by USSR and the International

                              Brigades, defended Madrid against fascist Falangists and Nationalists under Francisco Franco

               Guernica (Apr. 26, 1937, Spain) - German planes of the Condor Legion bombed Basque town of

                              Guernica; commemorated by Pablo Picasso painting

               May Events (May 1937, Spain) - infighting among Republican forces in Barcelona; socialists

                              gained control

               Battle of Brunete (July 1937, Spain) - Republicans indecisively attacked Nationalists near Madrid

               Battle of the Ebro (July - Nov. 1938, Spain) - Nationalists inflicted heavy losses on Republicans


World War II

               Britain (1940-1941, Britain) - Royal Air Force (British) stopped Hermann Goering's Luftwaffe

                              (Germany); prevented German invasion of Britain

               Leningrad (Sept. 1941 - Jan. 1944, USSR) - Germans and Finns laid siege to Leningrad; part of

                              Operation Barbarossa (invasion of Russia); supply lines across Lake Ladoga

               Coral Sea (May 4-8, 1942, near New Guinea) - Chester Nimitz (US) stopped Japanese advance on

                              Port Moresby; Lexington sunk; first Japanese setback and first naval battle fought entirely

                              by carrier-based aircraft

               Midway (June 4-7, 1942, Pacific) - Chester Nimitz (US) defeated Yamamoto Isoroku (Japan);

                              Yorktown and four Japanese carriers sunk

               Stalingrad (July 17 - Nov. 18, 1942, USSR) - Vasily Chuikov (USSR) defended Stalingrad

                              (Volgograd) against Friedrich Paulus (Germany); Georgy Zhukov (USSR) finally

                              forced German surrender

               Guadalcanal (Aug. 7 1942 - Feb 7 1943, Solomon Islands) - US captured island from Japanese;

                              battles at Santa Cruz Islands and Tassafronga

               El Alamein (Nov. 4, 1942, Egypt) - Bernard Montgomery (British) defeated Erwin Rommel's

                              (Germany) Afrika Korps; followed by Operation Torch amphibious assault on North Africa

               Kasserine Pass (Feb. 14, 1943, Tunisia) - Erwin Rommel (Germany) advanced but then was stopped

                              by Lloyd Fredendall and Dwight David Eisenhower (US)

               Kursk (July 5 - Aug. 6, 1943, USSR) - Georgy Zhukov and Markian Popov (USSR) defeated

                              Gunther von Kluge (Germany); greatest tank battle in history

               Tarawa (Nov. 20-23, 1943, Gilbert Islands Kiribati) - US took island from Japan

               D-Day (June 6, 1944, France) - Normandy invaded by British (Gold and Sword Beaches) under

                              Bernard Montgomery, Canadians (Juno Beach), and Americans (Utah and Omaha Beaches)

                              under Omar Bradley; Germans had expected attack on Calais by George Patton

               Philippine Sea (June 19-20, 1944, Philippines) - US decisively defeated Japan; "Great Marianas

                              Turkey Shoot"; largest carrier battle of the war

               Leyte Gulf (Oct. 23-26, 1944, Philippines) - William Halsey (US) defeated Takeo Kurita and Soemu

                              Toyoda (Japan); first use of kamikazes; largest naval battle ever; Princeton and Musashi sunk

               Bulge (Dec. 16 1944 - Jan 31 1945, Belgium) - also Battle of the Ardennes; George S. Patton (US)

                              defeated Gerd von Rundstedt and Hasso von Manteuffel (Germany), who had driven a

                              wedge into Allied lines

               Iwo Jima (Feb. - Mar. 1945, Japan) - name means "Sulfur Island", US captured island after bloody

                              battle; Rosenthal photographed raising of flag at Mount Suribachi

               Okinawa (Apr. - June 1945, Japan) - Roy Geiger (US) captured island from Mitsuru Ushijama (Japan);

                              Yamata sunk; largest land battle in the Pacific in the war


Korean War

               Inchon Invasion (Sept. 15, 1950, Korea) - Douglas MacArthur (US) broke out of Pusan Perimeter;

                              Matthew Ridgway later replaced MacArthur


First Indochina War

               Dien Bien Phu (Mar. 13 - May 7, 1954, Vietnam) - Vo Nguyen Giap (Viet Minh) defeated de

                              Christian de Castries (France), leading to Geneva Accords and ending French empire in



Second Indochina War

               Tet Offensive (Jan. - Feb. 1968, Vietnam) - NLR diverted attention to Khe Sanh, then invaded

                              many cities before being driven back; William Westmoreland (US) was replaced the next

                              month by Creighton Abrams



Other Wars


Messenian War (668 BC, Greece) - Sparta rebelled against Messenia; Aristomenes was betrayed by King

               Aristocrates of Arcadia at the Battle of the Great Trench

First Punic War (264-241 BC, Mediterranean) - Hamilcar Barca (Carthage) conquered Spain but lost to

               Romans in Sicily

Third Punic War (149-146 BC, Mediterranean) - Scipio Aemilianus Africanus (Rome) destroyed Carthage,

               as Cato the Elder had encouraged

Jugurthine War (111-106 BC, North Africa) - Sulla (Rome) defeated Jugurtha (Numidia)

Gempei War (1180-1185, Japan) - Minamoto Yoritomo (Minamoto clan) defeated Taira Kiyomori (Taira

               clan) at Battle of Dannoura and established Kamakura Shogunate

Eighty Years War (1568 - 1648, Europe) - Netherlands gained independence from Spain

War of the Three Henrys (1587 - 1589, France) - French religious war; included battles at Auneau and

               Coutras; ended by Edict of Union

King Philip's War (1675 - 1676, MA) - Josiah Winslow (Plymouth) defeated King Philip (Wampanoag Indians);

               battles included Great Swamp and Hadley

War of the Devolution (1667 - 1668, Europe) - Louis XIV (France) demanded the Spanish Netherlands as

               a dowry for Philip IV's (Spain) daughter Marie-Therese

War of the League of Augsburg (1688 - 1697, Europe) - Louis XIV (France) fought the League of

               Augsburg (also called the Grand Alliance; England, Holland, Denmark, Austria), mainly in the Spanish

               Netherlands; battle in North America at Port Royal

War of Jenkins' Ear (1739 - 1741, Americas) - trade war between Britain and Spain; ignited by Spanish

               seizure of Robert Jenkins's ship Rebecca; merged with War of Austrian Succession

French Revolution (1789-1799, France) - Third Estate of the Estates-General formed National Assembly

               and swore in Tennis Court Oath to create a constitution; stormed Bastille July 14 1789; radicals gained

               control in 1792, establishing National Convention; guillotined Louis XVI and wife Marie Antoinette;

               Vendee peasants rebelled against conscription; established Committee of Public Safety; Maximilien

               Robespierre, leader of the Jacobins, led Reign of Terror; crushed Royalist and Girondist (moderates,

               Corday stabbed Marat) insurrections; Robespierre beheaded Georges Danton; Thermidoreans beheaded

               Robespierre; Directory of five members established 1795; launched Napoleonic Wars; 1799 coup

               established Consulate; Napoleon Bonaparte became dictator

Tripolitan War (1801 - 1805, North Africa) - Stephen Decatur and William Eaton (US) forced pasha of Tripoli

               to retract demand for tribute after capturing the Philadelphia

Peninsular War (1808 - 1814, Spain) - part of Napoleonic Wars; Napoleon tried to make his brother

               Joseph king of Spain; battles at Vitoria, Badajoz, and Salamanca

Mexican War of Independence (1810 - 1821, Mexico) - led by Father Miguel Hidalgo, then Jose Maria Morelos,

               then Vicente Guerrero and Agustin de Iturbide

Second Seminole War (1835 - 1842, FL) - Osceola led Seminoles against US

First Opium War (1839-1843, China) - China confiscated opium in Guangzhou; Britain sent warships and

               made China cede Hong Kong and open ports for trade

War of the Axe (1846 - 1847, Africa) - British fought Kaffirs

Second Opium War (1856-1860, China) - Guangzhou police boarded the Arrow; British burned Summer

               Palace in Beijing

Boshin Civil War (1868 - 1869, Japan) - Meiji overthrew Tokugawa shogunate

Russo-Turkish War (1877 - 1878, Eastern Europe) - Alexander II (Russia) defeated Abd Al-Hamid II

               (Ottoman Empire); independence gained for Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, and Bulgaria

First Sino-Japanese War (1894, Asia) - Japan quickly defeated China

Boer War (1899 - 1902, South Africa) - British Cape Colony, led by Alfred Milner, defeated South African

               Republic, under Paul Kruger, leader of the Afrikaners (Boers)

War of a Thousand Days (1899 - 1902, Colombia) - civil war in Colombia

Mexican Revolution (1910 - 1920, Mexico) - Porfirio Diaz was ousted by Francisco Madero, who was ousted

               by Victoriano Huerta, who was ousted by Venustiano Carranza; Carranza and Alvaro Obregon battled

               Emililano Zapata (an Indian from Morelos demanding "Land and Liberty") and Pancho Villa (from

               Chihuahua); Villa raided Columbus NM after Woodrow Wilson recognized Carranza as president;

               John J. Pershing was sent to Mexico but couldn't capture Villa

Balkan Wars (1912 - 1913, Balkans) - in First Balkan War Greece, Bulgaria, and Montenegro defeated

               Ottoman Empire; in Second Balkan War Greece and Serbia defeated Bulgaria

Russian Revolution (1917, Russia) - provisional government under Georgy Lvov established after ousting Czar

               Nicholas II in February Revolution; Alexander Kerensky assumed control after July Uprising;

               Bolsheviks under Vladimir Lenin gained control in October Revolution

Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1938, China) - Japan invaded China and took Nanjing; merged with WWII

Suez-Sinai War (1956, Egypt) - Israel, supported by France and Britain, occupied the Suez Peninsula after

               Gamal Abdel Nasser (Egypt) nationalized; they were replaced by UN peacekeepers; Prime Minister

               Anthony Eden (British) resigned

Six-Day War (June 1967, Middle East) - Israel defeated Egypt, Syria, and Jordan, taking the Golan

               Heights, Suez Peninsula, West Bank, and Gaza Strip; "War of Attrition" continued for years

Soccer War (June 1969, Central America) - El Salvador invaded Honduras in a border dispute following

               riots at a World Cup qualifying match

Arab-Israeli War (Oct. 1973, Middle East) - also Yom Kippur or Ramadan War; Anwar Sadat (Egypt) and Hafez

               al-Assad (Syria) failed to retake lands Israel had occupied in Six Day War; Prime Minister Golda Meir

               (Israel) resigned

Lebanese Civil War (1975-1990, Lebanon) - Christian Phalangists fought PLO; Israel invaded in 1982 to

               aid Christians and Syrian troops aided Palestinians; US embassy and military base bombed in 1983;

               Israel withdrew 1985 and Hezbollah began raids; former allies Michel Aoun and Kataib leader Samir

               Geagea fought in Beirut

Nicaraguan Revolution (1978-1990, Nicaragua) - Sandinistas led by Daniel Ortega ousted Anastasio Somoza;

               contras supported by US staged counterrevolution

El Salvador Civil War (1979-1992, El Salvador) - Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front and military

               death squads ravaged El Salvador as Jose Napoleon Duarte was president; Alfredo Cristiani negotiated

               an end to fighting

Iran-Iraq War (1980 - 1988, Middle East) - Iraq led by Saddam Hussein invaded Iran led by Ayatollah Khomeini

Falklands War (1982, South America) - Leopoldo Galtieri (Argentina) order invasion of Falkland Islands, but the

               British retook them; called Islas Malvinas in Argentina

Persian Gulf War (1990 - 1991, Middle East) - Saddam Hussein (Iraq) ordered invasion of Kuwait, led by Sheikh

               Jaber; UN force freed Kuwait; U.S. forces led by H. Norman Schwarzkopf

Wars of Yugoslav Succession (1991 - 1995, Yugoslavia) - Slovenia and Macedonia succeeded with little

               fighting; Franjo Tudjman and the Croats fought Serb-controlled Krajina in Croatia; Muslims (led by Alija

               Izetbegovic), Croats, and Serbs (led by Radovan Karadzic) fought in Bosnia; Bosnian Serbs supported by

               Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic "ethnic cleansed" and massacred Muslims in Srebrenica; NATO

               peacekeepers sent in; UN set up war crimes tribunal in The Hague; ethnic Albanian Kosovo Liberation

               Army fought for independence in Serbia, supported by NATO airstrikes

War in Afghanistan (2001-?) - Invasion led by U.S. after September 11 attacks, supported by NATO and other

               nations; overthrew Mullah Mohammed Omar and the Taliban; Operation Enduring Freedom; Osama bin

               Laden likely almost caught at Tora Bora 2001, killed in Abbottabad, Pakistan by U.S. Navy SEALS in

               Operation Neptune Spear 2011

Iraq War (2003-2011) - Invasion led by U.S. after September 11 attacks, believing Iraq to possess weapons of mass

               destruction; Operation Iraqi Freedom, led by Gen. Tommy Franks; Iraqi Minister of Information Mohammed

               Saeed al-Sahaf; Saddam Hussein captured near Tikrit Dec. 2003 and hanged Dec. 2006; U.S. troop surge 2007

Syrian Civil War (2011-?) - Various groups rebelled against Bashar al-Assad's regime, including Sunni Free Syrian

               Army, Kurdish Syrian Democratic Forces, and the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant/Syria (ISIL/ISIS);

               ISIL based in Raqqa and also took Mosul in Iraq; ISIS led by Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi; many battles in

               Aleppo; many refugees fled to Europe

Ukrainian Revolution (2014) - President Viktor Yanukovych preferred ties to Russia over the European Union, leading

               to Euromaidan protests and ousting of Yanukovych; former Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko was released

               from prison; Petro Poroshenko elected new President; pro-Russian Anti-Maidan protests in Eastern and Southern

               Ukraine (including Donetsk); Russia annexed Crimea (including Sevastopol); Malaysian Airlines plane

               MH17 accidentally shot down probably by pro-Russian forces



Rebellions, Revolts, Riots, Strikes, Mutinies, Movements, and Uprisings


Maccabee Revolt (168 - 163 BC, Palestine) - Mattathias and then his son Judas Maccabee led Jewish

               revolt against Antiochus IV (Syria); commemorated by Hanukkah

Third Servile War (73 - 71 BC, Roman Empire) - Spartacus led escaped slaves but was defeated by

               Crassus at Lucania

Red Eyebrows (c. 0, China) - Liu Xuan led uprising against Wang Mang's H'sin Dynasty

Yellow Turbans (100s, China) - followers of Zhang Jue's Way of the Great Peace revolted against Han


Nika Rebellion (532, Constantinople) - Belisarius, Justinian's general, and Narses put down revolt by the

               Blue and Green parties

An Lushan Rebellion (755, China) - General An Lushan led revolt against Tang emperor Xuanzong

Jokyu Disturbance (1221, Japan) - Hojo family defeated Go-Toba's rebellion

Baron's Revolt (1265, England) - Henry III defeated revolt under Simon de Montfort at Battle of Evesham

Kemmu Restoration (1333, Japan) - Go-Daigo and Ashikaga overthrew Kamakura Shogunate

Jacquerie (1358, France) - Count Phoebus de Foix and Charles II crushed revolt led by Guillaume Cale and

               Etienne Marcel, upset about taxes to ransom John II the Good, captured at Poitiers; name comes

               from Jacquerie Bonhomme, collective name of the peasantry

Ciompi Rebellion (1378, Italy) - day laborers revolted in Florence; Walter of Brienne

Peasant's Revolt (June 1381, England) - Wat Tyler rebelled against Richard II's poll tax but was killed

Peasant's War (1524 - 1526, Germany) - peasants led by Anabaptist Thomas Muntzer were defeated by noble

               Swabian League in southern Germany and Austria

Fronde (1648 - 1653, France) - revolt against high taxes instituted by Louis XIV's minister Cardinal Mazarin;

               started at Parlement of Paris; ended by the Prince de Conde; name means "slingshot"

Bacon's Rebellion (1676, VG) - Nathaniel Bacon took Jamestown and defeated Indians at the Battle of

               Bloody Run, but he died and the rebellion was crushed by Gov. William Berkeley

Culpeper's Rebellion (1677, NC) - residents of Albemarle region of Carolina led by John Culpeper protested

               trade laws

Jacobite Rebellion (1745 - 1746, England) - rebellion by "The Forty-Five", adherents to the exiled House

               of Stuart after the Glorious Revolution; Duke of Cumberland (British), son of George II, defeated

               Charles Edward Stuart (pretender to throne) and his Highlanders at the Battle of Culloden Moor

                (Apr. 16, 1746, Scotland)

Pontiac's Revolt (1763 - 1765, US) - Ottawa chief Pontiac led attacks on British forts, including Detroit

Regulators (1771, NC) - William Tyron (British) defeated the Regulators, led by Herman Husband, at

               Alamance Creek

Pugachev's Rebellion (1773 - 1774, Russia) - Yemelyan Pugachev, a Cossack, proclaimed himself Emperor

               Peter III and rebelled against Catherine the Great

Shay's Rebellion (1786 - 1787, MA) - Daniel Shays was defeated by Benjamin Lincoln at Petersham near

               Springfield; most rebels were later pardoned

Haitian Slave Revolt (1791, Haiti) - Toussaint L'Ouverture led slave revolt against French

Whiskey Rebellion (1794, PA) - West PA farmers protested Alexander Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey and

               fired shots at Miller farm; Gov. Thomas Mifflin refused action; Washington ordered Harry Lee to

               end the rebellion; most rebels were released

White Lotus Rebellion (1796 - 1803, China) - revolts by religious White Lotus Society against Manchus

Fries' Rebellion (1798, PA) - Fries led PA Germans in protest against tax for potential war with France;

               John Adams later pardoned most rebels

Prosser's Conspiracy (1800, VG) - slave revolt led by Gabriel Prosser planned to seize James Madison,

               betrayed by informants

Vesey's Conspiracy (1822, SC) - planned slave revolt led by Denmark Vesey

Decembrist Uprising (1825, Russia) - officers wanted Constantine, not Nicholas I, to become czar after

               Alexander I's death

July Revolution (1830, France) - forced Charles X to abdicate in favor of Louis Philippe

Nat Turner's Revolt (1831, VG) - Nat Turner led slaves in killing 50 whites, but revolt was crushed and most


Dorr's Rebellion (1842, RI) - Thomas Wilson Dorr, leader of the People's Party, wanted to extend suffrage

               to more citizens in the new RI constitution

Bear Flag Revolt (1846, CA) - William Ide and John Fremont led revolt in Sonoma, capturing Vallejo (Mexico)

Caste War of the Yucatan (1847 - 1853, Mexico) - Mayans revolted but were driven to Quintana Roo

Revolutions of 1848 (1848, Europe) - Louis Blanc ousted Louis Philippe in France but Napoleon III became

               president; Ferdinand I was ousted in Austria; Lajos Kossuth came to power in Hungary; unification

               movements failed in Germany (March Days, Frankfurt Assembly) and Italy

Great Taiping Rebellion (1851 - 1864, China) - Hong Xiuquan, self-proclaimed brother of Jesus, was defeated by

               the Ever-Victorious Army of Frederick Townsend Ward (US) and Charles George Gordon (British)

Sepoy Rebellion (1857 - 1859, India) - Indian soldiers in Meerut employed by English East India

               Company refused to bite cow or pig greased Lee-Enfield rifle cartridges and tried to reinstate

               Muhammad Bahadur Shah as Mughal emperor

Draft Riots (1863, NYC) - rioters protesting institution of a draft burned the draft headquarters and a black

               orphanage in NYC

People's Will (Narodnaya Volya) (1867, Russia) - assassinated Czar Alexander II

Red River Rebellion (1869, Canada) - Louis Riel led French-speaking Metis opposing Canadian expansion west;

               Red River was admitted as Manitoba

Paris Commune (1871, France) - followers of Louis Auguste Blanqui and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon established

               proletarian dictatorship in Paris after Napoleon III lost to Prussia at Sedan; crushed by National

               Assembly and Thiers in Bloody Week

Kulturkampf (1871 - 1883, Germany) - Otto von Bismarck attempted to reduce power of the church in

               Germany; opposed by Pius IX

Satsuma Rebellion (1877, Japan) - rebellion of samurai under Saigo Takamori, defeated by Meiji rulers

Northwest Rebellion (1885, Canada) - Louis Riel led French-speaking Metis in Saskatchewan; Gabriel Dumont

               defeated Mounties at Duck Lake but lost at Batoche

Haymarket Square Riot (1886, Chicago) - employees of McCormack reaper plant protested police

               violence; a bomb was thrown; eight anarchists arrested; led by August Spies; some later pardoned by IL

               Gov. John Altgeld

Young Turks (1889-1909, Ottoman Empire) - Enver Pasha and the Committee for Union and Progress

               (CUP) rebelled against Abd al-Hamad II, wanting to restore reforms of Selim III to modernize and

               Westernize the Ottoman Empire; deposed al-Hamad but ended after defeat in WWI

Homestead Strike (1892, PN) - strike of workers at Carnegie's Homestead Steel Works; some workers shot

               by Pinkerton Detectives ordered in by Henry Clay Frick

Hawaiian Revolt (1893, Hawaii) - Sanford Dole, supported by US minister John Stevens, overthrew Queen


Pullman Palace Car Strike (1894, US) - Grover Cleveland sent troops to end strike at Pullman

Coxey's Army (1894, DC) - Jacob Coxey led group from Massillon OH to DC, demanding federal relief

War of 1895 (1895 - 1898, Cuba) - Cubans fought for independence from Spain; poet Jose Marti killed at Dos

               Rios; Spanish sent "Butcher" Valeriano Weyler; US intervened in Spanish-American War

Philippine Rebellion (1898-1902, Philippines) - guerrillas led by Emilio Aguinaldo opposed US control

Boxer Uprising (1900, China) - revolt against foreigners in China by Boxer Society and Dowager Empress


Potemkin Mutiny (1905, Russia) - Black Sea sailors mutinied during Russo-Japanese War

Easter Rebellion (1916, Ireland) - Patrick Pearce, Roger Casement, and Thomas MacDonagh led rebellion

               against British rule in Dublin, seizing post office, but were defeated and executed

May Fourth Movement (1919, China) - students protested in Tiananmen Square against Treaty of

               Versailles, which gave Germany's Shangdong to Japan instead of Germany

Rand Revolt (1922, South Africa) - miners strike; put down by Jan Smuts

Cristero Rebellion (1926, Mexico) - Catholics rebelled against Plutarco Elias Calles's anticlerical policies

Bonus Army (1932, DC) - Walter Waters founded Bonus Army in Portland OR and led group to Anacostia near

               DC, demanding immediate payment of a bonus for WWI vets promised for 1945; Hoover sent

               Douglas MacArthur to disperse them

Zoot Suit Riots (1943, CA) - Navy sailors fought Mexican-Americans in East Los Angeles

Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (April 1943, Poland) - Polish Jews revolted against Nazis

Anti-Apartheid (1950s-1990s, South Africa) - African National Congress (Albert Luthuli, Nelson Mandela),

               Pan-Africanist Congress (Robert Sobukwe), Black Consciousness Movement (Steve Biko), and

               Zulu Inkatha Freedom Party (Mangosuthu Buthelezi) opposed South African apartheid policies

Mau Mau Rebellion (1952-1955, Kenya) - secret society of Kikuyu people rebelled against British rule;

               Jomo Kenyatta was jailed

Hungarian Revolt of 1956 (1956, Hungary) - Imre Nagy instituted reforms, but Nikita Khrushchev (USSR)

               sent in troops and replaced him with Janos Kadar

ETA (1959 - present) - Basque Homeland and Liberty movement used terrorism to try to gain

               independence of Basque Country from Spain

Katanga (1960-1963, Congo) - Katanga region led by Moise Tshombe attempted to succeed from the Congo

Civil Rights Movement (1960s, US) - included Montgomery bus boycotts (1955, Rosa Parks), Greensboro sit-

               ins (1960), March on Washington (1963, Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream"), Selma to

               Montgomery marches (1965), school integrations (James Meredith at Ole Miss opposed by

               George Wallace, Little Rock Central High opposed by Orval Faubus)

Quiet Revolution (1960-present, Canada) - French Canadian nationalism; led by Jean Lesage, Robert Bourassa,

               Rene Levesque; Quebec Liberation Front and later Bloc Quebecois political parties

Bay of Pigs Invasion (Apr. 1961, Cuba) - "La Brigada" Cuban refugees failed to overthrow Castro; CIA

               director Allen Dulles fired; code named Operation Zapata

South-West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) (1966-1988, Namibia) - Marxist group fought

               guerrilla warfare for independence of Namibia from South Africa; Angolan and Cuban troops were


Biafra (1967-1970, Nigeria) - C. Odumegwu Ojukwu led succession attempt of Igbo people in east Nigeria

Prague Spring (1968, Czechoslovakia) - Alexander Dubcek instituted reforms, but Leonid Brezhnev (USSR)

               sent in troops and replaced him with Gustav Husak

Chicago Seven (1968, Chicago) - seven people (including Tom Hayden and Abbie Hoffman) tried for inciting

               riots against the Vietnam War at the Democratic Convention; Bobby Seale was tried separately

American Indian Movement (1968-1975, US) - organized in Minnesota; took over Alcatraz, military facility

               in Davis (establishing D-Q University), Mount Rushmore, Plymouth, BIA Office, and Wounded

               Knee; "Trail of Broken Treaties"

Irish Republican Army (1972 - present, Northern Ireland) - wanted to reunite Northern Ireland with

               Ireland; led by Gerry Adams; retaliated for "Bloody Sunday" with "Bloody Friday" (1972)

Soweto Riots (1976, South Africa) - high school students protested near Johannesburg

Los Angeles Riots (1992, US) - 52 killed in South-Central LA riots after acquittal of 4 officers charged in

               Rodney King beating 1992, Stacey Koon and Laurence Powell later convicted of civil rights violations

UNITA (1975 - 1997, Angola) - Jonas Savimbi (UNITA) opposed Angolan President dos Santos (MPLA)

Solidarity (1980, Poland) - Lech Walesa led strikers at Lenin Shipyard in Gdansk

Shining Path (1980 - present, Peru) - Mao-style Communists; formed at university in Ayacucho by

               Abimael Guzman Reynoso, imprisoned by Alberto Fujimori in 1992

Tupac Amaru (1980 - present, Peru) - (MRTA) Castro-style Communists; leader Nestor Cerpa Cartolini

               was killed in raid after taking hostages at Japanese embassy in 1997

Tamil Tigers (1983 - present, Sri Lanka) - Tamil minority fought Sinhalese government; Tamil Tigers

               (LTTE) carried out many terrorist acts and assassinations

Kurdistan Workers Party (1984 - present, Turkey) - Kurds led by Abdullah Ocalan (arrested 1999) wanted

               independent state

Intifada (1987 - 1988, Israel) - Palestinians in Gaza and the West Bank protested against Israel

Tiananmen Square Protest (June 1989, China) - Li Peng and Deng Xiaoping ordered troops to crush protestors in

               Beijing, who had assembled after the death of reformer Hu Yaobang

Timisoara Demonstrations (Dec. 1989, Romania) - army joined rebellion against Communist Nicolae

               Ceausescu, who was executed with wife Elena on Christmas

Zapatistas (1994, Mexico) - Indians in Chiapas protested NAFTA and PRI policies; led by Subcomandante Marcos

Chechnya (1994 - 1996, 1999 - 2000, Russia) - Chechnya, led by Dzhokhar Dudayev, fought for independence

               from Russia; capital at Grozny

Million Man March (1995, US) - March in Washington, D.C. led by Louis Farrakhan

EPR (1996, Mexico) - Popular Revolutionary Army revolt in Guerrero state

Occupy Wall Street demonstrations (2011, US) - Protests against income inequality; "We are the 99 Percent"

Black Lives Matter (2013-?, US) - Protests against police treatment of African Americans; George

               Zimmerman found not guilty for killing Trayvon Martin in Sanford FL in 2012; Policeman Darren

               Wilson shot Michael Brown in Ferguson, MO 2014; Tamir Rice (age 12) shot in Cleveland and

               Eric Garner choked in NYC; Freddie Gray died in Baltimore police van 2015; Chicago police

               shot Laquan McDonald; Police killed Alton Sterling in Baton Rouge, LA, Philandro Castile in Falcon

               Heights, MN, Sylville Smith in Milwaukee, Keith Lamont Scott in Charlotte, and Terence Crutcher

               in Tulsa; Micah Johnson killed five police in Dallas and Gavin Long three police in Baton Rouge

Dakota Access Pipeline Protests (2016-2017) - Protests on Standing Rock Indian Reservation in ND of oil pipeline





St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre (Aug. 24, 1572, France) - encouraged by his mother Catherine de

               Medicis, Charles IX ordered massacre of Huguenots, including Coligny

Glencoe Massacre (Feb. 13, 1692, Scotland) - English soldiers killed members of the MacDonald clan,

               who they believed had not sworn an oath to William III

Boston Massacre (Mar. 5, 1770, MA) - five colonists including leader Crispus Attucks killed by British

               troops; John Adams and Josiah Quincy defended the soldiers in murder trial

Fort Mims Massacre (Aug. 30, 1813, AL) - Red Eagle (Creek) killed 250 settlers; led to Creek War

Peterloo Massacre (Aug. 1819, England) - members of Manchester Patriotic Union Society killed;

               led by Henry Hunt; led to passage of the Six Acts

Massacre at Chios (1822, Greece) - Turks massacred Greeks during Greek war for independence;

               commemorated in Delacroix's Massacre at Chios

Goliad Massacre (Mar. 1836, TX) - Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna (Mexico) executed most of James

               Fannin's (Texas) men

Myall Creek Massacre (June 1838, New South Wales) - settlers massacred Aboriginies

Pottawatomie Massacre (May 24, 1856, KS) - John Brown killed five proslavery men, avenging

               murders in Lawrence

Mountain Meadows Massacre (1857, UT) - John Lee and Mormons and Paiute Indians massacred

               137 near Cedar City

Fort Pillow Massacre (Apr. 12, 1864, TN) - Nathan Bedford Forrest (Confederate) massacred black

               Union troops defending the fort

Sand Creek Massacre (Nov. 29, 1864, CO) - John Chivington (US) massacred Cheyenne and Arapaho

               Indians under Black Kettle

Wounded Knee Massacre (Dec. 29, 1890, SD) - US army massacred Sioux under Big Foot, who

               had practiced Ghost Dance taught by Wovoka (Pauite), after arrest of Sitting Bull

Bloody Sunday (Jan. 22, 1905, Russia) - protestors led by Father Georgy Gapon outside Nicholas II's

               Winter Palace in St. Petersburg were killed by the Russian Imperial Guard

Amritsar Massacre (Apr. 13, 1919, India) - also Jallianwala Bagh Massacre; Reginald Dyer (British) ordered

               shooting of many protesting Rowlatt Acts in Amritsar's Golden Temple

Bloody Sunday (Nov. 21, 1920, Ireland) - Irish killed British agents

St. Valentine's Day Massacre (Feb. 1929, IL) - Al Capone's men killed six of George "Bugs" Moran's men

               and Reinhardt Schwimmer in Chicago

Night of the Long Knives (1934, Germany) - Hitler had many SA leaders killed, including Ernst Rohm

Catavi Massacre (Dec. 21, 1942, Bolivia) - soldiers killed protesting tin miners

Sharpeville Massacre (Mar. 21, 1960, South Africa) - police killed Pan-Africanist Congress (PAC)


My Lai 4 Massacre (Mar. 1968, Vietnam) - William Calley (US) massacred Vietnamese civilians; journalist

               Seymour Hersh broke the story

Plaza of the Three Cultures (Oct. 2, 1968, Mexico) - student protestors in Tlateloco shot by police; Gustavo

               Diaz Ordaz feared protestors could mar the Mexico City Olympics

Kent State Massacre (May 4, 1970, OH) - National Guard killed 4 anti-Vietnam student protestors

Bloody Sunday (Jan. 30, 1972, Ireland) - British shot Irish in Londonderry

Saturday Night Massacre (Oct. 20, 1973) - Attorney General Elliot Richardson and his deputy William

               Ruckelshaus resigned, refusing Nixon's order to fire Special Prosecutor Archibald Cox; Solicitor General

               Robert Bork fired Cox; Leon Jaworski replaced Cox

Jonestown (1974, Guyana) - people following Jim Jones' People's Temple Sect drank cyanide after shooting a

               visiting US congressman

Heaven's Gate (1997, US) - 39 committed suicide at Rancho Santa Fe CA in connection with Comet Hale-Bopp



Plots, Conspiracies, and Cabals


Harem Conspiracy (1100s BC, Egypt) - conspiracy against Ramses III

Pazzi Conspiracy (1478, Italy) - Pazzi family tried to assassinate Lorenzo de' Medicis

Babington Plot (1586, England) - Mary's page Babington planned to kill Elizabeth I and crown Mary

Gunpowder Plot (Nov. 5, 1605, England) - Robert Catesby, Guy Fawkes, and others planned to kill James I and

               members of Parliament by exploding gunpowder under the House of Lords

Popish Plot (1678, England) - Titus Oates and Israel Tonge testified falsely that Catholics were planning to kill Charles

               II and replace him with his brother James

Rye House Plot (1683, England) - Whigs plotted to kill Charles II and Duke of York (James II) on road

               from London to Newmarket but they never made the trip; William Russell and Algernon Sidney were executed;

               Duke of Monmouth was pardoned

Conway Cabal (1777, US) - plot to replace Washington with Gates as commander of American forces,

               named for Irish general who wrote a letter criticizing Washington



Other Hostile Incidents


Defenestration of Prague (1618, Bohemia) - Bohemian rebels threw two of Ferdinand II's

               ministers (Martinic and Slawata) out the window of Hradcany Castle

Pride's Purge (Dec. 1648, England) - Thomas Pride removed Presbyterian and royalist members of the Long

               Parliament; led to Rump Parliament and High Court of Justice, that executed Charles I during

               English Revolution

Black Hole of Calcutta (June 20, 1756, India) - British soldiers died in airless dungeon

Gaspee (June 1772, RI) - colonists burned Gaspee, commanded by William Dudingston (British)

Boston Tea Party (Dec. 16, 1773, MA) - colonists, led by Samuel Adams and disguised as

               Indians, emptied tea on British ships into the harbor; MA Gov. Thomas Hutchinson

XYZ Affair (Oct. 1797) - Charles Maurice de Talleyrand (France) demanded $10 million loan and $250,000

               gift to negotiate with Americans Elbridge Gerry, Charles Pinckney ("not one cent for tribute"),

               and John Marshall

Great Trek (1835 - 1843, South Africa) - Dutch Afrikaner settlers migrated and established Natal,

               Orange Free State, and South African Republic

Caroline (Dec. 29, 1837, NY) - Canadians destroyed American ship Caroline that was aiding

               rebels on the Niagara River

Creole (1841, US) - ship carrying slaves from VG to LA was seized by the slaves and taken to Nassau

Arrow (1856, China) - Guangzhou police stopped British ship Arrow, leading to Second Opium War

Senate floor clubbing (1856, DC) - Charles Sumner (MA) insulted Andrew Butler (SC) in "Crime Against

               Kansas" speech in the Senate, so Butler's representative nephew Preston Brooks clubbed him

Lecompton Constitution (1858, KS) - pro-slavery settlers tried to establish pro-slavery constitution in KS

Harpers Ferry (Oct. 1859, VG) - John Brown raided armory; was captured and hanged

Trent Affair (Nov. 8, 1861, Atlantic) - Charles Wilkes in the San Jacinto captured Confederate commissioners,

               James Murray Mason and John Slidell, on the Trent, nearly leading to war with Britain

Ems Dispatch - 1870, Otto von Bismarck edited a report of Napoleon III's demands and William I's rejection so

               as to incite the Franco-Prussian War, unifying Germany

Jameson Raid (Dec. 1895, South Africa) - Paul Kruger (Boer) defeated Leander Starr Jameson (British), who had

               hoped to aid a revolt by the Uitlanders, but it never occurred; planned by Cecil Rhodes; Wilhelm II

               (Germany) sent congratulatory telegram

Kruger Telegram - 1896, Wilhelm II congratulated Boer Paul Kruger for repelling British Jameson Raid

Agadir Incident - 1911, French sent warship to Morocco; led towards WWI

Lusitania (May 7, 1915, Ireland) - Cunard Line's Lusitania torpedoed by German U-boat

Zimmerman Telegram (1917, Mexico) - Germany proposed allying with Mexico in WWI, allowing Mexico

               to retake TX, NM, and AZ

Palmer Raids (1918 - 1921, US) - Wilson's Sec. of State Mitchell Palmer deported many Communists, including

               249 on the Bluford

Long March (1934 - 1935, China) - Mao led communists on 6000 mile march to Yan'an, fleeing the


Kristallnacht (Nov. 9, 1938, Germany) - Nazis looted Jewish stores and killed many Jews

Cuban Missile Crisis (Oct. 16 - 28, 1962, Cuba) - Khrushchev (USSR) sent nuclear missiles to Castro's

               Cuba, but withdrew them after a US blockade and Kennedy's secret promise to remove missiles

               in Turkey

Maddox and C. Turner Joy (1964, Vietnam) - two US ships attacked, leading to Gulf of Tonkin resolution

Iran Hostage Crisis (Nov. 1979 - Mar. 1981, Iran) - students supported by Ayatollah Khomeini took 66 from

               American embassy; held 53 for 444 days; Carter's rescue attempt failed and Cyrus Vance resigned;

               released as Reagan was inaugurated

Mayaguez (May 1975, Cambodia) - Communists seized American vessel Mayaguez in Gulf of Siam;

               Cambodia was bombed and the crew was rescued

Branch Davidian Siege (1993, US) - 51-day siege of Branch Davidian compound in Waco under David Koresh,

               80 killed in April 19, 1993 fire





Petticoat Affair - 1829, Peggy O'Neill (also Margaret Eaton), wife of Jackson's Secretary of War John Henry Eaton,

               was ostracized by wives of most cabinet members; most of cabinet resigned; Martin Van Buren replaced

               John Calhoun as VP

Black Friday - 1869, Fiske and Gould tried to corner the gold market

Credit Mobilier - 1872, Oakes Ames (MA congressman) organized Credit Mobilier construction, contracted by

               Union Pacific, which inflated costs, and offered bribes to other congressmen; James Garfield, James Blaine,

               Henry Wilson, and VP Schuyler Colfax were implicated

Pacific Scandal - 1872 - 1873, Canada Prime Minister John Macdonald accepted bribes from Hugh Allan for railroad contract

Whiskey Ring - 1875, Treasury Secretary Benjamin Bristow investigated distillers and politicians involved in tax

               fraud, including Grant's secretary Orville Babcock

Dreyfus Affair - 1894-1899, Hubert-Joseph Henry forged documents implicating Jewish Alfred Dreyfus as a spy for

               Germany and he was court-marshaled; Georges Picquart discovered real spy was Ferdinand Esterhazy; Emile

               Zola wrote "J'accuse" in Georges Clemenceau's L'Aurore; Emile Loubet pardoned Dreyfus

Taft's Interior Department - 1909, US Forestry Head Gifford Pinchot accused Taft's Secretary of the Interior

               Richard Ballinger of accepting bribes for mining in AK; Taft dismissed conservationist Pinchot

Teapot Dome - 1923, Harding's Interior Secretary Albert Fall accepted bribes from Edward Doheney and Harry Sinclair

               for leasing naval oil reserves in Elk Hills CA and Teapot Dome WY

Profumo Scandal - 1963, Harold MacMillan's (British) War Secretary John Profumo may have given secrets to mistress

Philby Spy Scandal - 1963, British intelligence liaison Kim Philby defected to CIA; had warned Guy Burgess and

               Donald MacLean about impending arrests in 1951

Watergate - 1972 - 1974, five men burglarized DNC headquarters at Watergate Complex; H.R. Haldeman (Chief

               of Staff), Richard Kleindienst (Attorney General) and John Ehrlichman (Special Assistant) resigned;

               John Dean (Counsel) dismissed; investigated by Senator Sam Earvin, Judge John Sirica, and Special Prosecutor

               Archibald Cox; in Saturday Night Massacre Elliot Richardson and William Ruckelshaus were dismissed before

               Robert Bork replaced Cox with Leon Jaworski; "plumbers" had also broken into psychiatrist's office of Daniel

               Ellsberg, who had leaked Pentagon Papers; story broken by Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein of Washington Post

               with Deep Throat (Mark Felt)

Tanaka - 1974, Japanese Prime Minister Kakuei Tanaka and others in the Liberal Democratic Party accepted

               bribes from Lockheed Martin

Iran Contra Affair - 1980s, NSC directors Robert McFarlane and John Poindexter, and aide Oliver North, sold weapons to

               Iran and sent profits to contras battling Sandinistas in Nicaragua; investigated by Senator John Tower and

               Special Prosecutor Lawrence Walsh

Whitewater - 1990s, Special Prosecutors Robert Fiske, Kenneth Starr, and Robert Ray investigated Bill and

               Hillary Clinton, Jim and Susan McDougal, Webster Hubbell, and Jim Guy Tucker for land dealings and

               failed savings and loan; Clinton was impeached (but not convicted by Senate) for perjury relating to affair

               with Monica Lewinsky in testimony in Paula Jones lawsuit; also investigated Travelgate (Billy Dale acquitted)

               and suicide of Vincent Foster

Hillary Clinton E-mail Controversy - 2010s, House Select Committee on Benghazi (looking into 2012 killing of

               Ambassador to Libya Chris Stevens and others by militants) discovered Clinton used a private e-mail

               account while Secretary of State; FBI Directory James Comey criticized her carelessness but did not believe

               a crime was committed; investigation briefly re-opened just before 2016 election in connection to e-mails

               found during investigation of texts sent by Anthony Weiner, estranged husband of campaign vice-chair

               Huma Abedin; Attorney Gen. Loretta Lynch criticized for meeting with Bill Clinton at Phoenix airport

Penn State Football Scandal - 2012, Penn State football assistant coach Jerry Sandusky convicted of sexual abuse;

               Head Coach Joe Paterno and President Graham Spanier criticized for handling of the situation

Petrobras Scandal - 2014-2016, corruption at Brazil's state-run oil company Petrobras; former President Luiz Inacio Lula da

               Silva arrested; President Dilma Rousseff impeached and removed from office; "Operation Car Wash"

Russian interference in U.S. Presidential Election of 2016 - Russian hackers may have been behind the release of

               e-mails from Clinton campaign manager John Podesta on Wikileaks, and the spread of "fake news" on

               social media; DNC chair Debbie Wasserman Schultz resigned after WikiLeaks email release; Trump campaign

               manager Paul Manafort and advisors Carter Page and Roger Stone under suspicion for Russian ties; Donald

               Trump Jr. admitted he and Jared Kushner met with Russian attorney Natalia Veselnitskaya; National Security

               Advisor Michael Flynn resigned after it was learned he met with Russian ambassador Sergey Kislyak about sanctions;

               Trump fired FBI Directory James Comey; Attorney General Jeff Sessions recused himself; Robert Mueller

               appointed special counsel





Aug. 24, 79 - Vesuvius volcano

Nov. 1, 1755 - Lisbon earthquake

Feb. 28, 1844 - Canon exploded on USS Princeton, killing Sec. of State Abel Upshur and Sec. of Navy Thomas Walker Gilmer

Apr. 27, 1865 - Sultana explosion killed Union soldiers headed home from Vicksburg

Oct. 8, 1871 - Chicago fire

May 3, 1889 - Johnstown PA flood

Sep. 8, 1900 - Galveston TX hurricane

Dec. 30, 1903 - fire in Iroquois Theater, Chicago

Apr. 18 - 19, 1906 - San Francisco earthquake and fire

Mar. 25, 1911 - fire at Triangle Shirtwaist factory in NYC; investigated by Al Smith

Apr. 14 - 15, 1912 - White Star Line's Titanic hits iceberg in North Atlantic; killed 1503 including John Jacob Astor IV and

               Benjamin Guggenheim; Captain Edward Smith went down with ship

Dec. 6, 1917 - explosion in Halifax Harbor

Aug. 1931 - Huang He River flooding killed 3.7 million in China

May 6, 1937 - German zeppelin Hindenburg burned at mooring in Lakehurst NJ

Apr. 6, 1947 - French Grandcamp exploded in Texas City harbor

Jul. 26, 1956 - Italian Andrea Doria and Swedish Stockholm collided off Nantucket

Mar. 28, 1979 - partial meltdown at Three Mile Island PA

May 18, 1980 - Mt. St. Helens volcano

Sep. 1, 1983 - Soviets shot down South Korean passenger plane

Dec. 3, 1984 - explosion at Union Carbide plant in Bhopal India

Sep. 19, 1985 - Michoacan - Mexico City earthquake

Apr. 26, 1986 - Chernobyl nuclear accident near Kiev

Jan. 28, 1986 - Space Shuttle Challenger exploded killing 7 including NH teacher Christa McAuliffe

Jul. 3, 1988 - USS Vincennes shot down Iranian passenger plane

Mar. 24, 1989 - Exxon Valdez, captained by Joseph Hazelwood, spills oil in Prince William Sound AK

Apr. 15, 1989 - Hillsborough disaster; Liverpool fans crushed at soccer match in Sheffield

Apr. 19, 1989 - explosion in gun turret of USS Iowa

Sep. 16 - 19, 1989 - Hurricane Hugo hit Caribbean and US

Oct. 17, 1989 - San Francisco "World Series" earthquake

Aug. 24 - 26, 1992 - Hurricane Andrew hit FL and LA

Jan. 17, 1994 - Northridge CA earthquake

Oct. 27 - 29, 1998 - Hurricane Mitch hit Central America

Dec. 1999 - flooding in Venezuela

Aug. 12, 2000 - Russian sub Kursk sunk in Barents Sea

Feb. 1, 2003 - Space shuttle Columbia broke apart on re-entry

Aug. 2005 - Hurricane Katrina in LA, MS, AL; flooded New Orleans

May 2008 - Cyclone Nargis, southern Myanmar killed over 138,000

Jan. 12, 2010 - Earthquake in Haiti

Apr. 2010 - Explosion on Deepwater Horizon drilling platform in Gulf of Mexico

Mar. 11, 2011 - Earthquake and tsunami near Tohoku, Japan, led to nuclear meltdowns at Fukushima Daiichi

May 22, 2011 - Joplin, MO tornado

Dec. 26, 2014 - Tsunami killed over 200,000 around Indian Ocean after earthquake near Sumatra

Mar. 8, 2014 - Malaysia Airlines MH370 disappeared over Indian Ocean after departure from Kuala Lumpur