Allotropes - different forms of element in same physical state, eg O2 and O3
Law of Definite Proportions - compound always has ratio of elements same by mass
Law of Multiple Proportions - ratio of masses of elements in compound is small whole number ratio
Stoichiometry - quantitative relationships, composition or reaction
Chemical Equations and Reaction Stoichiometry
Law of Conservation of Matter - matter is not created or destroyed, only rearranged
Limiting reactant - the reactant that is used up completely in the reaction
Solution - solute dissolved in solvent
Titration - titrant reactant slowly added to solution of another reactant and measure amount for complete
reaction; plot curve of added volume vs. pH; at equivalence point equal amounts of acid and base
reacted, should coincide with end point, when indicator color changes; use buret
Periodic Law - properties of elements are periodic functions of atomic number
Metals - high conductivity (inc. with inc. temp.), high thermal conductivity, solid except mercury (Ce and
Ga melt), malleable, gray except Ag and Au, few electrons in outer shell, metallic character inc.
down and left on PT
Electrolytes - substances whose aqueous solutions conduct electricity well, incl. strong acids, strong
soluble bases, most soluble salts
Precipitates - settle out of solution
Oxidation number - number of electrons gained or lost by atom in binary compound
Oxidation - loss of electrons
Reduction - gain of electrons
Oxoacids - ternary acids
Photoelectric effect - electromagnetic radiation causes electron emission from metal surface
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle - can't know both momentum and position of small particle
Aufbau Principle - electrons added into orbitals in way giving lowest total energy
Pauli Exclusion Principle - no two electrons in atom have same 4 quantum numbers
Hund's Rule - electrons mus toccupy all orbitals of a sublevel before pairing
Paramagnetic - unpaired electrons weakly attracted into magnetic fields
Diamagnetic - all electrons paired and are very weakly repelled by magnetic fields
Ferromagnetic - Fe, Co, and Ni permanently magnetized as spins align with field
Screening causes effective nuclear charge to be less than actual nuclear charge
Combustion reaction - oxygen combines rapidly, very exothermic, hydrocarbon+oxygen yields carbon
dioxide water and heat
Roasting - extracting free metals by heating an ore in air (oxygen)
Ionic compounds - high melting pt., soluble in polar solvents, insoluble in nonpolars, molten and aqueous
solutions conduct electricity; large electronegativity difference between atoms
Lewis dot formulas - show valence electrons
Octet Rule - most compounds achieve noble gas configurations
Resonance - two or more Lewis structures describe bonding
Formal charge - charge on atom in a molecule or polyatomic ion
Polar covalent bond - electrons shared unequally; creates dipole
Sigma bond - head on overlap; all single bonds are sigma
Pi bond - side on overlap; may include unhybridized p orbital
Molecular orbital - an orbital resulting from overlap and mixing of atomic orbitals on different atoms;
belongs to molecule as whole
Antibonding orbital - molecular orbital higher in energy than any of atomic orbitals from which it is
derived; lends stability when populated; marked with asterick
Nonbonding orbital - orbital derived only from an atomic orbital of one atom; lends no stability
Delocalization - formation of set of molecular orbits that extend over more than two atoms
Nodal plane - region of zero probability of finding electrons
Protonic acids - acids with acidic hydrogen atoms
Arrhenius theory - acid produces H+ in aqueous solution; base produces OH- in solution
Bronsted-Lowry theory - acid is proton donor; base is proton acceptor
Lewis theory - acid accepts a share in electron pair, base donates a share in electron pair
Conjugate acid-base pairs - differ by proton; weak acid yields strong conjugate base and vice versa
Amphoterism - ability to react as either acid or base
Coordinate covalent bond - both electrons furnished by one atom
Standardization - process to determine concentration by measuring volume required to react with known
amount of primary standard
Equivalent weight of an acid - mass needed to furnish 6.022*1023 hydrogen ions
Half-reaction - either reduction or oxidation part of redox reaction
Fluids - liquids and gases; flow freely
Vapor - gas formed by evaporation or sublimation
Pressure - force per unit area; measured by barometer (1 torr = 1 mm Hg), manometer U-shaped tube
Dumas method - used to find molecular weights of volatile liquids using boiling water bath
Kinetic-molecular theory - by Rudolf Clausius; collisions are elastic, molecules travel in straight line with
constant velocity until collide; gases consist of discrete molecules
Effusion - escape of gas through tiny hole
Diffusion - movement of gas into a space or mixing with another gas
London forces - weak attractive forces in molecules; vary as 1/d7; only intermolecular forces among
Dipole-dipole interactions - attraction of opposite partial charges; vary as 1/d4
Hydrogen bonding - H to F, O, or N; like dipoles
Viscosity - resistance to flow of a liquid; can measure with Ostwald viscometer
Surface tension - inward force overcome to expand surface are of liquid
Meniscus - surface of liquid
Cohesive forces - hold liquid together; adhesive forces hold liquid to another surface
Evaporation - opposite of condensation; molar heat of vaporization and heat of condensation
Vapor pressure - partial pressure of vapor molecules above liquid surface; easily vaporized are volatile
Boiling point - vapor pressure = external pressure
Melting - opposite of freezing; molar heat of fusion and heat of solidification
Sublimation - opposite of deposition
Phase diagrams - temperature vs. pressure; triple point all 3 states at equil. (4.6 torr, 0.01 C for water);
can't liquefy gas above critical point
Amorphous solids - no well-defined structure (like rubber, some plastics)
Crystals - unit cells repeat and can be replaced with lattice point; 7 systems incl. Cubic, tetragonal,
orthorhombic, monoclinic, triclinic, hexagonal, rhombohedral
Isomorphous - substances that crystallize in same type of lattice
Polymorphous - substance that crystallizes in multiple forms
Coordination number - number of neighbors in solid packing
Metallic bonding - band theory describes continuous bands of closely spaced molecular orbitals
Conduction band - a band electrons must move into to allow conduction; insulators have band gap;
semiconductors have filled bands that are slightly below empty bands
Solvation - process of solvent molecules surrounding solute ions or molecules; called hydration if water
Miscibility - ability of a liquid to dissolve in another; add acid to water
Saturated - solid and dissolved ions in equilibrium
Supersaturated - high solute prepared at high temperature then cooled
Colligative properties - physical properties depending on number not kind of solute particles
Fractional distillation - separate liquid mixture by boiling points
Boiling point diagram - mole fraction vs. temperature; bowed curves for vapor and liquid; intercepts show
Colloids - dispersed phase (solutes) suspended in dispersing medium (solvent); solid in solid solid sol,
liquid in solid solid emulsion, gas in solid solid foam, solid in liquid sols and gels, liquid in liquid emulsion,
gas in liquid foam, solid in gas solid aerosol, liquid in gas liquid aerosol
Tyndall effect - scattering of light by collodial particles
Micelles - cluster of molecules with hydrophobic tails in center and hydrophilic heads outward
Surfactant - has ability to suspend and wash away oil and grease
Hard water - contains Fe3+, Ca2+, and/or Mg2+ ions
Emulsifiers - coat particles of dispersed phase to prevent coagulation into separate phase
Synthetic detergents - soap-like emulsifiers with sulfonate or sulfate instead of carboxylate
Eutrophication - overgrowth of vegetation because of high phosphorous concentration
State function - value depends only on current state not how it got there
Calorimetry - measuring heat transfer between system and surroundings using calorimeter; coffee-cup and
bomb caliometers (constant volume)
Enthalpy - heat content
Standard molar enthalpy of formation - enthalpy change for reaction in which one mole is formed from its
elements at their standard states
Bond energy - energy needed to break one mole of bonds
Transition state theory - activation energy to form transition state
Mechanism - step by step reactions; rate determined by slowest, rate-determining step
Heterogeneous catalysts - speed up reaction but are in different phase than reactants, such as powdered
noble metals and metal oxides in catalytic converters
Enzymes - biological catalysts; bind substrates
Chemical equilibrium - two opposing reactions occur simultaneously at same rate; dynamic equilibrium
LeChatelier's Principle - system responds to stress at equilibrium in a way that reduces stress and reaches
new state of equilibrium
Haber process - N2 + 3H2 <-> 2NH3
Common ion effect - behavior of solution in which same ion is produced by two different compounds
Buffers - minimize changes in pH because basic component can react with H3O+ ions and acidic
component can react with OH- ions
Polyprotic acids - furnish two or more hydronium ions per mole
Solvolysis - reaction of substance with the solvent in which it is dissolved; hyrolysis if water
Solubility product constant Ksp - equilibrium constant for reactions involving slightly soluble compounds
Solubility Product Principle - like equilibrium expression, but can take solids to be one
Fractional precipitation - remove some ions from solutions while leaving others in
Molar solubility - number of moles of solute that dissolve to produce liter of saturated solution
Electrolytic cells - external electricity causes nonspontaneous reactions by electrolysis
Voltaic cells (galvanic cells) - spontaneous chemical reactions produce electricity
Electrodes - surfaces upon which oxidation (anode) or reduction (cathode) half reaction occurs
Downs Cell - electrolysis of molten sodium chloride
Faraday's Law of Electrolysis - amount that oxidizes or reduces at each electrode is directly prop. to
amount of electricity that passes through cell
Faraday - amount of electricity that reduces one equivalent weight at cathode and reduces at anode
Electroplating - using using electrolysis to plate metal onto surface
Salt bridge - circuit between two solutions in a voltaic cell
Standard cell - all species are in thermodynamic standard states (1 M , 1 atm)
Standard Hydrogen Electrode (SHE) - reference electrode relative to which electric potentials are measured
as reduction at 25 C; if Eo > 0 reduction occurs more readily than 2H+ to H2
Corrosion - redox process by which metals are oxidized by oxygen in presence of moisture; prevent by
plating or galvanizing (coating steel with zinc)
Primary voltaic cells - cannot be recharged; includes Georges Leclanche's dry cell (ZN(NH4)3) and
alkaline dry cells
Secondary voltaic cells - reversible; can be recharged, such as lead storage battery in cars (PbSO4), nickel-
cadmium (nicad) cells, and hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells
Native ores - uncombined free state of less active metals, like Cu, Ag, Au
Ores - contain minerals mixed with gangue (sand, rock, etc)
Metal separation includes flotation, roasting (heating with oxygen), reaction with coke (carbon) or CO, and
electolysis of molten salt
Hall-Heroult process - cell for electolyzing Al
Iron - blast furnace with CO converts to limestone flux, which reacts with silica gangue to form slag of
calcium silicate; iron from blast furnace contains carbon (pig iron); remelted and cooled to cast iron; add
other metals like Mn, Cr, Ni, W, Mo, V to make steel
Coordination compounds - compouns with bonds in which both shared electrons are donated by same atom
Ligand - a Lewis base in a coordination compound
Polydentate - ligands with multiple donor atoms
Chelate - a ligand that utilizes two or more donor atoms in bonding to metals
Nuclear fission - splitting of heavy nucleus into lighter nuclei
Nuclear fusion - combination of light nuclei to produce heavier nucleus
Mass deficiency - difference between sum of masses of electrons/proton/neutrons and actual mass
Scintillation counter - detects radiation using fluorescence
Cloud chamber - detects radiation using water vapor; developed by Wilson
Gas Ionization chamber - such as Geiger-Muller counter
Disintegration series - sequence of atoms during decay
Radiocarbon dating - C14, K-Ar, U-Pb methods
Radioactive tracers - Na24 blood, Th201 and Tc99 heart, I131 thyroid liver and brain, Pl238 pacemakers
Cyclotrons - devise for accelerating charged particles along spiral path
Linear accelerators - device used for accelerating charged particles along straight line path
Uranium-235 decay - to Uranium-236 to Sm/Zn, La/Br, Ba/Kr, Cs/Rb, Xe/Sr
Fission reactors - use U3O8 fuel rods enriched in uranium-235, water and graphite moderators (and He and
heavy water), B/Li control rods, cooling systems, concrete shielding
Thermonuclear bombs (fusion bombs, hydrogen bombs) - activation energy of fusion obtained by fission
Plasma - state of matter at high temperatures at which all molecules are dissociated and most ionized
Sp. Gr. = D/Dwater
Sp. Heat = (heat in J)/((mass in g)*(temp. change in C))
Molarity = moles/Liter
V1M1 = V2M2
v = fl
E = hv
Rydberg equation: 1/l = R(1/n12-1/n22) relating H spectrum wavelengths
De Broglie equation: l = h/(m*f) showing small particles can display wave properties
Schrodinger's equation: in terms of electron wave function y, solutions are possible energy states for
electron in atom; Dirac incorporated relativity
Number of atomic orbits = (energy level n)2
Formal charge = (group number) - (number of bonds) - (number of unshared electrons)
moment = (distance)*(magnitude of charge)
Bond order = (bonding electrons - antibonding electrons)/2
Normality = (number of equivalent weights of solute)/(L of solution)
Boyle's Law : P1V1 = P2V2 ; volume inversely prop. to pressure
Charles' Law: V1/T1 = V2/T2 ; volume directly prop. to temperature
Combined gas law : P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2
Avogadro's Law: V1/n1 = V2/n2 ; volume directly prop. to number of moles of gas
Ideal Gas Law: PV = nRT
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures: Ptotal = PA + PB + PC + ... ; partial pressure of each gas is its mole
fraction times total pressure of mixture
Average molecular kinetic energy is directly prop. to absolute temperature
Van der Waals equation: (P+n2a/V2)(V-nb) = nRT ; extends ideal gas law to real gases using two empiricals
Coulomb's Law: F=kq1q2/d2
Clausius-Clapeyron equation: relates temperature to vapor pressure and molar heat of vaporization
Bragg equation: nl = 2*d*sin(q), relates reflections for X-rays to wavelength and distance
Henry's Law: Pgas = kCgas ; pressure of gas above solution is prop. to concentration of gas in solution
Molality = (number of moles of solute)/(number of kilograms of solvent)
Raoult's Law: Psolvent = Xsolvent/P0solvent ; vapor pressure of solvent is directly prop. to mole fraction of solute
Boiling point elevation: DTb = Kbm ; boiling point directly prop. to molality of solute
Freezing point depression: DTf = Kfm; freezing point depression directly prop. to molality of solute
Osmotic pressure p = MRT
KE = mv2/2
Hess' Law: DHrxn0 = DHa + DHb + ... ; enthalpy change is same as series of steps as if one reaction
DHrxn0 = S(bond energies of reactants) - S(bond energies of products)
DH = DE + PDV
DE = q + w = q - PDV; difference in internal energy = heat and work
Gibbs free energy: DG = DH - TDS
Rate-law expression: xA + yB -> C + D rate = k[A]x[B]y
Arrhenius equation: k = Ae-Ea/RT ; relates rate constant to activation energy, temperature, and collision freq.
Chemical equilibrium: aA + bB -> cC + dD Keq = ([C]c[D]d)/ ([A]a[B]b) ; reaction quotient Q is same
form for a specific time; can also use partial pressures rather than concentrations
KP = KC(RT)Dn
DG0 = -RTln(K)
van't Hoff equation: ln(KT2/KT1) = DH0/R (1/T1 - 1/T2) ; estimate equilibrium constant at another
Kw = [H3O+][OH-] = 10-14
pH = -log([H3O+])
pKa = -log(Ka) ; large Ka -> small pKa -> strong acid
Henderson-Hasselbalch equation: pH = pKa + log([conj. base]/[acid])
Nernst equation: E = E0 - (2.303*R*T)/(n*F)*log(Q) = E0 - (0.0592*T)/n*log([Red]y/[Ox]x) ; calculates
electrode potentials for concentrations and partial pressures other than standard values
nFE0 = 2.303*R*T*log(K)
DG = -nFEcell
nuclear binding energy = (mass deficiency)*(speed of light)2
Half-life decay: t1/2 = ln(2)/k
Zero rate=k [A] = [A]0 - akt t1/2 = [A]0/(2*a*k)
ln([A]0/[A]) = akt
t1/2 = ln(2)/ak
Second rate=k[A]2 1/[A] - 1/[A]0 = akt t1/2 = 1/(ak[A]0)
Mole = 6.022*1023 particles
Electron = 1.75882*108 C/g, 9.109*10-28 g
1 g = 6.022*1023 amu
Planck's constant h = 6.6262*10-34 Js
Rydberg's constant 1.097*107 m-1
Standard molar volume of ideal gas at STP: 22.414 liters per mole
Universal gas constant R = 0.08206 (L*atm)/(mol*K)
Heat of vaporization of water = 2.26 kJ/g
Specific heat of water = 4.18 J/(g*C)
Heat of fusion of water = 334 J/g
1 faraday = 96485 Coulombs
Joule = kg*m2/s2
Plus one: Na, K, NH4 ammonium, Ag, Cu+ cuprous
Plus two: Fe2+ ferrous, Cu2+ cupric, Zn, Mg, Ca, Hg mercuric, Hg2 mercurous
Plus three: Fe3+ ferric, Al
Minus one: CH3COO acetate, F, Cl, Br, OH, NO2 nitrite NO3 nitrate, CN cyanide, ClO hypochlorite, ClO2
chlorite, ClO3 chlorate, ClO4 perchlorate
Minus two: SO3 sulfite, SO4 sulfate, CO3 carbonate, CrO4 chromate, Cr2O7 dichromate
Minus three: PO4 phosphate, AsO4 arsenate
Acids: HNO3 nitric, HclO4 perchloric, HClO3 chloric, H2SO4 sulfuric, H3PO4 phosphoric, H3PO2
Ternary acids names: perXic (perXate), Xic (Xate), Xous (Xite), hypoXous (hypoXite)
Strengths (inc.) : NH3, H2O, NH4, HCN, CH3COOH, HF, HNO3, HCl, HBr, HI, HclO4
primary n (main energy level, 1,2,3...), subsidary or azimuthal l (shape of region, 0..n-1 = s,p,d,f,etc), magnetic ml
(spatial orientation -l..l orbitals), spin ms (1/2 or -1/2)
+1: Li, Na, K
+2: Be, Mg, Ca, Cu, Zn
+3: B, Al, Ga, Se
+4: C, Si, Ge, Ti
+6/-2: S, Se
-1: F, Cl, Br
None: He, Ne, Ar
Oxides: O2- oxides, O22- peroxides, O2- superoxides
Methyl red: <4 red, >7 yellow; Bromthymol blue: <6 yellow, >8 blue; Phenolphthalein: <8 colorless, >10 red
H2 1, He2 0, B2 1, N2 3, O2 2
Soluble - common inorganic and low molecular weight organic acids, compounds of Group IA metals, nitrates,
acetates, chlorates, perchlorates; Insoluble - most hydroxides, carbonates, phosphates, arsenates, sulfides
First - total energy in universe is constant
Second - in spontaneous reactions universe tends towards state of greater disorder (greater entropy)
Third - entropy of pure, perfect crystalline substance is zero at 0 K
Inc. up and right: ionization energy, electron affinity negativeness (easily becomes anion), electronegativity
(Fr least, F most, none for nobles)
Inc. down and left: atomic radii
beta emission (electron ejected from nucleus as neutron is converted to proton),
positron emission or electron K-capture (positron ejected from nucleus as proton is converted to
alpha emission (helium nucleus with 2 protons and 4 neutrons is ejected)
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory (VSEPR)
Bonds+electron pairs = 2 (linear, sp, 180), 3 (trigonal planar, sp2, 120), 4 (tetrahedral, sp3, 109.5),
5 (trigonal bipyramidal, sp3d or dsp3, 90,120,180), 6 (octahedral, sp3d2 or d2sp3, 90,180)
hybrid - mixing of orbitals
Elements in the Earth
O 49.5%, Si 25.7, Al 7.5, Fe 4.7, Ca 3.4, Na 2.6
Most Commercially Used Acids
sulfuric, lime (CaO and Ca(OH)2), ammonia, NaOH, phosphoric, nitric
H, He, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, K, Ca
Lanthanides - 57, 58 cerium to 71 lutetium
Actinides - 89, 90 thorium to 103 lawrencium
Alkali Metals (IA)
Sodium (Na) - yellow glowing highway lamps, needed for life, soda lye (NaOH), baking soda (NaHCO3),
table salt (NaCl)
Lithium (Li) - highest heat capacity, Li-Al aircrafts, dry cells, mental drugs, nuclear reactor heat transfer
Potassium (K) - needed for life, saltpepper KNO3 fertilizer
Others: rubidium, cesium, francium
Alkaline Earth Metals (IIA)
Calcium (Ca) - reducing agent, remove impurites, cheap base slaked lime Ca(OH)2, mortar, plaster of Paris
Magnesium (Mg) - burns white in air; photo flashs, fireworks, anti-oxidation coating, plentiful in oceans
Beryllium (Be) - X-ray window tubes
Strontium (Sr) - red glow; fireworks and flares
Barium (Ba) - spark plugs
Aluminum (Al) - most abundant in earth's crust and third overall; buildings, electrical transmission lines,
reducing agent including thermite reaction with Fe2O3 in welding steel
Gallium (Ga) - melts in the hand; largest liquid state; transistors and high-temp. thermometers
Indium (In) - soft bluish; electronics
Helium (He) - hot-air balloons, He/O2 deep-sea breathing, cryogenics
Neon (Ne) - neon signs
Argon (Ar) - inert atmosphere for welding, incandescent light bulbs
Krypton (Kr) - airport lights
Xenon (Xe) - short-exposure photographs
Radon (Ra) - radiotherapy of cancer
Halogens ("salt formers") (VIIA)
Fluorine (F) - pale yellow gas; prepared in Monel metal cell
Chlorine (Cl) - "green", yellow-green gas; made from NaCl; chlorinates hydrocarbons (chain eactions with
radicals and termination steps), household bleaches, swimming pools
Bromine (Br) - "stench", dark-red liquid; eyeglasses, film, sedatives
Iodine (I) - "purple", violet-black crystalline; from dried seaweed; in growht-regulating hormone thyroxine
Oxygen (O) - breathing, oxidizing, many other uses
Sulfur (S) - mined by Frasch "hot water" process, "brimstone", yellow, stable rhombic and monoclinic
forms; contact process used to make 40 million tons of sulfuric acid annually
Selenium (Se) - red glass coloring, copy machines, solar cells
Tellurium (Te) - added to metals to increase electrical resistance
Nitrogen (N) - 78% of atmosphere, nitrogen cycle (nitrogen-fixation)
Phosphorus (P) - present in all living things; used in fertilizers
Carbon (C) - part of all organic compounds
Silicon (Si) - Al-Si alloys for aircraft, silicon dioxide occurs as quartz and flint; glass and computer chips
Hydrocarbons - compounds of only carbon and hydrogen
alkanes - no multiple bonds between carbons (saturated), 1.54 A bond, 109.50, originally called
"paraffins" (little affinity)
CnH2n+2, methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, hexane, heptane, octane, nonane,
decane, eicosane (20), triacontane (30), hectane (100);
branching: iso - one carbon off main chain, tert - two carbons off main chain,
alkyl groups - alkane attached to another group; iso - connecting carbon in middle of
side chain, sec - 2o connecting carbon, tert - 3o connecting carbon
cycloalkanes - rings, CnH2n, substituted at axial and equatorial positions (switch in ring
flip) so can be cis/trans
bicycloalkanes - two fused or bridged rings, decalin C10H18
alkenes - at least one double bond between carbons, three sp2 hybrid orbitals, rotation breaks pi
bond, 1.34 A bond, 1200
CnH2n, ethene (ethylene), propene, butene, pentene, hexene, heptene, octene, nonene
vinyl group CH2=CH- , allyl group CH2=CHCH2- ,
5,5-Dimethyl-2-hexene CH3CH=CHCH2C(CH3)3 , alkadiene has two double bonds,
alkatriene has three double bonds
alkynes - at least one triple bond between carbons, 1.2 A bond, 1800
CnH2n-2, ethyne (acetylene), propyne, butyne, pentyne, hexyne, heptyne, octyne, nonyne
5-methyl-1-hexyne CH3CH(CH3)CH2CH2C=-CH , alkadiyne has two triple bonds,
alkatriyne has three triple bonds
arenes (aromatic) - unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons
annulene - monocyclic compounds with alternating single and double bonds
Huckel's Rule - planar monocyclic rings with 4n+2 delocalized electrons are aromatic
antiaromatic - greater pi-electron energy than open chain; nonaromatic same; aromatic
benzene - C6H6 Kekule structure of alternating single/double C bonds
phenyl group - benzene ring attached to another group
benzyl - benzene-CH2- attached to another group
benzenoid polycyclic aromatics including naphthalene C10H8
nonbenzenoid aromatic compounds including azulene C10H8
fullerenes - Kroto, Curl , and Smalley found C60 buckminsterfullerene, 20 hexagons and
12 pentagons, each sp2, can make salt with K
heterocyclic aromatic compounds including pyridine C5H5N, pyrrole C4H5N, furan
C4H4O, thiophene C4H4S
fluorine - fluorobenzene
methyl - toluene
hydroxyl - phenol
amine - aniline
hydrogen sulfate - benzenesulfonic acid
carboxyl - benzoic acid
CH=CH2 (phenylethene) - styrene
COCH3 (ester) - acetophenone
OCH3 (ether) - anisole
two methyls - xylene (ortho, meta, para)
two hydroxyls - benzenediol (hydroquinone if 1,4)
methyl and hydroxyl - cresol
carbonyl - benzaldehyde
carbonyl and meta OCH3 and para hydroxyl - vanillin
CONH2 - benzamide
C=-N - benzenecarbonitrile
EAS benzene activating ortho-para directors (eg OH, O) and deactivating meta directors
(eg NO2, have partial or full positive charge), halo groups are deactivating ortho-para
alkyl halides - halogen (F, Cl, Br, I) replaces hydrogen on an alkane; primary, secondary, or
tertiary depending on number of carbons connected to the carbon bound to the halide
chloroethane CH3CH2Cl, vinyl halide C=C-X, phenyl or aryl halide phenyl-X
alcohols - hydroxyl group (OH) attached to sp3 carbon, R-OH; primary, secondary, or
tertiary depending on number of carbons connected to the carbon bound to the halide
methanol CH2OH, ethanol CH3CH2OH, 4-Methyl-1-hexanol CH3CH2C(CH3)CH2CH2CH2COH,
1,2-Ethanediol or Ethylene glycol HO-CH2CH2-OH,
3-penten-2-ol CH3CH=CHCHOHCH3 , 2-Methyl-4-pentyn-2-ol
CH3C(OH)(CH3)CH2=-CH, not as strong of acids as phenols
ethers - oxygen between carbons, R-O-R'
ethyl methyl ether CH3OCH2CH3 , 2-Methoxypentane CH3CH(OCH3)CH2CH2CH3 ,
epoxides (oxiranes) are 3-member cyclic ethers, crown ethers are cyclic polymers of
ethylene glycol and can be phase transfer catalysts, tetrahydrofuran (THF)
amines - nitrogen attached to at least one carbon; primary R-NH2, secondary two Rs and an H,
tertiary three Rs, ethylamine (ethanamine) CH3CH2NH2 , cyclic amines include pyrrole C4H4N,
pyridine C5H5N, pyrrolidine C4H8NH, and purine C5H4N4 , more basic than amides, biological
amines include nicotine, morphine, codeine, dopamine, serotonin, adrenaline (epinephrine),
aldehydes - carbonyl group at end of chain, R-CO -H
formaldehyde CH2O, acetaldehyde (ethanal) CH3CHO, benzaldeyde C6H5CHO,
ketone - carbonyl group in middle of chain, R-CO -R
acetone CH3COCH3, ethyl methyl ketone (butanone) CH3CH2COCH3, 4-Penten-2-one
CH3COCH2CH=CH2 , benzopehenone (diphenyl ketone) C6H5COC6H5
carboxylic acids - carboxyl group attached to carbon, R-CO -OH
formic acid HCOOH, acetic acid CH3COOH, benzoic acid C6H5COOH,
4-Hexenoic acid CH3CH=CHCH2CH2COOH, dicarboxylic acids are called alkanedioic
amides - nitrogen and oxygen bound to carbon, R-CO -NR'R"
acetamide (ethanamide) CH3CONH2, N,N-Dimethylacetamide CH3CON(CH3)2 , cyclic amides
esters - two oxygens bound to carbon, RCOOR'
ethyl acetate (ethyl ethanoate) CH3COOCH2CH3 , tert-Butyl
propanoate CH3CH2COOC(CH3)3 , malonate, cyclic esters are lactones
nitriles - nitrogen triple-bonded to carbon, C=-N, ethanenitrile CH3C=-N
(Different compounds that have the same molecular formula)
Constitutional (structural) isomers - differ in connectivity; different physical properties
Stereoisomers - differ only in arrangement of atoms in space, # of isomers < 2# of stereocenters
Diastereomers - molecules are not mirror images of each other
Cis (same side) / trans (opposite sides, more stable) for disubstituted alkenes
E / Z system to name by prioritizing groups (same as R/S)
Enaniomers - molecules are nonsuperposable mirror images of each other
R (rectus) / S (sinister) system to name by prioritizing groups attached to stereocenter,
higher atomic number means higher priority; developed by Cahn, Ingold, and Prelog
Optically active (rotate plane-polarized light)
Clockwise dextrorotatory or counterclockwise levorotatory
Specific rotation [a] = a/(c*l) observed/((g/mL) * (dm))
Equimolar mixture of two enantiomers is racemic
Meso compounds are achiral despite having tetrahedral atoms with 4 different attached
groups because it has a plane of symmetry
Fischer projection formulas represent chiral molecules
Dimethylcyclohexanes: 1,4 diasteromers, 1,3 meso, 1,2 enantiomers
Resolution - separation of enantiomers of a racemic form
Allenes - chiral molecules with C=C=C instead of tetrahedron
(3D aspects of molecular structure)
Conformational analysis of alkanes - Newman projection and sawhorse formulas, torsional strain:
anti < gauche < eclipsed
Ring strain - measure by heat of combustion (greater heat means more potential energy and less stable),
cyclohexane most stable and cyclopropane least stable cycloalkanes, due to angle strain and torsional
strain; chair conformation of cyclohexane has no angle or torsional strain; boat conformation has
torsional strain only; strain: chair < twisted < boat; diaxial interactions cause steric strain, less if equatorial
Substitution, addition, elimination, rearrangement
Heterolysis produces ion, homolysis produces radicals
Electrophiles seek extra electrons, nucleophiles seek proton or other positive center
Nucleophilic substitution reactions
Nucleophile + Alkyl halide --> product + halide ion
Nucleophile has unshared electron pair
Leaving groups (nucleofuges) such as halides become stable weak base, triflate ion
CF3SO3- > I > Br > Cl > F
SN2 reaction rate proportional to concentrations of both reactants, nucleophile approaches leaving
group carbon from backside causing R/S inversion of configuration, goes via transition state
SN1 three-steps with first slowest so rate depends only on alkyl halide concentration, product is
racemic since carbocation intermediate is achiral
Structure of substrate can slow rate if it blocks access (steric hindrance); methyl > primary >
secondary >> tertiary; stability of carbocation determines SN1 rate; vinyl and phenyl halides
Hammond-Leffler postulate: structure of transition state resembles the stable species that is nearest
it in free energy
Polar protic solvents may slow reaction by solvating nucleophile so SN2 reactions may be faster in
polar aprotic solvents (such as DMSO dimethyl sulfoxide, DMF N,N-dimethylformamaide, DMA
E2 reaction rate proportional to concentrations of both reactants; SN2 is favored with primary
halides but E2 with secondary halides; high temperature and strong sterically hindered base
E1 reaction forms carbocation like SN1 and makes some substitution product also
Hydrogenation - make alkanes from alkenes with H2 and Ni or Pt
Reduction of alkyl halides - make alkanes from alkyl halides with H+, Zn, and acid
Corey-Posner Whitesides-House Synthesis - make alkanes from organic halides via lithium dialkylcuprate
(R2CuLi) in diethyl ether
Enantioselective reactions produce more of one enantiomer than another
Hydrolysis: ester + water --> carboxylic acid + alcohol
Functional group transformations - make almost anything from alkyl halide
Dehydrohalogenation - make alkenes from alkyl halides with ethanol and sodium alkoxide, ab or 1,2
eliminations; Zaitsev's Rule: forms most stable, most highly substituted alkene; Hofmann's Rule: exception
to Zaitsev's Rule, forming less substituted alkene; anti periplanar transition conformation preferred to syn
Catalytic hydrogenation - make alkanes from alkenes with H2 and fine metal (Ni, Pd or Pt)
Syn Hydrogenation - make Z-alkenes from alkynes with H2 /Ni2B or Lindlar's catalyst
Anti Hydrogenation - make E-alkenes from alkynes with Li, etheamine and ammonium chloride, vinylic
radical intermediate with one radical carbon across double bond
Dehydration of Alcohols - make alkenes from alcohols with strong acid, 30 alcohols fastest because they
make more stable E1 carbocation
Debromination of Vicinal Dibromides - make alkenes from alkyl halides with bromides vic (on adjacent
carbons, not gem, on same carbon) with Zn and formaldehyde or NaI and acetone
Addition of Hydrogen Halides to Alkenes - make alkyl halide from alkene with HX; Markovnikov's Rule:
hydrogen atom adds to carbon of double bond that already has greater number of hydrogen atoms, yielding
more stable carbocation intermediate; regioselective reaction, producing mostly one of two possible
constitutional isomers; exception if HBR is added with peroxides; forms radicals
Addition of Sulfuric Acid - make alcohols from alkenes with cold sulfuric acid via alkyl hydrogen sulfate
intermediate, then heating
Acid-Catalyzed Hydration - make alcohols from alkene with water and acid
Addition of Bromine and Chlorine to alkenes - make vic alkyl halide from alkane and dimolecular Br or Cl
with sunlight and CCl4; red brown Br color goes away as test for alkenes; stereospecific to anti addition
Halohydrin Formation - make halohydrin (-CXCOH-) from alkene with dimolecular Br or Cl and water
Oxidations of Alkenes - make glycols (1,2 diols) from alkenes with KMnO4 and OH- or OsO4 (osmium
tetroxide) via syn hydroxylation and osmate intermediate
Oxidative Cleavage of Alkenes - make carboxylic acid from alkene with hot permanganate
Ozonolysis of Alkenes - make aldehydes and/or ketones from alkenes with ozone and Zn / water
Addition of Bromine and Chlorine to Alkynes - make trans-dihaloalkenes or tetrahaloalkanes with one or
two equivalents of dimolecular halogen
Addition of Hydrogen Halides to Alkynes - make gem-dihalide from alkyne with 2 HX; anti-Markovnikov
intermediate if peroxides used
Radical Reactions - alkane + halogen --> halo, dihalo, trihalo, and/or tetrahaloalkane + HX with light;
initiation, propagation, and terminating steps; bromine less reactive but more selective
Chain growth polymers - monomers combine using peroxides to form radical intermediates
Autoxidation - organic compound reacts with oxygen to form hydroperoxide
Ozone depletion - radical reactions with CF2Cl2 convert O3 to O2 via radicals
Oxymercuration / Demercuration - make alcohols from alkenes with mercuric acetate and THF
Hydroboration - make organoborane from alkene and boron hydride with THF via borane intermediate;
Alcohol Reactions - make protonated alochols from alcohols with strong acid or protonated ethers from
Alcohol Reactions - make mesylates (methanesulfonates) and tosylates (toluenesulfonates) from alcohols
and sulfonyl chlorides
Alcohols into Alkyl Halides - make alkyl halides from alcohols with hydrogen halides, phosphorus
tribromide, or thionyl chloride
Synthesis of Ethers - make ethers from alcohols with H+
Williamson Synthesis of Ethers - make ethers from sodium alkoxide with alkyl halide, alkyl sulfonate, or
alkyl sulfate; can make sodium alkoxides from phenols
Silylation - make trimethylsilyl ethers from alcohols with chlorotrimethylsilane, protecting OH
Ether Reactions - make oxonium salts from ethers and hydrogen halide
Epoxidation - make epoxide from alkene and peroxy acid
Alcohols by Reduction - make alcohols from carboxylic acids and lithium aluminum hydride or esters and
high pressure or aldehydes/ketones and sodium borohydride
Oxidation of Alcohols - make aldehydes from alcohols with potassium dichromate and sulfuric acid or
pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC) and dichloromethane
Oxidation of Alcohols - make carboxylic acids from alcohols with potassium permanganate and hydroxide
Oxidation of Secondary Alcohols - make ketones from secondary alcohols with sodium dichromate and
Grignard Reagents - make Grignard reagents from organic halide and Mg with ether
Grignards with Oxiranes - make primary alcohols from oxiranes with Grignard
Grignards with Carbonyls - make primary/secondary alcohols from aldehydes with Grignard or tertiary
alcohols from ketones with Grignard
Organolithium reagents and sodium alkynides work like Grignard
Shell Process - make allyl chloride from propene and chlorine via radicals
Bromination of Allyl - make allyl bromide from propene with N-Bromosuccinimide (NBS)
Electrophilic Attack on Conjugated Dienes - HX adds to one of two double bonds, or H to one and X to the
other and double bond in between (1,2 and 1,4 additions)
Diels-Alder Reaction - make an adduct from conjugated diene and double bonded dienophile; forms two
sigma bonds at expense of two pi bonds; syn addition and cis and endo
Bromine with Benzene - reacts with Lewis acid catalyst by substitution not addition
Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions - arene + electrophile --> arene-electrophile + H+via
nonaromatic carbocation called arenium ion
Halogenation - make halobenzene from benzene and Br2 or Cl2 with Lewis acid FeBr2 or FeCl2
Nitration - make nitrobenzene from benzene and hot nitric acid with sulfuric acid
Sulfonation - make benzene-sulfonic acid from benzene and fuming sulfuric acid (extra SO3)
Friedel-Crafts Alkylation - make alkylbenzenes from alkyl halides and benzene with AlCl3, or from alkene
and acid, or from alcohol and acid
Friedel-Crafts Acylation - make acylated benzene from benzene and acetyl halogen or carboxylic
anhydride with AlCl3; poor yield if strong withdrawing groups are present on ring; major product form more
stable carbocation; often get polyalkylations
Clemmensen Reduction - make alkyl benzene from ketone from Friedel-Crafts Acylation with
amalgamated zinc and HCl reflux
Birch Reduction - reduce benzene to 1,4-Cyclohexadiene with alkali metal, ammonia, and alcohol
Aldehyde Synthesis - make aldehydes from primary alcohols with PCC and dichloromethane
Aldehyde Synthesis - make aldehydes from acyl chlorides with lithium tri-tert-butoxy-aluminum hydride
Aldehyde Synthesis - make aldehydes from esters or nitriles with DIBAL-H and hexane
Ketone Synthesis and Tautomerization - make ketones from alkynes with sulfuric acid and mercuric ions,
resulting in keto-enol forms which tautomerize; Markovnikov; enol form more common with beta-dicarbonyl
compounds; ketone can lose its optical activity by converting to achiral enol form
Ketone Synthesis - make ketones from acyl chlorides with lithium dialkylcuprate or from nitriles with
Grignard or organolithium
Nucleophilic Substitutions of Carbonyl - RCOH + Nu-H --> RCNuHOH; aldehydes more reactive
Hydrates - make hydrates (gem diols, RCH(OH)2) from aldehyde and water with acid or base
Hemiacetals - make hemiacetals (RCH(OR')(OH)) from aldehyde or ketone and alcohol
Acetals - make acetals (RCH(OR')2) from adehyde or ketone and alcohol with gaseous HCl; may serve as
a protecting group for subsequent reactions, as it can be removed with acid and water
Thioacetals - make thioacetals (HCR(SR')2) from aldehyde or ketone and thiols with acid
Desulfurization - make hydrocarbons from thioacetals and hydrogen with Raney nickel
Imines - make imines (C=N-R) from aldehyde or ketone and primary amine
Wolff-Kishner Reaction - reduce C=O to CH2 in aldehyde or ketone with hydrazine (H2NNH2) and base,
via hydrazone (C=NNH2)
Semicarbazide - reduce C=O to CH2 in aldehyde or ketone with semicarbazide (H2NNHCONH2) via
Cyanohydrins - make cyanohydrins (RHC(OH)(CN)) from aldehydes or ketones with hydrogen cyanide (HCN)
Wittig Reaction - make alkenes and triphenylphosphine oxide from aldehyde or kentone and phosphorus
ylide (phosphorane, (C6H5)3P-CRR') via betaine intermediate
Reformatsky Reaction - make beta-hydroxy esters from aldehydes or ketones and alpha-bromo ester with
zinc and benzene
Baeyer-Villiger Oxidation - make carboxylic esters from ketones and peroxy acid
Haloform Reaction - make multiple halogen substitutions on alpha-carbon of methyl ketone with X2 and
Aldol Additions - make aldol (aldehyde alcohol) from aldehyde with dilute NaOH; can have crossed aldol
reactions if start with two different carbonyl compounds
Aldol Condensation - make enal (unsaturated aldehyde) from aldol via dehydration; can also condensate to
make unsaturated amines or nitriles from nitroalkenes or nitriles
Claisen-Schmidt Reaction - crossed aldol reactions using one ketone; make unsaturated ketones from
aldehyde and ketone with base; used with geranial and acetone to make Vitamin A
Cyclizations via Aldol Condensations - make 5 or 6 membered rings from dialdehyde, diketone, or keto
aldehyde with base
Additions to alpha-beta Unsaturated Aldehydes and Ketones - simple addition and conjugate addition (with
keto and enol forms) reactions both occur
Michael Additions - conjugate addition of enolate ions to alpha-beta unsaturated carbonyl compounds with
Robinson Annulation - uses Michael addition and simple aldol condensation to build one ring onto another
Grignards - make carboxylic acids from Grignard reagent and carbon dioxide with acid
Nucleophilic Substitutions of Acyl Carbon - replace leaving group on acyl carbon with nucleophile
Acyl Chloride Synthesis - make acid chlorides from carboxylic acids and thionyl chloride (SOCl2) or
phosphorus pentachloride (PCl5)
Synthesis of Carboxylic Acid Anhydrides - make carboxylic acid anhydrides (R-COOCO-R') from
carboxylic acid and acyl chloride with pyridine
Esterification - make esters by condensation of carboxylic acids and alcohols with acid or from acyl
chlorides and alcohols or from carboxylic acid anhydrides and alcohols
Saponification - make alcohol and carboxylate salt from hydrolysis of ester by base
Amide Synthesis - make amides from acid chlorides or acid anhydrides or esters and amines or ammonia,
or from carboxylic acids and ammonia with dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC)
Amide Hydrolysis - make carboxylic acid and ammonia from amide and acid or base
Amide Dehydration - make nitriles from amides with phosphorus pentoxide P4O10
Nitrile Hydrolysis - make carboxylic acids from nitriles with acid or base
Hell-Volhard-Zelinski Reaction - make alpha-halo carboxylic acids from aliphatic carboxylic acids and Br2
or Cl2 with phosphorus
Decarboxylation of Carboxylic Acids - remove carboxyl group from beta-keto carboxylic acids by heating,
or from carboxyl radicals
Claisen Condensation - make beta-keto esters from esters and sodium ethoxide, via aldol addition, enolate
anion attack, and acid-base reaction; can be crossed with two esters if one ester has no alpha hydrogens
Dieckmann Condensation - make 5 or 6 membered rings by an intramolecular Claisen condensation
Acetoacetic Ester Synthesis - make substituted acetones from acetoacetic ester
Malonic Ester Synthesis - make substituted acetic acid from malonic ester
Knoevenagel Condensation - active hydrogen compounds condense with aldehydes and ketones, like aldol
condensations, with weak base
Mannich Reaction - make Mannich bases from enols and formaldehyde and primary or secondary amine
Stork Enamine Reaction - make enamines from aldehydes or ketones with secondary amines, and then
acylate or alkylate the enamines or use in Michael Additons
Nucleophilic Substitution Reaction of Amines - make amines from alkyl halide and ammonia, optionally
via azide (N3-) ion intermediate
Preparing Aromatic Amines - make aromatic amine from arene with nitric acid and sulfuric acid and then
reduction with H2 or iron and HCl
Reductive Amination - make amines from aldehyde or ketone and ammonia or an amine
Hofmann Rearrangement - make amines from amides and X2 with NaOH
Curtius Rearrangement - make amine from acyl chloride with NaN3 via acyl azide and isocyanante
Diazotization Reaction - make unstable aliphatic diazonium salts from primary aliphatic amines and
nitrous acid (HONO, made from HCl and NaNO2 in situ)
Sandmeyer Reaction - make Cl, Br, or CN substituted arenes from arenediazonium salts and CuCl, CuBr,
Diazonium Replacements - make I, F, or OH substituted arenes from arendiazonium salts and KI, HBF4, or
Deamination by Diazotization - replace diazonium group with hydrogen using hypophosphorous acid
Diazo Coupling Reactions - make azo compounds (Ar-N=-N-Ar) from arenediazonium ions and reactive
Synthesis of Sulfonamides - make sulfonamides (R-NH-SO2Ar) from primary or secondary amine and
Hofmann Elimination - make alkene, water, and tertiary amine from quaternary ammonium hydroxide in
Cope Elimination - eliminate dialkylhydroxylamine from tertiary amine oxides
Dow Process - make phenol from chlorobenzene and NaOH by heating at high pressure and using HCl
Alkali Fusion - make phenol from sodium benzenesulfonate and NaOH at 350 C
Cumene Hydroperoxide - make phenol and acetone from benzene and propene via cumene by Friedel-
Kolbe Reaction - make salicylic acid from phenol and carbon dioxide; salicylic acid and acetic anhydride
form aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid)
Claisen Rearrangement - make o-Allylphenol from allyl phenyl ether by heating
SNAr Mechanism - replace halogen on arene by hydroxyl if strong electron withdrawing groups (such as
NO2) are ortho or para to halogen; via caranion with delocalized electrons, called Meisenheimer complex
Bromine in carbon tetrachloride - red/brown disappears if carbon-carbon double or triple bonds
Cold potassium permanganate - purple turns brown if carbon-carbon double or triple bonds
Silver ion - forms precipitate with alkyl halides
Silver nitrate in ammonia - forms precipitate with alkynes
Chromic oxide - turns from orange to green with primary or secondary alcohols
Tollens' Test (Silver Mirror Test) - metallic silver precipitates from silver nitrate and aqueous ammonia if
aldehydes or alpha-hydroxy ketones are present
Iodoform Test - iodine in sodium hydroxide precipitates bright yellow iodoform (CHI3) if COCH3 or
CH(OH)CH3 groups are present
Hinsberg Test - excess KOH and then acid used to demonstrate whether amine is primary, secondary, or
Benedict's Test - alkaline Fehling solution with cupric citrate complex ion gives red Cu2O precipitates if
aldoses are present; acetal carbohydrates give negative result
Visible and UV spectroscopy - plot wavelength vs. absorbance; multiple bonds absorb radiation;
nonconjugated molecules have maxima below 200 nm and can't be measured; conjugated systems of at
least 8 are in visible range; electron iexcited from bonding pi highest occupied molecular orbital to
antibonding pi lowest unoccupied molecular orbital; C=O absorb in UV region
Infrared spectroscopy - plot wavenumber (1/wavelength) vs. transmittance (1/absorbance); atomic masses
and bond stiffness give different functional groups absorbances at characteristic frequencies; dipole
moment changes as vibration absorbs IR energy; bond strength: sp > sp2 > sp3; stretching and out-of-plane
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy - older sweep (CW) and newer Fourier Transform (FT)
methods; area of peaks indicates number of hydrogens of that type; signal splitting (doublet, etc.) is one
more than the number of non-equivalent hydrogen neighbors within three sigma bonds (from spin-spin
coupling); induced field of electrons shileds proton from external field; tetramethylsilane (TMS) reference
compound; chemical shifts based on shielding; homotopic and enantiotopic hydrogens have same chemical
shift; separation is called coupling constant J; C13 NMR has no signal splitting since only one of 100 is C13,
different carbons have different chemical shifts; off-resonance decoupling splits carbon signal based on
number of attached hydrogens; simplified DEPT (distorionless enhanced polarization transfer) method
Aldoses - contain aldehyde
Aldohexoses (six carbons) - Glucose (RLR), Galactose (RLL)
Aldopentoses (five carbons) - Ribose (RR)
Aldopetroses (three carbons) - Erythrose (R), Threose (L)
Ketoses - contain ketone
Ketohexoses (six carbons) - Fructose
Ketopentoses (five carbons) - Ribulose
Sucrose - glucose and fructose
Maltose - glucose and glucose (alpha glycosidic linkage)
Cellobiose - glucose and glucose (beta glycosidic linkage)
Lactose - glucose and galactose
Starch - alpha 1,4 links; amylose (unbranched) and amylopectin (branched)
Glycogen - alpha 1,4 links
Cellulose - beta 1,4 links
D(+) and L(-) enantiomers
Haworth formulas of cyclic hemiacetyl forms
Mutarotation between alpha and beta forms
Glycosides are carbohydrate acetals
Lobry de Bruyn-Alberda van Ekenstein transformations dissolve monosaccharides in base
Monosaccharides react with phenylhydrazine to form osazones
Kiliani-Fischer Synthesis lengthens the chain of an aldose
Ruff Degradation shortens the chain of an aldose
Emil Fischer proved the configuration of D-(+)-Glucose
Greek "lipos" means fat
Triacylglycerols (fatty acids) consist of three-hydroxyl alcohol glycerol hydrolysed with carboxylic acids,
Unsaturated fats have at least one double bond; polysaturates have multiple (unconjugated) double bonds
Saponification of triacylglycerols produces glycerol and salts of carboxylic acids
Terpene lipids have repeating isoprene (-CH2CH(CH3)CH2CH2-) units; terpenoids have oxygen
Carotenes are tetraterpenes
Natural rubber is a 1,4 addition polymer of isoprene
Steroids are lipids with fused ring system (3 six-carbon rings and one five-carbon ring), including
cholesterol and hormones Prostaglandins are C20 carboxylic acids with five-membered ring and at least one
Twenty of 22 amino acids are used in protein synthesis; hydroxyproline and cystine are made after the
chain is intact
Amino acids are of form H2NCHRCO2H, with side chain R = hydrogen in glycine, methyl in alanine,
CH(CH3)2 in valine, CH3-Ph in phenylalanine, CH2OH in serine, CH2SH in cysteine, CH2CH2SCH3 in
Strecker Synthesis of amino acids from ammonia, an aldehyde, and hydrogen cyanide
Amino acids link by peptide bonds, forming (di,tri,oligo,poly)peptide proteins; linear polymers with N-
terminal and C-terminal residues
Sanger method and Edman degradation determine the N-terminal amino acid residue
Primary - sequence of amino acids
Secondary - local conformation of polypeptide backbone; alpha-helix or beta-pleated sheet
Tertiary - further foldings, exposing polar groups to aqueous environment, caused by things such
as disulfide bonds
Quaternary - combination of multiple polypeptides into a protein
Nucleosides consist of five-carbon monosaccharide (D-ribose or 2-deoxy-D-ribose) and heterocyclic base
(purine [adenine or guanine] or pyrimidine [cytosine or thymine or uracil])
Nucleotides consist of nucleoside and phosphate ion
In DNA, phosphate esters link 3' OH of one ribose with 5' OH of another; A-T and C-G pairings
Protein synthesis takes place via transcription (messenger RNA made from DNA) and translation (mRNA
codon matches with transfer RNA-amino acid anticodons at ribosomes, forming polypeptides)
Carbon ions - carbocation (posititve), carbanion (negative); carbocations are trigonal planar and are more
stable the more carbons are connected (R3C+ > HR2C+)
Acidity increases down group (HF weakest and HI strongest, ethyne more acidic than ethane, carboxylic
acids more acidic than alcohols because of resonance and inductive effects
Protic solvent - has hydrogen atom attached to strongly electronegative element (eg O or N)
Protonated alcohol or alkyloxonium ion - conjugate base of alcohol
Catalytic cracking - alkane gas oil mixture heated at 500C and break apart, rearranging into smaller, highly
Thermal cracking - like catalytic cracking but no catalysts so chains unbranched
Catenanes - chains of large rings of cycloalkanes
Pheromones - odorous chemicals used by animals for communication
Chiral - not identical with its mirror image ("hand"), achiral are superposable on mirror image
Stereocenter - atom bearing groups such than any interchange produces a steroisomer
Solvolysis - nucleophile is molecule of the solvent; hydrolysis if water
Dielectric constant - measure of solvent's ability to insulate opposite charges and be polar
Index of Hydrogen Defiiciency - number of rings and pi bonds
Radicals - have unpaired electron; 30 > 20 > 10 stability
Ziegler-Natta catalysts - used to make polyehylene
Vitamin A - alpha-tocopherol
Azeotropes - mixture with boiling point different from either pure component
Conjugated unsaturated systems - molcules with delocalized pi bonds; p orbital on atom adjacent to double
bond; multiple bonds may be cumulated (allene; one carbon participates in both), conjugated (adjacent
carbon), or isolated
Resonance energy - difference between amount of heat actually released and that predicted based on
Aliphatic - hydrocarbon or a derivative of a hydrocarbon
Urea - H2NCONH2
Carbamates (urethanes) - RO-CO-NHR'
Polyamides - chains of amides, including nylon and proteins
Polyesters - chains of esters, including poly(ethylene terephthalate), called Dacron, Terylene, or Mylar
Polyurethanes - formed from alchol and isocyanate
Barbiturates - formed from diethyl malonate and urea with sodium ethoxide
Sulfanilamide - used in chemotherapy
Naphthols and phenanthrols - hydroxyl group attached to polycyclic benzenoid ring
Benzyne - benzene with one triple bond
Zwitterions - dipolar ions (both positive and negative ions in same molecule, such as amino acids)
The Boltzmann constant is R/NA , or 1.38*10-23 J/K.
A Joule is kg*m2/s2.
The de Broglie relation states that the product of linear momentum and wavelength is a constant, Planck's
constant, 6.6*10-34 Js
The Boltzmann distribution gives the ration of the numbers of particles in states with given energies, Ni/Nj
The Maxwell distribution gives the proportion of molecules that have a specific speed at a particular
temperature, based on Boltzmann distribution.
Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics - If A is in thermal equilibrium with B, and B is in thermal equilibrium
with C, then C is also in thermal equilibrium with A
Ideal Gas Law: PV = nRT
PV = 1/3nMc2 ; c = root mean square speed of molecules, M = molar mass mNA
Maxwell distribution of speeds
Van der Waals equation, using compression factor and virial coefficients, adjusts ideal gas law to real gases
Maxwell construction replaces unrealistic van der Waals loops.
Principle of corresponding states: real gases at same volume and temperature exert same reduced pressure.
The First Law states that the total energy in the universe is constant.
Diathermic boundary permits heat transfer; adiabatic boundary permits energy transfer but not heat
Heat capacity at constant volume is partial of internal energy with respect to temperature; at constant
temperature is partial of internal energy with respect to volume.
Enthalpy is sum of internal energy and pressure times volume.
Hess' Law: DHrxn0 = DHa + DHb + ... ; standard enthalpy is the sum of the standard enthalpies of the
individual reactions into which a reaction may be divided.
Kirchoff's Law is used to estimate standard enthalpies of formation from molar heat capacities and reaction
enthalpies at some other temperature.
James Joule tried to measure internal pressure by observing the change in temperature of a gas expanding
in a vacuum.
Joule-Thompson coefficient is partial of temperature with respect to pressure at constant enthalpy.
The Joule-Thompson effect is the cooling by adiabatic expansion, such that the temperature difference is
proportional to the pressure difference.
The Second Law states that he entropy (disorder) of an isolated system increases in the course of a
Carnot cycle consists of isothermal reversible expansion, reversible adiabatic expansion, isothermal
reversible compression, and adiabatic reversible compression. Efficiency of a Carnot engine is 1-Tc/Th
Clausius inequality states that change in entropy is greater than or equal to the heat supplied to the system
during the process divided by temperature.
Trouton's rule states that the standard molar enthalpy of vaporization is about the same for a wide range of
liquids (85 J/(K*mol).
The Debye extrapolation fits measurements of heat capacity at lower temperatures.
The Nernst heat theorem states that the entropy change accompanying any physical or chemical
transformation approaches zero as temperature approaches zero.
The Third Law states that the entropy of pure, perfect crystalline substance is zero at 0 K.
The Helmholtz energy A is internal energy minus temperature times entropy; it equals the maximum work
accompanying a process.
The Gibbs energy G is the enthalpy minus temperature times entropy; it equals the maximum non-
The standard Gibbs energy of formation is the standard reaction Gibbs energy for the formation of a
compound from its elements in their reference states.
dU = TdS-pdV
The Maxwell relations are derived from the fact that enthalpy, Gibbs energy, and Helmholtz energies are
all state functions. For example, the partial of temperature with respect to volume at constant entropy equals
negative the partial of pressure with respect to entropy at constant volume.
The Gibbs-Helmholtz equation shows that if the enthalpy of the system is known, then the temperature
dependence of Gibbs energy over temperature is also known; the partial of the Gibbs energy over the
temperature with respect to temperature at constant pressure equals negative the Helmholtz energy divided
by the temperature squared.
Chemical potential is the partial of the Gibbs energy with respect to the number of molecules at constant
temperature and pressure.
Fugacity is an effective pressure.
Phase diagrams plot temperature vs. pressure.
At the triple point all 3 states are at equilibrium (4.6 torr, 0.01 C for water).
You cannot liquefy gas above critical point.
The Clapeyron equation is the slope of the phase boundary.
The Clausius-Clapeyron equation describes the variation of vapor pressure with temperature.
Ehrenfest classification groups phase transitions into first-order, second-order, and lambda-transition.
Surface tension is the constant relating work to change in surface area of a liquid.
The Laplace equation states that the pressure on the concave side of an interface is alwasys greater than on
the convex side.
The Gibbs-Dunhem equation states that the chemical potential of one component of a mixture cannot
change independently of the chemical potentials of the other components.
Raoult's Law states that the ratio of the partial vapour pressure of each component to its vapour pressure as
a pure liquid is about equal to the mole fraction of the component in the mixture.
Henry's law states that the vapor pressure of a solute is proportional to its mole fraction but the constant of
proportionality is not the pure substance's vapor pressure.
In ideal-dilute solutions, solvent obeys Raoult's Law and solute Henry's Law.
Cryoscopy measures molar mass from freezing point depression.
The van't Hoff equation states that the osmotic pressure equals the molar concentration of the solute times
R times the temperature.
Gibbs' Phase Rule states that the variance equals the number of components minus the number of phases
plus two in a phase diagram.
Vertical isopleth and horizontal tie lines on phase diagram, used in lever rule.
Number of theoretical plates on temperature-composition diagram determines efficiency of fractional
In an azeotrope, evaporation occurs without a change in composition ("boiling without changing").
At eutectic composition, a liquid mixture freezes at a single temperature.
Gibbs reaction energy is slope of Gibbs energy vs. extent of reaction.
G = -RTln(K)
LeChatelier's Principle states that a system responds to stress at equilibrium in a way that reduces stress
and reaches new state of equilibrium.
Henderson-Hasselbalch equation: pH = pKa + log([conj. base]/[acid])
The Born equation identifies the Gibbs energy of solvation with the electrical work of transferring an ion
from a vacuum into the solvent treated as a continuous dielectric of relative permittivity.
The Debye-Huckel limiting law calculates the activity coefficient. The long range of Coulombic
interactions dominates contributions to nonideality in ionic solutions.
Faraday's constant equals electron charge times Avogadro's number 96.485 kC/mol; it is the amount of
electricity that reduces one equivalent weight at cathode and reduces at anode
The Nernst equation calculates electrode potentials for concentrations and partial pressures other than
standard values; E = E0 - (2.303*R*T)/(n*F)*log(Q) = E0 - (0.0592*T)/n*log([Red]y/[Ox]x) ;
In electrolytic cells external electricity causes nonspontaneous reactions by electrolysis.
In voltaic cells (galvanic cells) spontaneous chemical reactions produce electricity.
Electrodes are surfaces upon which oxidation (anode) or reduction (cathode) half reaction occurs.
Faraday's Law of Electrolysis states that the amount that oxidizes or reduces at each electrode is directly
proportional to amount of electricity that passes through cell.
In a standard cell, all species are in thermodynamic standard states (1 M , 1 atm).
The Standard Hydrogen Electrode (SHE) is a reference electrode relative to which electric potentials are
measured as reduction at 25 C; if Eo > 0 reduction occurs more readily than 2H+ to H2
pH = (E+E(cal))/(-59.16 mV)
Wien Displacement Law
The Stefan-Boltzmann law states that the energy density of the electromagnetic field varies with fourth
power of temperature.
The Rayleigh-Jeans law uses the equipartition principle to calculate the average energy of each oscillator;
predicts infinite energy density at short wavelengths.
The Planck Distribution quantizes energy.
The Einstein formula relates heat capacity to frequency.
In the photoelectric effect, electrons are ejected from metals when exposed to UV radiation.
The deBroglie relation states that particles with high linear momentum have short wavelength.
The Davisson-Germer experiment shows particles have wave-like properties.
Schrodinger's equation finds wavefunction of particle.
The Born interprestion squares the wavefunction to get probability distribution.
Heisenberg's uncertainty principle states it is impossible to known precisely both the momentum and
position of a particle.
Gaussian function is of the form e-x*x
Rydberg combined the Balmer series (visible), Lyman series (UV), and Paschen series (infrared) about
The Ritz combination principle states that the wavenumber of any spectral line is the difference between
the two terms.
The Bohr frequency condition states that an atom's energy change is carried away by a photon of frequency
The Bohr radius is 52.9177 pm.
Quantum numbers: primary n (main energy level, 1,2,3...), subsidary or azimuthal l (shape of region, 0..n-1
= s,p,d,f,etc), magnetic ml (spatial orientation -l..l orbitals), spin ms (1/2 or -1/2)
The Aufbau Principle states that electrons added into orbitals in way giving lowest total energy.
The Pauli Exclusion Principle states that no two electrons in atom have same 4 quantum numbers.
Hund's Rule states that electrons mus toccupy all orbitals of a sublevel before pairing.
The Hartree-Fock self-consistent field procedure finds numerical solutions to electron-electron interaction
terms of Schrodinger's equation.
Ionization energy is the energy needed to remove an electron.
Signal splitting multiplicity (doublet, etc.) is one more than the number of non-equivalent hydrogen
neighbors within three sigma bonds (from spin-spin coupling); induced field of electrons shields protons
from external field.
The Clebsch-Gordon series defines the total orbital angular momentum quantum number L.
The Zeeman effect is the modification of an atomic spectrum by the application of a strong magnetic field.
The Born-Oppenheimer approximation assumes nuclei is stationary and electrons move around.
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory (VSEPR) describes formation of hybrid orbitals.
If bonds+electron pairs = 2 (linear, sp, 180), 3 (trigonal planar, sp2, 120), 4 (tetrahedral, sp3, 109.5),
5 (trigonal bipyramidal, sp3d or dsp3, 90,120,180), 6 (octahedral, sp3d2 or d2sp3, 90,180)
In a polar covalent bond, electrons are shared unequally; creates dipole.
In a sigma bond there is head on overlap; all single bonds are sigma.
In a pi bond, there is side on overlap; may include unhybridized p orbital.
A molecular orbital is an orbital resulting from overlap and mixing of atomic orbitals on different atoms;
belongs to molecule as whole
An antibonding orbital is a molecular orbital higher in energy than any of atomic orbitals from which it is
derived; lends stability when populated; marked with asterick
Nonbonding orbitals are orbitals derived only from an atomic orbital of one atom; lends no stability
Delocalization is the formation of set of molecular orbits that extend over more than two atoms
Nodal planes are the regions of zero probability of finding electrons
The variation principle states that if an arbitrary wavefunction is used to calculate energy, the value is never
less than the true energy.
Walsh diagrams show the variation of orbital energy with molecular geometry.
The Huckel approximations (overlap integrals and resonance integrals between non-neighbors are zero and remaining
resonance integrals are equal) allow calculation of molecular orbital energy levels.
Bonding HUMO (highest occupied molecular orbital) and antibonding LUMO (lowest unoccupied
Conjugated systems are stabilized by delocalization energy.
Semiconductor conductivity increases with temperature; conductor decreases with temperature.
Group theory is the discussion of symmetry.
Point groups, space groups, identity, n-fold rotation, reflection; Schoenflies and Hermann-Mauguin
(crystal) notations for symmetry elements.
Character tables characterize the symmetry types possible in a point group.
Emission spectroscopy measures change in molecule from high to low energy state, emitting excess energy
Absorption spectroscopy monitors net absorption of nearly monochromatic incident radiation.
Michelson interferometer in Fourier transform machine analyses the frequencies.
Elements of spectroscopy include radiation source, dispersing element, FT technique, detectors, and the
Raman spectroscopy examines frequencies present in radiation scattered by molecules, low-frequency
Stokes and high frequency anti-Stokes; resonance and coherent anti-Stokes variations of Raman.
Beer-Lambert law states that absorbance equals extinction coefficient times concentration times column
The Stark effect states that the energy of a state depends on the square of the permanent electric dipole
moment; Stark modulation.
Molecules are modeled as rigid rotors (spherical, symmetrical, linear, or asymmetric), bodies that do not
distort under the stress of rotation.
The Morse potential energy curve reproduces the general shape of a molecular potential energy curve.
Birge-Sponer plots may be used to determine dissociation energy.
Tumbling is the random changing of orientation of a molecule.
The exclusion rule states that no modes of a symmetrical molecule can be both infrared and Raman active.
The Franck-Condon Principle states that electronic transitions take place much faster than nuclei can
respond since nuclei are so much more massive.
The Laporte selection rule states that the only allowed transitions are those that are accompanied by a
change of parity.
In fluorescence, radiation emission ceases immediately but in phosphorescence it may continue after the
exciting radiation is extinguished.
Jablonski diagrams show the relative positions of the electronic energy levels of a molecule.
Laser light is coherent (in step).
The active medium of a solid-state laser is a single crystal or a glass (including Maiman's first ruby laser
and neodymium lasers).
Gas lasers include He-Ne, Ar ion, Kr ion, CO2.
Other lasers include chemical, exciplex (combo of two atoms surviving in an excited state), dye, light-
emitting diodes, and semiconductors.
Photoelectron spectroscopy finds orbital energies by measuring ionization energies when electrons are
ejected from different orbitals.
Koopman's theorem states that ionization energy equals orbital energy of ejected electron.
Shielding of nuclei decreases chemical shift in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
Observed shielding constant is sum of local (from Lamb formula), neighbor (number of non-equivalent
adjacent hydrogens), and solvent contributions.
The splitting of resonances into individual lines is the fine structure of the spectrum.
The Karplus equation defines the coupling constant.
Fermi contact interactions occur when s-orbital electrons come very close to the nucleus.
Magnetically equivalent nuclei are chemically equivalent and have identical spin-spin interactions.
The nuclear Overhauser effect uses spin relaxation to enhance resonance line intensities.
Electron spin resonance studies molecules with unpaired electrons by observing the magnetic fields at
which they come into resonance with monochromatic radiation, measuring their hyperfine structure.
The Boltzmann distribution can be written in terms of the molecular partition function, which can be used
to calculate the proportion of molecules in different states.
The Boltzmann formula states that entropy is directly proportional to the log of the weight of the most
probable configuration of the system.
The canonical ensemble is an imaginary collection of replications of a system in thermal contact with a
The Sackur-Tetrode equation gives the entropy of a monatomic gas.
The internal energy with and entropy of a system may be calculated from its canonical partition function.
Diffraction is the interference caused by an object in the path of waves.
Crystals consist of repeating unit cells; 7 systems include cubic, tetragonal, orthorhombic, monoclinic,
triclinic, hexagonal, and rhombohedral.
The Miller indices are the reciprocals of intersection distances in a lattice.
Bragg's law states that a bright reflection should occur when two times the distance times the sine of the
glancing angle is an integral multiple of the wavelength.
Von Laue and Debye - Scherrer used X-rays with crystals.
The Wierl equation calculates the angular variation of the total intensity by summing the contributions from
The polarization of a sample is the electric dipole moment density, and a dielectric is a polarizable,
Differences in atomic radii of overlapping atoms causes homopolar contribution to the dipole moment.
Induced dipole moments are proportional to the field strength.
The relative permittivity is also called the dielectric constant and is the square of the refractive index,
which is the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed in the medium.
The Clausius-Mossotti equation assumes no permanent dipole moment, simplifying the Debye equation for
The Keesom interaction is the interaction of two rotating molecules.
The London formula approximates the interaction energy in an induced dipole - induced dipole dispersion
The Lennard-Jones formula is a specific case of the Mie formula, which estimates the potential energy from
repulsions and attractions.
The magnetic flux density is related to the applied field strength and the magnetization.
If the molar magnetic susceptibility is positive, the material is paramagnetic; if negative, diamagnetic.
The Curie law defines the molar magnetic susceptibility, which is measured by a Gouy balance or a super-
conducting quantum interference device (SQUID).
At Curie temperature, spins may align making ferromagnetic transition, and at Neel temperature, spins may
alternate to antiferromagnetic phase.
Monodisperse molecules have a single, definite molar mass.
Solutions are virtually ideal at Flory theta temperature.
Donnan equilibrium is the equilibrium distribution of ions in two compartments in contact through a
semipermeable membrane, one with a polyelectrolyte (strings of acids or bases)
Sedimentation is the fall of heavy particles due to gravity.
The Stokes-Einstein relation states that the frictional cofficient is directly proportional to temperature and
indirectly to the diffusion coefficient.
In electrophoresis, charged macromolecules move due to an electric field, as in through a cross-linked
polyacrylamide gel (gel electrophoresis).
Viscosity is often measured by Ostwald or rotating drum viscometers.
Rayleigh scattering is the scattering by particles with diameters much smaller than the wavelength of the
The Corey-Pauling rules describe the secondary structure of proteins, which may form alpha helices, beta
pleated sheets, or random coils.
Ramachandran plots contours of the potential energy of an entire molecule.
Colloids are purified by (electro)dialysis.
Micelles form above the Krafft temperature and may form orderly lyotropic mesomorphs.
Coagulation is the blending together of distinct particles into large particles.
The Schulze-Hardy rule states that hydrophobic colloids are flocculated (aggregation of particles)
efficiently by ions of high charge numdber and opposite charge type.
One molecule thick monolayers transferred to solid supports are Langmuir-Blodgett films.
Graham's law of effusion states that the rate of effusion is inversely proportional to the square root of the
Fick's first law of diffusion states that the flux of matter is proportional to the concentration gradient.
Newtonian flow is a series of layers moving past one another.
Diffusion equals one-third the product of wavelength and mean speed for a perfect gas, and viscosity equals
one-third the product of the molar mass, wavelength, mean speed, and molar concentration.
Monte Carlo methods are used to measure the change in total potential energy of particles moved over
small but random distances in a box.
The conductance (in siemens) of a sample equals its conductivity constant times its cross-sectional area
divided by its length.
Kohlrausch's law states that at low concentrations the molar conductivities of strong electrolytes vary
linearly with the square root of the concentration.
The Grotthuss mechanism describes the motion of a proton involving the rearrangement of bonds in a
group of water molecules.
The transport number is the fraction of total current carried by the ions of a given type.
The Debye-Huckel-Onsager theory quantifies electrophoretic effects.
The Green-Kubo relation expresses a transport property in term sof teh fluctuations in microscopic
properties of a system.
The Einstein relation links the molar conductivity of an electrolyte to the diffusion coefficients of its ions.
The Nernst-Einstein equation determines ionic diffusion coefficients from conductivity measurements;
The Einstein-Smoluchowski equation states that the diffusion constant equals the square of the step length
of a one-dimensional random walk divided by twice the time.
Reaction progress may be monitored using real-time, quenching, flow, stopped-flow, and flash photolysis
The reaction order is the sum of the orders for each component.
Reaction orders (from integrated rate laws):
Zero rate=k [A] = [A]0 - akt t1/2 = [A]0/(2*a*k)
ln([A]0/[A]) = akt
t1/2 = ln(2)/ak
Second rate=k[A]2 1/[A] - 1/[A]0 = akt t1/2 = 1/(ak[A]0)
Half-life decay: t1/2 = ln(2)/k
The Arrhenius equation relates rate constant to activation energy, temperature, and collision frequency;
k = Ae-Ea/RT
The steady-state approximation assumes that after an initial induction period and the major part of the
reaction, the rates of change of concentration of all reaction intermediates are negligibly small.
In the Michaelis-Menten mechanism of enzyme action, the rate depends on enzyme concentration even
though it undergoes no net change; E + S = ES --> P + E
A Lineweaver-Burk plot of the reciprocal of the reaction rate against the reciprocal of the substrate
concentration in a Michaelis-Menten mechanism gives the rate of the second step and the
The Lindemann-Hinshelwood mechanism describes unimolecular reactions.
The Rice-Herzfeld mechanism describes chain reactions.
The Lotka-Volterra mechanism describes oscillating reactions at steady-state.
Oscillating reactions, such as the brusselator and the oregonator, must be far from equilibrium, have
autocatalytic steps, and be able to exist in two steady states (bistability).
The Auger effect is the emission of a second electron after high-energy radiation has expelled another.
Adsorption is the attachment of particles to a surface.
In scanning tunnelling microscopy, a platinum-rhodium or tungsten needle is scanned across the surface of
a conducting solid.
In atomic force microscopy, a sharpened stylus attached to a beam is scanned across the surface.
In physisorption, there is a van der Waals interaction between the adsorbate and substrate.
In chemisorption, molecules stick to the surface by forming a chemical bond.
In accommodation, a molecule bouncing on the surface will lose its energy and eventually adsorb to it.
The BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) isotherm deals with multilayer adsorption.
The Temkin isotherm supposes adsorption enthalpy changes linearly with pressure; the Freundlich isotherm
In the Eley-Rideal mechanism of a surface-catalysed reaction, a gas-phase molecule collides with another
molecule already adsorbed on the surface.
Current density is the charge flux through a region.
The interface at an electrode can be modeled as an electrical double layer, including Helmholtz and Gouy-
Chapman, and combined Stern model.
The surface potential is the difference between the Volta (outer) and Galvani (inner) potentials.
The Butler-Volmer equation relates the current density to the Galvani potential difference.
Voltammetry measures the current as the potential of the electrode is changed to study the kinetics of
electrode processes, including linear-sweep, differential pulse, and cyclic methods.
Primary voltaic cells cannot be recharged; secondary voltaic cells (including fuel cells) may be.
Corrosion is a redox process by which metals are oxidized by oxygen in the presence of moisture.
Galvanizing is the coating of an iron object with zinc to prevent corrosion.