Important European Leaders





               1925 - 1939 Zog I : originally Ahmed Bey Zogu; became president after defeating ousting liberal

                              Noli; Albania was a virtual protectorate of Italy, which invaded in 1939

               1943 - 1985 Enver Hoxha : formed Albanian Communist Party; broke with USSR after it

                              Renounced Stalism in 1961





               1998 - 2008 Robert Kocharyan; Prime Minister Vazgen Sargsyan was killed in Parliament in 1999





               1835 - 1848 Ferdinand I : controlled by von Metternich; abdicated after December 1848 revolution

               1848 - 1916 Francis Joseph : established Austria-Hungary dual monarchy in 1867; nephew Francis

                              Ferdinand assassinated by Serbian Princip; started WWI

               1916 - 1918 Charles I : Austria-Hungary emperor during WWI; supported France in secret letter

                               about Alsace-Lorraine; twice tried to regain Hungarian throne in 1921; exiled to Madeira

               1986 - 1992 Kurt Waldheim : ambassador to Canada; UN secretary-general 1972-1981; elected

                              Austrian president in 1986 despite possible Nazi war crimes





               1994 - ? Aleksandr Lukashenko : authoritarian





               1831 - 1865 Leopold I : married Charlotte Augusta, daughter of British George IV; first monarch

                              of Belgium after separation from Netherlands in 1831; signed treaty assuring Belgian neutrality

               1865 - 1909 Leopold II : established association to develop central Africa; financed Henry

                              Stanley's exploration of Zaire River; given Congo Free State at Berlin Conference 1885; annexed

                              Belgian Congo 1908; forced to institute reforms

               1909 - 1934 Albert I : warned France of German war plans and announced Belgian neutrality;

                              when Germans invaded Belgium he undertook delaying actions

               1934 - 1951 Leopold III : quickly surrendered to Germany; suspected of treason; exonerated in

                              1946 and won referendum permitting return; abdicated 1951

               1951 - 1993 Baudouin

               1993 - 2013 Albert II : brother of Baudouin

               2013 - ? Philippe





               852 - 889 Boris I : forced by Byzantine Michael III to adopt Christianity; retired to monastery but

                              later deposed his corrupt son Vladimir, replacing him with Simeon

               900s Simeon : Cyril and Methodius evangelized in Bulgaria

               1100s Asen and Peter : brothers freed Bulgaria from Ottoman Empire

               1908 - 1918 Ferdinand I : freed Bulgaria from Ottoman Empire; lost Second Balkan War and WWI

               1918 - 1943 Boris III : joined Germany in WWII but wouldn't fight USSR; assassinated by

                              German agents

               1954 - 1989 Todor Zhivkov : Communist; ally of USSR; deposed by coup

               1997 - 2002 Petar Stoyanov : former king Simeon II was elected prime minister in 2001



Byzantine Empire


               364 - 378 Valens : fought Visigoths; lost Battle of Adrianople near Edirne

               378 - 395 Theodosius I the Great : last to rule a united Roman Empire; orthodox Christian;

                              persecuted Arians

               527 - 565 Justinian I the Great : ruled with wife Theodora; completed codification of Roman law;

                              General Belisarius crushed unrest; defeated Vandals and Ostrogoths; built Hagia Sophia

                              (Church of the Holy Wisdom); Justinian Code

               867 - 886 Basil I : founded Macedonian dynasty; ruled with Michael III whom he murdered;

                              restored scholar Photius

               976 - 1025 Basil II : conquered Armenai and Bulgaria; named Bulgaroctonos (Slayer of Bulgars)

               1081 - 1118 Alexius I Comnenus : with Venetians fought Norman invaders under Robert

                              Guiscard; defeated Turkic Pechenegs; regained Anatolia from Seljuk Turks from First Crusade;

                              dispute with Bohemond in Crusade; daughter Anna Comnena wrote biography Alexiad

               1261 - 1282 Michael VIII Palaeologus : restored Greek rule; took Constantinople from Latins;

                              fought King Charles I of the Two Sicilies; fomented plot by Sicilian Vespers

               1449 - 1453 Constanine XI Paleaeologus : last Byzantine emperor; empire reduced to city of

                              Constantinople by Ottomans; Muhammad II took the city (defended only by a few hundred

                              Greeks and Genoese)



Czechoslovakia / Czech Republic / Slovakia


               1968 - 1969 Alexander Dubcek : protege of Antonin Novotny; initiated reforms of 1968 Prague

                              Spring but expelled from Communist Party when Warsaw Pact forces invaded

               1969 - 1987 Gustav Husak : instituted "nomalization", reversing Dubcek's reforms

               1989 - 2003 Vaclav Havel : playwright (The Garden Party, The Memorandum); founded Charter

                              77 Movement; led protests that toppled Communism; elected Czechoslovakian president

                              1989 and Czech president 1993

               1999 - 2004 Rudolf Schuster : president of Slovakia





               1513 - 1523 Christian II : claimed Swedish throne under Union of Kalmar and captured

                              Stockholm in 1523; executed many Swedish nobles and became known as The Cruel; Gustav

                              Vasa rebelled and took crown; uncle Frederick I elected Danish king; supported by HRE

                              Charles V but captured and imprisoned for 27 years

               1808 - 1839 Frederick VI : allied with Napoleon; lost Norway to Sweden in Treaty of Kiel

               1839 - 1848 Christian VIII : king of Norway in 1814 but defeated by Swedish Charles XIII;

                              became Danish king 1839; proclaimed Schleswig and Holstein united to Denmark

               1848 - 1863 Frederick VII : last of Oldenburg dynasty

               1863 - 1906 Christian IX : lost Schleswig-Holstein to Prussia and Austria under Treaty of Vienna;

                              liberals gained control of Rigsdag; called Grandfather of Europe because daughters married

                              English Edward VII and Russian Alexander III and son became King George I of Greece

               1912 - 1947 Christian X : broadened suffrage; sold Danish West Indies to US; allowed Iceland

                              independence; joined League of Nations; obtained North Schleswig from Germany; symbol of

                              resistance during German occupation (possibly wore Star of David)

               1947 - 1972 Frederick IX

               1972 - ? Margrethe II : first queen in over 550 years, allowed by 1953 succession law





               1992-2001 Lennart Meri






               481 - 511 Clovis I : united northern Salian and southern Ripuarian Franks; capital at Soissons then

                              Paris; converted to Christianity; defeated Alamanni Germans and Visigoths

               715 - 741 Charles Martel : ruler of Austrasia; "the hammer"; son of Pepin of Herstal; defeated

                              Muslims in 732 at Poitiers; killed Abd-ar-Rahman; grandfather of Charlemagne

               743 - 751 Childeric III : last Merovingian


               751 - 768 Pepin the Short : crowned by Pope Stephen II; ceded Donation of Pepin; the foundation

                              of the Papal States; acquired Aquitaine; father of Charlemagne

               768 - 814 Charlemagne : born in Aachen; brother Crloman; crowned by Pope Leo III in St. Peter's

                              Basilica on Christmas 800; gathered scholars including Alcuin of York; Viking invasions

               814 - 840 Louis I the Pious : son Pepin died; divided succession among sons Charles II the Bald;

                              Louis II the German; and Lothair I in Treaty of Verdun 843

               840 - 877 Charles I the Bald : mother Judith of Bavaria; received West Frankish Kingdom in

                              Treaty of Verdun; Viking raids; crowned by Pope John VIII

               884 - 887 Charles II the Fat : Charles III of Holy Roman Empire; deposed by nephew Arnulf;

                              Frankish Empire dissolution

               898 - 922 Charles III the Simple : ceded much of Normandy to Vikings; imprisoned in Peronne

               986 - 987 Louis V : last Carolingian


               987 - 996 Hugh Capet : vassals elected him over Charles duke of Lorraine

               996 - 1031 Robert II the Pious : educated by Gerbert (who became Pope Sylvester II);

                              excommunicated by Pope Gregory V for marriage to cousin Bertha of Burgundy

               1031 - 1060 Henry I : helped then opposed William the Conquerer

               1108 - 1137 Louis VI the Fat : fought Henry I of England and Henry V of Holy Roman Empire;

                              helped peasants

               1137 - 1180 Louis VII the Young : married Eleanor of Aquitaine; led Second Crusade with

                              Conrad III of Germany; marriage annulled and Eleanor married Henry II of England; lost


               1180 - 1223 Philip II Augustus : fought Richard I and John I of England; defeated European

                              powers at Battle of Bouvines in 1214; fixed capital at Paris and improved city

               1223 - 1226 Louis VIII : offered English crown by barons who opposed John but defeated at

                              Lincoln; participated in crusades against Albigenses (Cathars)

               1226 - 1270 Saint Louis IX : went on Seventh Crusade but lost in Egypt in 1250; signed Treaty of

                              Corbeil with Aragon in 1258; signed Treaty of Paris with English Henry III; died on crusade

                              in Tunis

               1285 - 1314 Philip IV the Fair : Pope Boniface VIII issued Unam Sanctam bull against him in

                              1302 for making clergy pay taxes; obtained election of Clement V as pope who moved to

                              Avignon beginning Babylonian Captivity (until 1377); arrested Jacques de Molay of Knights

                              Templar and burned many at the stake

               1317 - 1322 Philip V the Tall : frequently convoked the Estates General; fined Jews

               1322 - 1328 Charles IV the Fair : helped sister Isabella dethrone husband Edward II of England;

                              increased taxes; last Capetian


               1328 - 1350 Philip VI : crushed revolt in Flanders; began Hundred Years War; lost at Sluis

                              (Netherlands 1340); Crecy (France 1346); and Calais (France 1347); made truce with Edward III;

                              plague began in France in 1347

               1350 - 1364 John II the Good : captured by Edward the Black Prince at Poitiers in 1356; tried to

                              raise ransom under Peace of Bretigny but was unsuccessful so was reimprisoned

               1364 - 1380 Charles V the Wise : served as regent when John II was imprisoned; faced Jacquerie

                              peasant revolt and insurrection of Paris under Etienne Marcel; successful in war vs. England;

                              built Bastille; founded first French royal library

               1380 - 1422 Charles VI : became insane in 1392; civil wars between Armagnacs of Orleans and

                              Burgundians; England won at Agincourt in 1415; England imposed Treaty of Troyes giving

                              Henry V succession to French throne

               1422 - 1461 Charles VII : ruled southern France while England controlled northern France;

                              regained English possessions

               1461 - 1483 Louis XI : rebelled against Charles VII in 1440 but pardoned; rival Charles the Bold

               1483 - 1498 Charles VIII : gained Brittany by marrying Anne of Brittany; occupied Naples in

                              1495 but defeated by Italy

               1498 - 1515 Louis XII : rebelled against Charles VIII; known as Father of the People; mild rule;

                              invaded Italy

               1515 - 1547 Francis I : lost election for Holy Roman Emperor to Charles V of Hapsburg; lost and

                              captured in Italy but ransomed; sold judicial and financial offices

               1547 - 1559 Henry II : married Catherine de Medicis; persecuted Huguenots; fought Charles V;

                              won Calais and Gines from England; lost to Philip II of Spain at St. Quentin Picardy; gave up

                              Italian possessions in Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis

               1559 - 1560 Frances II : married Mary queen of Scots; dominated by Francois duke of Guise and

                              Cardinal Charles of Lorraine

               1560 - 1574 Charles IX : persuaded by mom Catherine de Medicis to approve St. Bartholomew's

                              Day Massacre in 1572 vs. Huguenots

               1574 - 1589 Henry III : initially opposed but then accepted Huguenot Henry of Navarre as

                              successor; last Valois


               1589 - 1610 Henry IV : raised by Calvinist mm Jeanne d'Albret; married Charles IX/s sister

                              Margaret of Valois; converted to Catholicism but then converted back; issued Edict of Nantes

                              in 1610

               1610 - 1643 Louis XIII : mom Marie de Medicis served as regent until 1617; married Anne of

                              Austria (daughter of Spanish Philip III); dominated by Cardinal Richelieu; entered Thirty Year's

                              War on side of Protestants and Sweden

               1643 - 1715 Louis XIV the Sun King : longest reign in European history; mom Anne of Austria

                              and Cardinal Jules Mazarin ruled as regent; Fronde ("slingshot") rebellions from 1648 to 1653;

                              married Spanish cousin Marie Therese; built palace at Versailles; revoked Edict of Nantes in 1685

                              leading to Camisard's revolt; invaded Spanish Netherlands; claimed Palatinate in the Rhineland;

                              grandson Philip became Spanish king leading to War of Spanish Succession

               1715 - 1774 Louis XV : great-grandson of Louis XIV; Philippe II duc d'Orleans ruled as regent;

                              Prime Minister Andre Hercule; gained Lorraine in War of Polish Succession (1733-1735); indecisive

                              War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748); lost overseas possessions to British in Seven Years' War


               1774 - 1792 Louis XVI : called Estates-General in 1788 for first time in 175 years; imprisoned in

                              Tuileries; Bastille stormed July 14 1789; Legislative Assembly replaced Constituent

                              Assembly and was dominated by Girondists and declared war on Austria; Montagnards under

                              Georges Jacques Danton took control of Paris; guillotined January 21 1793

               1793 - 1795 Louis XVII : ruled in name only; many people later claimed to be the "Lost Dauphin"

French Revolution

               1792 - 1795 National Convention : abolished monarchy; guillotined Louis XVI; Vendee peasants

                              rebelled against conscription; established Committee of Public Safety; Maximilien Robespierre,

                              leader of the Jacobins, led Reign of Terror; crushed Royalist and Girondist (moderates, Roland,

                              Corday stabbed Marat) insurrections; Robespierre beheaded Danton; Thermidoreans beheaded


               1795 - 1799 The Directory : five members; launched Napoleonic Wars; 1799 coup

               1799 - 1804 The Consulate : General Napoleon Bonaparte assumed dictatorial powers

First Empire

               1804 - 1815 Napoleon I Bonaparte : conquered Italy and Egypt as French general; married

                              Josephine de Beauharnais in 1796; gained dictatorial powers 1799; defeated Austria at Marengo

                              1800; settled quarrel with Pope 1801; Charles Talleyrand was foreign minister; defeated Austria

                              and Russia at Austerlitz in 1805; defeated Prussia at Jena Auerstadt in 1806; defeated Russia at

                              Friedland; allied with Czar Alexander I; seized Portugal; made brother Joseph king of Spain in 1808

                              causing Peninsular War; defeated Austria at Wagram 1809; married Hapsburg Marie Louise in 1810;

                              abolished feudalism and serfdom and granted bills of rights; invaded Russia in 1812 but retreated;

                              exiled to Elba in 1814; escaped but lost at Waterloo 1815; exiled to St. Helena; French law still Code



               1815 - 1824 Louis XVIII : brother of Louis XVI; lived in exile until Napoleon's exile; influenced

                              by liberal minister Elie Decazes; later dominated by reactionary Ultras

               1824 - 1830 Charles X : a leader of the emigres during Revolution; headed reactionary Ultras;

                              favoritism to Catholics led to July 1830 revolution; exiled in Britain

               1830 - 1848 Louis Philippe : joined Jacobins 1790; fled to Switzerland; proclaimed king by

                              Chamber of Deputies in 1830; deposed by Revolution of 1848 and fled to Britain

Second Republic and Second Empire

               1848 - 1870 Napoleon III :president 1848 - 1852; emperor 1852 - 1870; twice tried to overthrow

                              Louis Philippe; elected president 1848 but Royalist won legislative elections the next year; became

                              emperor following a coup; began liberal reforms in 1860; rebuilt Paris under direction of Baron

                              Haussmann; lost Franco-Prussian War 1870-1871

Third Republic

               1870 - 1871 Louis Jules Trouchu

               1871 - 1873 Adolphe Thiers : wrote for National newspaper which led to 1830 revolution; crushed

                              Commune of Paris rebellion in 1871               

               1879 - 1887 Jules Grevy

               1887 - 1894 Marie Francois Sadi Carnot : assassinated by anarchist

               1932 - 1940 Albert Lebrun : last president of Third Republic

Vichy Government

               1940 - 1944 Henri Petain : WWI hero; at age 84 headed pro-German French government

Fourth Republic

               1946 Georges Bidault : led French Resistance; first president of Fourth Republic

               1947 - 1953 Vincent Auriol

               1953 - 1958 Rene Coty

Fifth Republic

               1958 - 1969 Charles De Gaulle : headed French national committee in exile in 1940; provisional

                              premier 1945 - 1946; appointed by National Assembly to draft new constitution in 1958; negotiated

                              Algerian independence; joined EU; resolved widespread strikes in 1968

               1969 - 1974 Georges Pompidou : supported Britain's entry into EU

               1974 - 1981 Valery Giscard d'Estaing : conservative like De Gaulle and Pompidou

               1981 - 1995 Francois Mitterrand : first Socialist President; nationalized industries; reversed many

                              policies by 1982; died of prostate cancer

               1995 - 2007 Jacques Chirac : Gaullist; Paris mayor 1977 - 1995; his RPR and Giscard's Union for

                              French Democracy gained majority in National Assembly in 1986 and he was appointed prime minister

                              for domestic affairs in 1986 under "cohabitation" arrangement; privatized businesses

               2007 - 2012 Nicolas Sarkozy : Union for a Popular Movement party; married Carla Bruni

               2012 - 2017 Francois Hollande : Socialist; 2015 attacks in Paris including Bataclan Theater

               2017 - ? Emmanuel Macron





               1992-2003 Eduard Shevardnadze : survived coup and two assassination attempts



Germanic Tribes



               300s Ermanaric : established kingdom from Baltic to Black Sea

               475 - 493 Odoacer : led uprising of Germanic troops in the Roman army against Romulus

                              Augustulus, gaining control of the empire; made capital at Ravenna; defeated and killed by

                              Ostrogoth Theodoric


               395 - 410 Alaric I : invaded Greece and Italy; pillaged Rome in 410

               410 - 415 Ataulf : brother of Alaric I; invaded Spain

               415 - 418 Wallia : conquered Spain and southern Gaul; made capital at Toulouse

               418 - 451 Theodoric I : died fighting the Huns with Rome at Chalons

               420 - 484 Euric : king of the Spanish Visigoths

               484 - 507 Alaric II : issued law code Breviary of Alaric; killed by Clovis I at Vouille


               474 - 526 Theodoric : fought Byzantine ruler Zeno; invaded Italy and slew Odoacer and

                              controlled Western Roman Empire


               428 - 477 Gaiseric : defeated Roman general Bonifacus in Africa; captured Carthage and made it

                              his capital; pillaged Rome after Valentinian III's death in 455





Second Reich

               1861 - 1888 William I : chief minister Otto von Bismarck and he unified Germany under Prussia;

                              fought Franco-Prussian War

               1888 - 1888 Frederick III : led Prussians against Austria at Sadowa in Seven Weeks War 1866

               1888 - 1918 William II : dismissed Otto von Bismarck; formed Triple Alliance with Italy and

                              Austria; fought World War I; abdicated to Netherlands

Weimer Republic

               1919 - 1925 Friedrich Ebert : last German chancellor; headed new republic; suppressed leftist

                              Spartacists; elected president under Weimer constitution; France occupied Ruhr

               1925 - 1934 Paul von Hindenburg : won at Tannenberg with Ludendorff; established system of

                              trenches; elected president in 1925 and in 1932 over Hitler whom he appointed chancellor

               1934 - 1945 Adolf Hitler : dictator; fought World War II; wrote Menin Kampf; initiated Holocost;

                              Gestapo secret police; 1936 sent troops to Rhineland; supported Nationalist Franco; took

                              Austria 1938; Czechoslovakia 1939; committed suicide 1945

West Germany

               1949 - 1963 Konrad Adenauer : mayor of Cologne; founded Christian Democratic Union; joined

                              NATO and EU

               1963 - 1966 Ludwig Erhard : led German economic miracle; member of CDU

               1966 - 1969 Kurt Georg Kiesinger : formed grand coalition of CDU with Social Democrats

               1969 - 1974 Willy Brandt : mayor West Berlin 1957-66; Social Democrat; won 1971 Nobel

               1974 - 1982 Helmut Schmidt : Social Democrat; he and D'Estaing led European Community

               1982 - 1990 Helmut Kohl : reunified Germany October 1990; elected to four terms as chancellor

East Germany

               1946 - 1971 Walter Ulbricht : Social Unity Party

               1971 - 1989 Erich Honecker : as head of security forces built Berlin Wall 1961; resisted political reforms

               1989 - 1990 Egon Krenz

Reunited Germany

               1990 - 1998 Helmut Kohl : West German chancellor elected chancellor of reunited Germany

               1998 - 2005 Gerhard Schroder : Social Democratic Party; coalition with Green Parties; closed

                              nuclear power plants

               2005 - ? Angela Merkel; Christian Democratic Union; doctorate in physical chemistry; first female

                              Chancellor of Germany; led EU management of financial crisis



Great Britain


Saxons and Danes

               829 - 839 Egbert : king of Wessex; given title of Bretwalda ("ruler of the British"); defeated Danes

                              and Welsh at Hingston Down in Cornwall

               839 - 858 Ethelwulf : son of Egbert

               866 - 871 Ethelred I : imposed Danegeld tax; fought Danes

               871 - 899 Alfred the Great : captured London 886; began court school and invited scholars

                              including Welsh Asser and Irish John Scotus Erigena; promulgated laws which did not

                              distinguish Welsh and English

               899 - 924 Edward the Elder : defeated Danes by 918; annexed London and Oxford

               924 - 940 Athelstan the Glorious : defeated Welsh, Scottish, and Danish at Brunanburh in 937;

                              styled self as Rex totius Britanniae; translated Bible

               940 - 946 Edmund I : Viking Olaf Godfreyson seized Northumbria but Edmund later expelled

                              them; restricted blood feuds; stabbed by robber

               959 - 975 Edgar the Peaceful : made St. Dunstan archbishop of Canterbury; reformer

               975 - 978 Edward the Martyr : assassinated by stepmom Elfrida; miracles occurred at his tomb

               978 - 1016 Ethelred II the Unready : made treaty with Richard II of Normandy and married

                              Richard's sister Emma; Sweyn I the Forkbeard of Denmark invaded England in 1013;

                              called unready because of his bad counsel

               1016 - 1035 Canute II the Great : son of Sweyn I; stayed in England after becoming Danish king;

                              exiled Olaf II of Norway

               1035 - 1040 Harold I Harefoot : witenagemot royal council divided England between Harold and

                              Hardecanute but Hardecanute stayed in Denmark

               1040 - 1042 Hardecanute : last Danish king of England; left control of England to mom and

                              Godwin earl of Wessex

               1042 - 1066 Edward the Confessor : married Godwin's daughter Edith; revolt against Tostig earl

                              of Northumbria; founded Westminster Abbey

               1066 Harold II : last Saxon king of England; defeated Tostig and Norwegian Harold III but lost to

                              William Duke of Normandy at Hastings October 14 1066


               1066 - 1087 William I the Conqueror : son of Robert I of Normandy; Pope Alexander II

                              sanctioned his invasion of England; landed at Pevensey and won at Hastings 1066; crowned

                              at Westminster Abbey; invaded Malcolm III MacDuncan's Scotland 1072; fell off horse at

                              Mantes in campaign against French Philip I

               1087 - 1100 William II Rufus : defeated uncle Odo who wanted to replace him with Robert; thrice

                              invaded Normandy against brother Robert II; killed on hunting trip

               1100 - 1135 Henry I Beauclerc : defeated brother Robert II Duke of Normandy at Tinchebray


               1135 - 1154 Stephen : nephew of Henry I; usurped throne from cousin Matilda


               1154 - 1189 Henry II : son of Matilda; defeated Stephen of Blois; four of his knights murdered

                              Thomas a Becket, but was forced to do penance; replaced trial by ordeal with modern courts;

                              married Eleanor of Aquitaine

               1189 - 1199 Richard I the Lion-Hearted : given Aquitaine by mom Eleanor; went on failed Third

                              Crusade with French Philip II; fought Saladin of Egypt and Syria; captured by HRE Henry IV

                              and ransomed; made peace with brother John

               1199 - 1216 John Lackland : defeated by French Philip II in 1214; raised taxes for wars; forced by

                              barons to sign Magna Carta making him subject to the law

               1216 - 1272 Henry III : forced to accept Provisions of Oxford to share power with barons in 1258;

                              son Edward defeated barons at Evesham

               1272 - 1307 Edward I : invaded Scotland in 1296; failed to crush William Wallace revolt in 1298;

                              executed Wallace in 1305; Robert Bruce became Scottish king

               1307 - 1327 Edward II : first heir known as Prince of Wales; in 1311 barons led by Thomas Earl

                              of Lancaster established committee of lords called lords ordainers and executed Edward's

                              friend Piers Gaveston; lost to Scottish Robert Bruce in 1214; Edward and Hugh le Despenser

                              defeated Lancaster; imprisoned by barons allied with wife Isabella; murdered by captors

               1327 - 1377 Edward III : arrested mom Isabella and hanged her lover Roger de Mortimer; defeated

                              Scots; began Hundred Years' War in 1337; gained Aquitaine in Peace of Calais but lost most

                              of his French possessions in 1375 truce

               1377 - 1399 Richard II : asserted authority over Parliament with help of uncle John of Gaunt duke

                              of Lancaster; exiled but later captured by John of Gaunt's son Henry Blingbroke duke of

                              Hereford; confined in Pontefract Castle


               1399 - 1413 Henry IV Bolingbroke : exiled by cousin Richard but raised an army and defeated

                              him; suppressed rebellions by nobles, Scots, and Welsh; persecuted Lollards, followers of


               1413 - 1422 Henry V : defeated French at Agincourt 1415; became heir to French Charles VI and

                              married his daughter Catherine of Valois; brother Thomas duke of Clarence lost Normandy

                              to French

               1422 - 1471 Henry VI : nobles tried to replace him with Richard duke of York in War of Roses;

                              Richard killed in 1460 but his son Edward imprisoned Henry in Tower of London

               1461 - 1483 Edward IV : headed house of York; won Battle of Mortimer's Cross in 1461;

                              Lancastrians and Richard Neville earl of Warwick drove him into exile in 1470 but returned

                              in 1471

               1483 Edward V : power struggle between uncles Richard duke of Gloucester and Anthony

                              Woodville 2nd Earl Rivers when dad Edward IV died; confined Tower of London

               1483 - 1485 Richard III : murdered nephews Edward and Richard; slain at Bosworth Field


               1485 - 1509 Henry VII : head of Lancaster house; defeated Richard III at Bosworth Field 1485;

                              married Yorkist heiress Elizabeth to unite houses and end War of Roses

               1509 - 1547 Henry VIII : joined Holy League against France; faced riots over heavy taxes in 1525;

                              wives: Catherine of Aragon (Mary), Anne Boleyn (Elizabeth), Jane Seymour (Edward),

                              Anne of Cleves, Catherine Howard, Catherine Parr; established Church of England when

                              pope wouldn't annul marriage to Catherine of Aragon; Thomas Cranmer annulled marriage

               1547 - 1553 Edward VI : uncle Edward Seymour 1st Earl of Hertford was Lord Protector and

                              Duke of Somerset; John Dudley executed Seymour               

               1553 - 1558 Mary I Tudor : deposed Lady Jane Grey; married Spanish Philip II; lost Calais;

                              reestablished authority of pope

               1558 - 1603 Elizabeth I : imprisoned by Mary until she converted to Catholicism; reverted to

                              Protestantism when Mary died; established Church of England in Elizabethan Compromise;

                              executed Catholic cousin Mary Queen of Scots; defeated Spanish Armada in 1588; Robert

                              Devereux 2nd Earl of Essex lost to Irish and then led failed revolt against Elizabeth


               1603 - 1625 James I : only son of Mary Queen of Scots; believed in divine right of kings;

                              authorized KJV of Bible; Gunpowder Plot led by Robert Catesby and Guy Fawkes foiled

                              November 5 1605

               1625 - 1649 Charles I : born in Dunfermline; accepted Petition of Right demanding reforms in

                              exchange for funds for Thirty Years' War but dismissed Parliament; called Short Parliament

                              to quell Presbyterian Scots riots; called Long Parliament which refused funding to put down

                              Irish revolt; tried to arrest members of Parliament; civil war between Roundheads and Cavaliers;

                              Oliver Cromwell led Independents in Parliament; Rump Parliament executed Charles


               1653 - 1658 Oliver Cromwell : won Battle of Naseby against Cavaliers in English Revolution;

                              became Lord Protector of the Commonwealth; tolerated Puritans

               1658 - 1659 Richard Cromwell : resigned May 25 1659

Stuart Restored

               1660 - 1685 Charles II : routed by Cromwell in 1651 but returned in 1660, granting amnesty to

                              opponents; acquired New Netherlands in unpopular Dutch War of 1672

               1685 - 1689 James II : brother of Charles II; converted to Catholicism; deposed by Glorious

                              Revolution; lost at Battle of the Boyne in Ireland in 1690; fled to France

               1689 - 1702 William III and Mary II : Netherlands stadtholder during war with French Louis XIV;

                              married Mary daughter of James II; joined Grand Alliance; opposed Parliament's domestic


               1702 - 1714 Anne : War of Spanish Succession 1701 - 1714; united England and Scotland 1707


               1714 - 1727 George I : elector of Hannover; succeeded Queen Anne under Act of Settlement;

                              never learned English; defeated attempt to replace him with James II's son

               1727 - 1760 George II : subordinated English interests to Hannover in War of Austrian Succession

                              1740 - 1748; last monarch to fight in battle, at Battle of Dettingen in Bavaria

               1760 - 1820 George III : appointed Frederick North 2nd Earl of Gilford prime minister 1770 -

                              1782; lost American colonies; appointed William Pitt prime minister; contracted dementia

                              and son acted as regent from 1811

               1820 - 1830 George IV : extravagant; married cousin Caroline of Brunswick, whom the public

                              supported when he tried to divorce her

               1830 - 1837 William IV : liaison with Irish actress Dorothea Jordan and had 10 kids; married

                              German princess Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen; Reform Bill of 1832 passed; abolished colonial

                              slavery; reformed poor laws; Municipal Reform Act

               1837 - 1901 Victoria : longest English reign; appointed William Lamb prime minister; married

                              cousin Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha; supported Conservative Party leader Benjamin Disraeli;

                              became empress of India in 1876; opposed William Gladstone; won Boer War 1899 - 1902

Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

               1901 - 1910 Edward VII : signed Entente Cordiale in 1904 with France and a pact with Russia in

                              1907; promoted international amity and known as Edward the Peacemaker


               1910 - 1936 George V : led Britain during WWI

               1936 Edward VIII : abdicated to marry American Mrs. Wallis Warfield Simpson; given title Duke

                              of Windsor

               1936 - 1952 George VI : married Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon; visited many fronts during WWII;

                              visited Canada, US, and South Africa; India and Pakistan gained independence 1947

               1952 - ? Elizabeth II : married Prince Philip duke of Edinburgh; kids Charles, Anne, Andrew, and

                              Edward; about 40 colonies granted independence; joined EU; nationalized many industries

Prime Ministers

               1721 - 1742 Robert Walpole : Whig; supported peace and low taxes; considered first prime

                              minister but title not used until later

               1766 - 1768 William Pitt : defeated France in Seven Years' War 1756-1763; allied with Thomas

                              Pelham-Holles duke of Newcastle; distrusted by George III

               1770 - 1782 Frederick North : carried out George III's wishes to tax America even though he

                              thought it unwise; resigned 1782 after surrender to America; allied with Charles James Fox and

                              opposed William Pitt the Younger

               1783 - 1801 and 1804 - 1806 : William Pitt the Younger : negotiated trade treaty with France;

                              established colony in Australia; 1791 Canada Act established representative institutions for

                              English and French; wanted to incorporate Ireland into UK; opposed French expansion;

                              resigned over opposition to equal rights for Catholics

               1834 - 1835 and 1841 - 1846 : Robert Peel : founded Conservative Party with 1834 Tamworth

                              Mainfesto; repealed Corn Laws which limited grain imports; London police known as "Bobbies"

                              because of his Metropolitan Police Act; faced Irish potato famine; known as "Orange Peel" for

                              opposition to Catholics but later passed Catholic Emancipation

               1868 and 1874 - 1880 Benjamin Disraeli : Sephardic Jew converted to Christianity; joined

                              Conservative Party; opposed Peel's repeal of Corn Laws; purchased Suez Canal; claimed "peace

                              with honor" after Berlin Conference on Eastern Question of Ottoman Empire; proclaimed Victoria

                              Empress of India

               1868 - 1874, 1880 - 1885, 1886, and 1892 - 1994 William Gladstone : first joined Tory (renamed

                              Conservative) Party then changed to Liberal Party in 1859; established national elementary

                              education; judicial, civil, and military reforms; disestablished Anglican church in Ireland; opposed

                              annexation of South Africa; Reform Act of 1884 allowed rural people to vote; crusaded for Irish

                              home rule

               1916 - 1922 David Lloyd George : instituted social reforms for workers; participated in Treaty of

                              Versailles; introduced Home Rule Bill for Ireland which alienated Conservatives from his coalition

               1923 - 1924, 1924 - 1929, and 1935 - 1937 Stanley Baldwin : joined Conservative Party; proposed

                              protective tariff; curbed trade unions; first premier to visit overseas dominion (Canada)

               1937 - 1940 Neville Chamberlain : appeasement policy towards Germany; signed Munich Pact

                              September 1938

               1940 - 1945 and 1951 - 1955 Winston Churchill : as admiral lost Gallipoli campaign in WWI; led

                              Britain in WWII; wrote A History of the English-Speaking Peoples and won literature

                              Nobel 1953

               1945 - 1951 Clement Attlee : first Labour prime minister; nationalized iron, steel, railroads, coal,

                              and health care

               1955 - 1957 Anthony Eden : resigned after attacking Egypt which had seized the Suez Canal 1956

               1957 - 1963 Harold Macmillan : Conservative leader; visited Khrushchev in Moscow in 1959;

                              failed to admit Britain to EEC; resigned after personal scandal of War Secretary John


               1964 - 1970 and 1974 - 1976 Harold Wilson : Labour Party leader

               1970 - 1974 Edward Heath : Conservative leader; joined EC

               1976 - 1979 James Callaghan : Labour leader; allied with Liberals and Scottish Nationalist Party

               1979 - 1990 Margaret Thatcher : first woman PM; Conservative leader; defeated Argentina in

                              Falkland Islands 1982; opposed full economic integration of Britain in Europe

               1990 - 1997 John Major : Conservative leader; established dialogue with Irish Republican Army

               1997 - 2007 Tony Blair : Labour leader; youngest PM in 200 years; med with Sinn Fein leader Gerry

                              Adams; allowed Scottish parliament and Welsh assembly

               2007 - 2010 Gordon Brown : Labour

               2010 - 2016 David Cameron : Conservative; resigned after referendum leaving EU (Brexit) passed

               2016 - ? Theresa May : Conservative






               c. 632 BC Cylon : dictator

               c. 621 BC Draco : issued harsh legal code

               c. 594 BC Solon : elected archon; poet; replaced Aeropagus with a popular assembly

               c. 560 BC Pisistratus : dictator

               c. 509 BC Cleisthenes : restored democracy; instituted ostracism

               461 - 431 BC Pericles : made Athens supreme in the Delian League; built Parthenon; deposed

                              as the Peloponnesian War began

               404 - 403 BC Thirty Tyrants : puppet government set up by Sparta after winning Peloponnesian

                              War; soon deposed and democracy restored


               600s BC Lycurgus : semimythical lawgiver

               490 - 480 BC Leonidas I : fought Xerxes I (Persia) at mountain pass at Thermopylae


               359 - 336 BC Philip II : learned military skills as captive in Thebes; renamed Crenides Philippi;

                              Demosthenes warned Athens about him; became head of Amphictyonic League;

                              defeated Athens and Thebes at Chaeronea; assassinated; father of Alexander III

               336 - 323 BC Alexander III the Great : born in Pella; tutored by Aristotle; defeated Thebes

                              rebellion; defeated Darius III of Persia at Issus and Gaugamela; built Alexandria in

                              Egypt; cut Gordian knot; at his death empire was divided among "successor kings"

                              (diadochi) Antigonus I (Greece), Seleucus (Babylonia), and Ptolemy I (Egypt)

               306 - 301 BC Antigonus I Cyclops : controlled much of Asia Minor; almost reunified

                              Alexander's empire but was killed by Lysimachus of Thrace and Seleucus I at Ipsus

Modern Greece

               1827 - 1831 King Ioannis Kapodistrias : came to power after Greece won independence from

                              the Ottomans at Navarino; assassinated

               1832 - 1862 King Otto I : Bavarian Catholic; made capital at Athens; powers reduced by 1843


               1863 - 1913 King George I : Danish; established House of Gluksburg in Greece; with Prime

                              Minister Venizelos defeated Turkey in First Balkan War; assassinated

               1913 - 1917, 1920 - 1922 King Constantine I : favored Germany in WWI but Prime Minister

                              Venizelos favored Allies; forced to abdicate in favor of son Alexander; regained

                              throne when son died

               1922 - 1923, 1935 - 1941, 1946 - 1947 King George II : lost land to Turkey in Treaty of

                              Lausanne; monarchy abolished in 1922 but twice restored

               1936 - 1941 Dictator Ionnais Metaxas : restored George II; joined Allies in WWII

               1947 - 1964 King Paul I : US, following Truman Doctrine, aided anti-Communist forces in civil


               1955 - 1964 Prime Minister Konstantinos Karamanlis : leader of National Radical Union;

                              conflict in Cyprus

               1964 - 1973 King Constantine II : deposed by military, abolishing monarchy and establishing


               1964 - 1965 Prime Minister Georgies Papandreou : leader of Central Union Party; had led

                              Greek government-in-exile during WWII

               1981 - 1989, 1993 - 1996 Prime Minister Andreas Papandreou : socialist

               1996 - 2004 Prime Minister Costas Simitis



Holy Roman Empire


Carolingian Dynasty

               800 - 814 Charlemagne : king of Franks; born in Aachen; son of Pepin the Short; grandson of

                              Charles Martel; crowned by Pope Leo III in St. Peter's Basilica Christmas 800; gathered

                              scholars including Alcuin of York; 250 counts administered empire; Viking invasions began

               814 - 840 Louis I the Pious : divided empire among sons Lothair I, Louis II the German and

                              Charles II the Bald in Treaty of Verdun after Pepin of Aquitaine died

               843 - 876 Louis II the German

               876 - 887 Charles the Fat : Franklish Empire dissolved when he was deposed by Arnulf

               911 - 918 Conrad I : last Carolingian

Saxon Dynasty (First Reich)

               919 - 936 Henry I the Fowler : first Saxon German king; defeated Magyars, Wends, and Danes

               936 - 973 Otto I the Great : married Adelaide of Lombardy and became ruler of northern Italy;

                              deposed Pope John XII, replaced by Leo VIII

               973 - 983 Otto II : wife Theophano of Byzantine; captured Lorraine but returned it; defeated by

                              Greeks at Crotona in 982

               1002 - 1024 Henry II the Saint : last Saxon king of Germany; crowned by Pope Benedict VIII;

                              fought three campaigns in Italy; fought Kig Boleslaw I of Poland

Salian Dynasty

               1024 - 1039 Conrad II : king of Lombards; inherited Burgundy from Rudolf III

               1039 - 1056 Henry III the Black : appointed Pope Clement II and three more Germans

               1056 - 1106 Henry IV : won civil war against Rudolf Duke of Swabia; deposed Pope Gregory VII,

                              replaced by Clement III

               1106 - 1125 Henry V : last Salian; fought Pope Paschal II over lay investiture

House of Hohenstaufen

               1138 - 1152 Conrad III : first Hohenstaufen; king of Italy; leader in Second Crusade

               1152 - 1190 Frederick I Barbarossa : defeated by Lombard League at Legnano; led Third Crusade

                              in 1189; drowned in Calycadnus River

               1197 - 1208 Philip of Swabia : murdered in 1208

               1198 - 1215 Otto IV of Brunswick : grandson of Henry II of England; excommunicated by Pope

                              Innocent III; defeated by France at Bouvines

               1215 - 1250 Frederick II : led Fifth Crusade; fought Lombards

               1250 - 1254 Conrad IV : deposed by Pope Innocent IV; fought Henry Raspe and William of

                              Holland for German crown

Great Interregnum (1254 - 1273)


               1273 - 1291 Rudolf I of Habsburg : first Hapsburg; fought Alfonso X of Castile and Ottokar II of

                              Bohemia for German crown, ending Great Interregnum

               1298 - 1308 Albert I : lost war to Thuringia; murdered by nephew John of Swabia

               1314 - 1347 Louis IV the Bavarian : fought Frederick II the Fair and Leopold I for crown;

                              opposed by Pope John XXII

               1347 - 1378 Charles IV of Luxemburg : issued Golden Bull, establishing method of imperial


               1378 - 1400 Wenceslas : made Prague capital; supported John Huss but later fought his followers

                              in Hussite Wars

               1411 - 1437 Sigismund : wife Queen Mary of Hungary; defeated by Ottoman Bayazid I at

                              Nicopolis in Bulgaria; convoked Council of Constance; executed John Huss and fought

                              Hussite Wars

               1493 - 1519 Maximillian I : defeated Louis XI of France for Burgundy; won thrones of Hungary

                              and Bohemia for Hapsburgs; son Philip I married Joanna the Mad, establishing Hapsburgs

                              in Spain

               1519 - 1556 Charles V : 1552 Peace of Passau allowed Lutherans to exercise religion, reaffirmed

                              by 1555 Peace of Augsburg; fought France and Ottomans; ruled as Charles I of Spain

               1576 - 1612 Rudolph II : patron of Brahe and Kepler; gave religious liberties to Bohemians

               1619 - 1637 Ferdinand II : Bohemian rebels threw two of his ministers out a window

                              (Defenestration of Prague) to start Thirty Years War

               1637 - 1657 Ferdinand III : signed Peace of Westphalia, allowing rulers of each region to choose


               1711 - 1740 Charles VI : lost War of the Polish Succession

               1740 - 1780 Maria Theresa : ruled with Francis I; lost Silesia in War of the Austrian Succession;

                              joined France and Russia against Prussia in Seven Year's War; acquired Galicia from


               1780 - 1790 Joseph II : ruled in accordance with principles of the Enlightenment; freed serfs               

               1790 - 1792 Leopold II

               1792 - 1835 Francis II : last Holy Roman emperor; dissolved empire in 1806; gave Klemens von

                              Metternich control of foreign affairs; daughter Marie Louise married Napoleon; fought

                              Napoleonic Wars; regained most lost land at Congress of Vienna





               997 - 1038 Stephen I : founded Arpad dynasty; given title "Apostolic Majesty", adopted by future

                              Hungarian sovereigns, by Pope Sylvester II

               1342 - 1882 Louis I the Great : king of Hungary and Poland; fought three wars with Venice

               1515 - 1526 Louis II : fought Ottoman Suleiman; invaded by Turks

               1849 - 1849 Lajos Kossuth : briefly established independent Hungarian Republic, defeated by

                              Austrians; gave speeches in US and Britain

               1953 - 1955, 1956 Imre Nagy : allowed peasants to leave collective farms; promised free

                              elections; suppressed by Soviets; returned to power briefly in 1956 Hungarian Revolution;


               1956-1988 Janos Kadar : restored Soviet-style Communism

               2000 - 2005 Ferenc Madl





               1959 - 1973 Eamon De Valera : math teacher; led Sinn Fein rebels in 1916 Easter Rebellion; fled

                              to US; nationalist and isolationist

               1990 - 1997 Mary Robinson : nominated by Irish Labour Party; first woman president; won when

                              Brian Lenihan was involved in scandal; first president not in Fianna Fail or Fine Gael parties;

                              resigned to become UN High Commissioner for Human Rights

               1997 - 2011 Mary McAleese






               485 - ? BC Gelon; tyrant of Gela; defeated Carthage at Himera

               ? - 466 BC Hiero I : patron of the arts; supported Pindar; ousted in favor of democracy

               317 - ? BC Agathocles : restored despotic government; praised in The Prince



               1434 - 1464 Cosimo de' Medici : established Medici dominance in Florence; his line included

                              Lorenzo and Popes Leo X and Clement VII; family ruled Florence until 1737

               1464 - 1492 Lorenzo de' Medici the Magnificent : directed Medici bank and was de facto ruler of

                              Florentine republic; patronized artists including Michelangelo and Sandro Botticelli

               1494 - 1497 Girolamo Savonarola : Dominican friar; displaced Medicis with Charles VIII's

                              (France) aid; hanged as a heretic


               1262 - 1447 Visconti family; patrons of Petrarch; Ottone defeated Della Torre at Desio; last ruler

                              was Filipepo Maria

               1450 - 1535 Sforza family; patrons of Bramante and da Vinci

Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

               1266 - 1285 Charles I : son of Louis VIII, went on Sixth Crusade with Louis IX; pope gave him

                              Two Sicilies for helping fight Ghibellines; killed King Manfred; defeated revolt by Conradin

                              (last Hohenstaufen); went on failed Seventh Crusade; lost to Pedro III of Aragon

               1816 - 1825 Ferdinand I : also king of Naples as Ferdinand IV; led Naples against Napoleon

               1830 - 1859 Fredinand II Bomba : fought insurrection in 1848; bombarded rebellious cities

               1859 - 1861 Francis II : last Bourbon ruler of Naples and Sicily; invaded by Giuseppe Garibaldi in 1860

Unification of Italy

               1815 - 1861 Unification : Congress of Vienna established Italy as patchwork of kingdoms such as

                              Naples and Sicily, Papal States, and Sardinia; Sardinian Prime Minister Camillo Count di Cavour,

                              Giuseppe Mazzini, and Giuseppe Garibaldi led unification; Garibaldi expelled Francis II from

                              Naples in 1860


               1861 - 1878 Victor Emmanuel II : Sardinian king proclaimed king of united Italy at Turin in 1861;

                              won Venetia by allying with Prussia in Austro-Prussian War 1866; General Raffaele took

                              Papal States

               1878 - 1900 Humbert I : signed Triple Alliance with Austria-Hungary and Germany in 1882;

                              colonial expansion in Africa but lost to Ethiopia at Adwa; assassinated by anarchist at Monza

               1900 - 1946 Victor Emmanuel III : served in army during WWI; accepted Fascist Benito

                              Mussolini regime in 1922; recognized sovereignty of Vatican in Lateran Treaty 1929; abdicated

                              after WWII

               1946 Humbert II

Fascist Dictator

               1922 - 1943 Benito Mussolini : formed government in 1922; conquered Ethiopia and Albania;

                              aided Francisco Franco in Spanish Civil War; dismissed by Victor Emmanuel III in 1943 but

                              escued by Germans; set up puppet state in northern Italy; shot by Italians in 1945

Prime Ministers

               1945 - 1953 Alcide De Gasperi : founded Christian Democratic Party; joined NATO

               1994 - 1995, 2001 - 2006, 2008 - 2011 Silvio Berlusconi : owner of Mediaset and AC Milan football club;

                              Leader of Forza Italia and The People of Freedom parties; convicted of tax fraud



Knight Orders


               Knights Templar (Poor Knights of Christ) - founded by Hugh de Payens; rules established by Bernard of

                              Clairvaux; moved to Cyprus; established banking system; persecuted by Pope Clement V and

                              French King Philip IV

               Knights Hospitalers (Knights of St. John of Jerusalem) - founded by Gerard; rules established by Saint

                              Augustine; moved to Rhodes and later to Malta; conquered by Napoleon in 1798

               Teutonic Knights (Teutonic Knights of St. Mary's Hospital in Jerusalem) - founded by Germans; fought

                              Slavs and controlled Prussia; tried to convert Eastern Europe to Christianity; defeated by Poland

                              at Tannenberg in 1410





               2000-? Grand Duke Henri






               1815 - 1840 William I : son of William V of Orange, last stadtholder of United Netherlands; as

                              general lost to France in War of the First Coalition 1793 - 1795; first king of Belgium-Netherlands

                              created by Treaty of Paris; Belgium seceded 1830

               1840 - 1849 William II : served under General Wellesley duke of Wellington in Napoleonic Wars;

                              commanded Dutch and Belgians at Waterloo; liberalized constitution in 1848

               1849 - 1890 William III : wanted to sell Luxembourg to France but Prussia made in be

                              independent at London conference; reign of peace

               1890 - 1948 Wilhelmina : mom Emma was regent; Luxembourg terminated union with

                              Netherlands because it refused a woman ruler; married Henry duek of Mecklenburg-Schwerin;

                              neutral in WWI; set up government-in-exile in England during WWII

               1948 - 1980 Juliana

               1980 - 2013 Beatrix : earned doctorate in law from University of Leiden; marriage to West German

                              Claus von Amsberg caused controversy; son Willem Alexander first male heir in four generations

               2013 - ? Willem-Alexander





               885 - 933 Harold I the Fairheaded : first to rule all Norway; won Battle of Hafrsfjord; many fled

                              and launched Viking raids; allied with English Athelstan

               935 - 961 Hakon I the Good : dethroned half brother Eric Bloodaxe; attempted to introduce


               968 - 1000 Olaf I : raided England with Danish Sweyn I Forkbeard; converted to Christianity;

                              defeated rebellion under pagan Earl Hakon; made Nidaros capital; won Battle of Svold in 1000

                              against Sweyn I, Swedish Olaf, and sons of Hakon but died

               1015 - 1028 St. Olaf II : converted to Christianity by English Ethelred II; killed at Battle of

                              Stiklestad; canonized in 1164

               1066 - 1093 Olaf III the Quiet : father Harold III Hard Ruler killed at Battle of Stamford Bridge;

                              ruled for three years with brother Magnus II Barefoot

               1217 - 1263 Hakon IV the Old : defeated rival Earl Skule; acquired Greenland in 1261 and Iceland

                              in 1262; murdered historian Snorri Sturluson

               1450 - 1814 Ruled by Denmark

               1814 - 1905 Ruled by Sweden

               1905 - 1957 Hakon VII : chosen king by Storting parliament; headed WWII government-in-exile

               1957 - 1991 Olaf V : commander of Norwegian armed forces 1944-1945

               1991 -? Harald V





Piast Dynasty

               962 - 992 Mieszko : converted Poland to Christianity

               992 - 1025 Boleslaw I : defeated Henry II (HRE); crowned by pope in 1025

               1102 - 1138 Boleslaw III : defended Silesia against Henry V (HRE); conquered Pomerania; at his

                              death kingdom was divided among sons and deteriorated

               1320 - 1333 Wladyslaw I : defeated Teutonic Knights; reunited kingdom

               1333 - 1370 Kazimierz III the Great : conquered Galicia; enlightened; founded university

Jagiellonian Dyansty

               1386 - 1434 Wladyslaw II Jagiello : grand duke of Lithuania; converted Lithuania to Roman

                              Catholicism; defeated Teutonic Knights at Tannenberg in 1410

               1447 - 1492 Kazimierz IV : won land from Teutonic Knights in Treaty of Torun

               1469 - 1472 Zygmunt II Augustus : joined Poland and Lithuania in the Commonwealth; dynasty

                              ended at his death and nobles and the Sejm parliament ruled

Period of Decline

               1764 - 1795 Stanislaw II Augustus : paramour of Catherine the Great (Russia); last king;

                              Kosciusko, who had aided US in American Revolution, rebelled against Russians but was

                              defeated by Suvorov; Poland was partitioned three times among Austria, Prussia, and Russia               

Modern Poland

               1918 - 1922, 1926 - 1935 Jozef Pilsudski : won Polish independence after Germany lost WWI;

                              defeated Soviet invasion in Russo-Polish War

               1956 - 1970 Wladyslaw Gomulka : expelled from Communist party in 1949 but reinstated after

                              Stalin's death

               1970 - 1980 Edward Gierek : ousted after Solidarity strikes

               1981 - 1990 Wojciech Jaruzelski : outlawed Solidarity but legalized it again in 1988 after

                              Gorbachev instituted glasnost

               1990 - 1995 Lech Walesa : led strike in 1980 at Lenin Shipyard in Gdansk; formed Solidarity

                              trade federation; won 1983 Nobel Peace Prize; elected president 1990

               1995 - 2005 Aleksander Kwasniewski : formed Democratic Left Alliance with ex-Communists





               ? - 64 St. Peter : one of twelve disciples, denied knowing Jesus on night of trial; first to see risen

                              Jesus; called the rock on which church was founded; martyred in Rome

               64 - 76 St. Linus : second pope; possibly martyred

               189 - 199 St. Victor I : born in Africa; first Latin pope; threatened excommunication for

                              Quartodecimans, who celebrated Easter on Nisan 14; condemned Theodotus and Dynamic

                              Monarchianism, which said Jesus was human until Baptism; replaced Greek with Latin as

                              official language

               440 - 461 St. Leo I the Great : born in Tuscany; persuaded Attila the Hun not to sack Rome;

                              Council of Chalcedon in 451 endorsed Leo's views, said "Peter has spoken through Leo"

               492 - 496 St. Gelasius I : cultivated relations with Arian Ostrogothic King Theodoric; predecessor

                              Felix III had excommunicated patriarch of Constantinople for monophysitism; alienated

                              Byzantine emperor Anastasius I; "two swords" of pope and emperor; opposed Pelagianism,

                              Manichaeism, and Lupercalia; called "vicar of Christ"; wrote part of Leonine Sacramentary

               590 - 604 St. Gregory I : last of four original Doctors of the Church; consolidated Papal States;

                              sent St. Augustine to England; incorporated Gregorian chants in liturgy

               625 - 638 Honroius I : bestowed pallium on archbishops of Canterbury and York; wrote letter

                              seemingly supporting Monothelitism, saying Christ had one will but two natures; called a

                              heretic by Third Council of Constantinople in 680

               795 - 816 St. Leo III : gang tried to gouge out his eyes and cut out his tongue; imprisoned for

                              perjury and adultery; exonerated by Charlemagne, whom he then crowned HRE

               1049 - 1054 St. Leo IX : caused Great Schism by excommunicating patriarch Michael Cerularius

                              of Constantinople with bull in Hagia Sophia

               1073 - 1085 St. Gregory VII : opposed simony (sale of clerical office) and lay investiture, leading

                              to Investiture Controversy; HRE Henry IV declared Gregory VII deposed

               1088 - 1099 Urban II : launched First Crusade; sought to end Great Schism but continued

                              opposition to investiture

               1099 - 1118 Pashal II : resolved disputes with English Henry I and French Philip I; First Crusade

                              successful; continued investiture conflict with HRE Henry IV and Henry V, who took him

                              prisoner; after 61 days gave Henry right to appoint bishops but nullified this in 1112

               1159 - 1181 Alexander III : studied under Gratian, father of canon law; negotiated Treaty of

                              Constance with HRE Frederick I; forced English Henry II to do penance for murder of Thomas

                              a Becket; forced into French exile by Frederick I; presided over Third Lateran Council

               1198 - 1216 Innocent III : established control of Papal States; declared crusade against dualist

                              Albigensianism in 1208; launched unsuccessful Fourth Crusade; convoked Fourth Lateran

                              Council; encouraged St. Dominic and St. Francis

               1227 - 1241 Gregory IX : excommunicated HRE Frederick II for not going on crusade; issued

                              Excommunicamus to prosecute Albigensian heretics, establishing Inquisition; collected

                              decretals to codify canon law

               1294 - 1303 Boniface VIII : issued Clericis Laicos against French Philip IV and English Edward I,

                              forbidding clergy taxes; asserted papal supremacy in Unam Sanctum bull; imprisoned by

                              Philip IV

               1305 - 1314 Clement V : first pope to reside at Avignon in Babylonian Captivity; controlled by

                              French Philip IV; suppressed Knights Templar

               1417 - 1431 Martin V : election by Council of Constance ended Great Schism

               1431 - 1447 Eugene IV : struggled against Council of Basel; French Charles VII issued Pragmatic

                              Sanction in 1438 giving French church some freedom; moved Council of Basel to Ferrara

                              then Florence; temporarily rejoined Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox churches

               1513 - 1521 Leo X : son of Lorenzo de' Medici; led Fifth Lateran Council; excommunicated

                              Martin Luther in 1521 for 1517 protests against sale of indulgences

               1523 - 1534 Clement VII : held prisoner by HRE Charles Vfor seven months in 1527; declared

                              English Henry VIII's marriage to Catherine of Aragon still valid; patronized Cellini,

                              Raphael, and Michelangelo

               1534 - 1549 Paul III : revived Inquisition; started Counter Reformation; Michelangelo began work

                              on Sistine Chapel; negotiated Treaty of Nice between HRE Charles V and French Francis I;

                              excommunicated English Henry VIII 1538; called Council of Trent; established Jesuits (Society

                              of Jesus)               

               1559 - 1565 Pius IV : reconvened Council of Trent; commissioned Michelangelo

               1846 - 1878 Pius IX : longest pontificate; fled to Naples during 1848 revolution; supported

                              Ultramontanism; called First Vatican Council; proclaimed Immaculate Conception; lost Papal

                              States to reunified Italy

               1878 - 1903 Leo XIII : Rerum Novarum encyclical supported just wages and trade unions; known

                              as "the workers' pope"; opened Vatican Library and established universities

               1903 - 1914 St. Pius X : opposed Modernist movement, which reinterpreted religion in light of

                              science; opposed anticlerical legislation in France and Portugal; started Roman Catholic Action


               1914 - 1922 Benedict XV : neutral during WWI; restored relations with France and Britain;

                              promulgated Code of Canon Law

               1922 - 1939 Pius XI : Quadragesimo Anno encyclical supported reconstruction of social order;

                              signed Lateran Treaty with Mussolini, gaining control of Vatican

               1939 - 1958 Pius XII : Mystici Corporis Christi condemned false mysticism; named 32 new

                              cardinals to the Sacred College; anti-Communist; tried to bring peace in WWII

               1958 - 1963 John XXIII : called Second Vatican Council; established secretariat for promoting

                              Christian unity; Ecumenical Movement promoted Christian-Jewish dialogue

               1963 - 1978 Paul VI : presided over most of Second Vatican Council; nullified excommunications

                              with Greek Orthodox patriarch Athenagoras I; met with Coptic Orthodox patriarch Shenouda III;

                              traveled extensively

               1978 John Paul I : first with double name; died after 34 days

               1978 - 2005 John Paul II : Polish (Karol Wojtyla), first non-Italian since 1523; assassination attempt

                              May 13 1981 by Mehmet Ali Agca; conservative and well-traveled

               2005 - 2013 Benedict XVI : German, first to resign before death since Gregory XII in 1415

               2013 - ? Francis : Argentine (Jorge Bergoglio), first from Americas, first Jesuit pope, first non-

                              European since Syrian Gregory III in the 700s





Early Kings

               1139 - 1185 Alfonso I : first king of Portugal; captured Lisbon

               1438 - 1481 Alfonso V the African : sponsored west African exploration by Henry the Navigator

               1495 - 1521 Manuel I : sponsored da Gama, Cabral, Afonso de Albuquerque

               1521 - 1557 John III : title to Brazil confirmed by Congress of Badajoz in 1524; established

                              Inquisition in Portugal; increased influence over the Moluccas (Spice Islands)

               1580 - 1640 : Spanish kings Philip I, II, III


               1640 - 1656 John IV : drove out Spanish usurpers at Battle of Montijo; first Braganza king

               1706 - 1750 John V : allied with British in War of Spanish Succession; named "Most Faithful

                              King" by Pope Benedict XIV

               1816 - 1826 John VI : fled to Brazil; mother Maria I became insane; son Pedro became emperor of

                              Brazil; suppressed revolt led by wife and son Dom Miguel

               1908 - 1910 Manuel II : last king of Portugal; father King Carlos assassinated; fled naval revolt

               1932 - 1968 Antonio de Oliveira Salazar : economics professor at Coimbra; balanced budget; 36-

                              year dictator





               1640 - 1688 Frederick William the Great Elector : acquired land for Brandenburg; admitted

                              Hugunots; neutral during Thirty Years' War

               1701 - 1713 Frederick I : patronized scholars such as Leibnez; est. Academy of Sciences

               1713 - 1740 Frederick William I : centralized Prussian finances; proud of Potsdam Guard;

                              developed strong army

               1740 - 1786 Frederick II the Great : learned warfare from dad FWI and music from mom Sophia

                              Dorothea; won Silesia from Maria Theresa in War of Austrian Succession; Pragmatic

                              Sanction gave lands to Maria Theresa; supported US in revolution

               1786 - 1797 Frederick William II : supported Louis XVI; forced to cede land to France in Treaty

                              of Basel; won land in Polish partitions; influenced by Rosicrucian Order not


               1797 - 1840 Frederick William III : fought Napoleon; joined Holy Alliance

               1840 - 1861 Frederick William IV : new constitution; became insane



Roman Empire


Legendary Kings

               753 - 715 BC Romulus : he and twin brother Remus (sons of Rhea Silvia; daughter of king of

                              Alba Longa); founded Rome

               715 - 676 BC Numa Pompilius : introduced many religious customs

               673 - 641 BC Tullus Hostilius : destroyed Alba Longa and fought Sabines

               641 - 613 BC Ancus Marcius : captured many Latin towns; built port of Ostia

               616 - 578 BC Lucius Tarquinius Priscus : constructed many public buildings in Rome

               578 - 534 BC Servius Tullius : created new constitution; enlarged boundaries of Rome

               534 - 510 BC Lucius Tarquinius Superbas : tyrant; his son outraged Lucretia and he was banished

Figures from the Republic

               Brennus : Gaul chieftan who burned Rome in 390 BC

               Pyrrhus : king of Epirus; helped Greek cities of southern Italy fight Rome; 280-276 BC in Pyrrhic

                              War but lost

               Gaius Duilius : consul who led naval victory over Carthage in First Punic War at Mylae in 260 BC

               Marcus Atilius Regulus : general to lost to Carthage in Africa during First Punic War

               Hamilcar : Carthage general who occupied Spain; father of Hannibal

               Hannibal : Carthage general who crossed the Alps in Second Punic War beginning 218 BC

               Scipio Africanus : Roman general who invaded Carthage and defeated Hannibal at Zama 202 BC

               Philip V : Macedonian king defeated by Romans in Second Macedonian War 200-197 BC

               Cincinnatus : dictator for 16 days; defeated Aequi in 458 and returned to his farm

               Antiochus III : king of Syria defeated by Romans at Magnesia 190 BC

               Perseus : son of Philip V; lost to Romans in Third Macedonian War

               Lucius Aemilius Paullus : Roman general who captured Perseus at Pydna in 168 BC

               Publius Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus Africanus Minor : destroyed Carthage in 146 BC in Third

                              Punic War

               Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus : brothers who served as people's tribunes and attempted to help the

                              poor by agrarian and corn laws; both died in separate riots 133 and 121 BC; sons of

                              Cornelia and grandsons of Scipio Africanus

               Marcus Drusus : attempted to help poor; assassinated 91 BC

               Lucius Cinna and Marius : leaders of the popular party; became consuls

               Mithridates VI Eupator : king of Pontus; defeated by Sulla, Lucullus, and Pompey the Great (66 BC)

               Sulla : left Rome to fight Mithridates in 87 BC; returned in 83 BC and defeated Cinna

               Pompey the Great : ended Servile War by Spartacus; cleared Mediterranean of pirates; captured

                              Jerusalem; formed First Triumvirate with Julius Caesar and Marcus Crassus; defeated by

                              Caesar at Pharsalus in 48 BC; murdered in Egypt

               Marcus Licinius Crassus : member of First Triumvirate; very wealthy; killed by Parthians in Syria

                              at Battle of Carrhae

               Julius Gaius Caesar : governor of Spain; joined First Triumvirate; conquered northern Gaul;

                              crossed Rubicon and marched on Rome making Pompey flee; assassinated on Ides of

                              March 44 BC

               Marcus Brutus and Gaius Cassius : two nobles who assassinated Julius Caesar; crushed by

                              Octavian and Antony at Philippi

               Mark Antony : served with Caesar against Pompey; formed Second Triumvirate with Octavius and

                              Lepidus; married Octavius's sister; affair with Cleopatra; defeated by Octavius at Actium;

                              committed suicide with Cleopatra at Alexandria

               Marcus Aemilius Lepidus : member of Second Triumvirate; controlled Africa; tried to take Sicily

                              from Octavian and was expelled from triumvirate

The Empire

               27 BC - 14 AD : Augustus : originally Octavian; period of cultural development called Augustan

                              Age; formed Second Triumvirate; forced Lepidus from power; defeated Antony at Actium;

                              wife Livia

               14 - 37 Tiberius : stepson of Augustus; married his daughter Julia; studied at Rhodes for seven

                              years; left Praetorian Guard prefect Lucius Sejanus in charge while he went to Campania

                              and Capreae

               37 - 41 Caligula : name means "Little Boot"; joint heir with Tiberius Gemellus but chosen sole

                              emperor by Senate; became tyrant after illness; made horse a consul; assassinated by his


               41 - 54 Claudius I : semiretired after conspiracy against him; cruel wife Messalina assumed

                              powers; began conquest of Britain; executed Messalina; married niece Agrippina the

                              Younger who poisoned him

               54 - 68 Nero : moderate rule for five years; then executed mom and wife Octavia; Rome burned in

                              64; revolts in Britain and Judea; Praetorian Guard revolt in 68; suicide

               68 - 68 Galba : assassinated after naming unpopular successor

               69 - 69 Otho

               69 - 69 Vitellius

               Favian Emperors : Vespasian; Titus; Domitian

               69 - 79 Vespasian : campaigned in Britain and Judea; 9-year world peace; suppressed Germanic

                              Batavian revolt under Julius Civilis; General Agricola led conquests in Britain; Colosseum


               79 - 81 Titus : destroyed Jerusalem in 70; beneficent after Vesuvius eruption in 79 and fire and

                              plague in Rome in 80

               81 - 96 Domitian : clashed with Senate; defeated revolt led by Antonius Saturnius of Upper

                              Germany; executed many aristocrats; murdered by officials and wife Domitia

               Five Good Emperors : Nerva; Trajan; Hadrian; Antonius Pius; Marcus Aurelius

               96 - 98 Nerva

               98 - 117 Trajan : conquered Dacia and Mesopotamia; fought Parthians

               117 - 138 Hadrian : ended Roman expansion; built Hadrian's Wall for defense; patron of arts;

                              erected Athenaeum; Temple of Venus; Roma; mausoleum Castel Sant'Angelo; and rebuilt


               138 - 161 Antonius Pius : built wall between Forth and Clyde rivers in Britain; Antonine Column

                              now in Vatican built in his honor by Marcus Aurelius

               161 - 180 Marcus Aurelius : Stoic philosopher; champion of poor; wrote Meditations

               180 - 192 Commodus : cruel tyrant; murdered; Galen of Pergamum was his physician

               193 - 211 Lucius Septimius Severus : purchased throne from Praetorian Guard; military and legal

                              reform; reduced power of aristocracy; defeated Parthians and British revolt

               211 - 217 Caracalla : real name Marcus Aurelius Antoninus; nickname from Gaul cloak; cruel;

                              built Baths of Carcalla and Arch of Septimius

               217 - 217 Marcus Macrinus : murdered Caracalla

               218 - 222 Heliogabalus : priest of Baal

               222 - 235 Alexander Severus : wise and just

               235 - 268 : 12 emperors in 33 years

               Illyrian Emperors : Claudius II through Diocletian

               268 - 270 Claudius II : defeated Goths

               270 - 275 Lucius Aurelian : defeated Germanic Alamanni; made Danube the western boundary;

                              defeated Queen Zenobia of Palmyra; given title Restitutor Orbis (Restorer of the Empire)

                              by Senate; built Wall of Aurelian around Rome

               275 - 284 : 6 emperors in 9 years

               284 - 305 Diocletian : empire divided into four parts ruled by caesars and augutuses; Maximian

                              second in command

               306 - 337 Constantine the Great : first Roman ruler to convert to Christianity; believed in sun god

                              Sol but then saw cross on sun before winning a battle; co-emperor Lucinius; issued Edict

                              of Milan mandating tolerance of Christians; presided over Council of Nicaea in 325; began

                              building Constantinople

               337 - 351 : civil wars among rivals

               351 - 361 Constantius II : defeated Magnentius at Battle of Mursa; Arian Christian; opponent of

                              St. Athanasius (orthodox bishop of Alexandria)

               361 - 363 Julian the Apostate : renounced Christianity

               363 - 364 Jovian : last emperor before division of empire

Western Roman Emperors

               364 - 375 Valentinian I : split empire with brother Valens; defeated Alamanni; orthodox Christian

               375 - 392 Valentinian II : driven from Italy by Magnus Maximus; restored to power by

                              Theodosius I; murdered by Arbogast who installed Eugenius as emperor

               394 - 395 Theodosius I the Great : last to rule a united Roman Empire; orthodox Christian;

                              persecuted Arians

               384 - 423 Honorius : Rome sacked by King Alaric I of the Visigoths in 410; Ataulf withdrew

                              Visigoths to Gaul and Wallia founded dynasty at Toulouse

               425 - 455 Valentinaian III : General Flavius Aetius held most power; Africa taken by King

                              Gaiseric of the Vandals; fought Atilla th eHun at Chalons-sur-Marne in 451

               455 - 475 : 9 emperors in 20 years; real power was General Riimer the Suebe; called the


               475 - 476 Romulus Augustulus : called Augustulus because of his youth; exiled by Odoacer who

                              became king; ending Western Roman Empire





               1857 - 1866 Alexandru Ion Cuza : united Moldavia and Walachia as Romania subject to Ottoman


               1866 - 1914 Carol I : aided Russia in Russo-Turkish War and gained independence from Ottoman

                              Empire at the Congress of Berlin; fought Balkan Wars; member of Hohenzollern family

               1914 - 1927 Ferdinand I : joined Allies in WWI

               1930 - 1940 Carol II : formed but later ended Fascist Iron Guard; abdicated when Germany


               1940 - 1944 Ion Antonescu : appointed premier by Carol II; joined Germany in invasion of USSR

               1945 - 1965 Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej : head of Communist Party

               1965 - 1989 Nicolae Ceausescu : fought rebellion beginning in Timisoara; executed with wife

                              Elena on Christmas 1989

               1990 - 1996, 2000-2004 Ion Iliescu : led National Salvation Front; restored democracy





Rurik Dynasty

               862 - 879 Rurik : consolidated Slavic tribes at Novgorod; dynasty moved to Kiev in 972

               988 - 1015 Saint Vladimir : baptism made Orthodox Christianity official Russian religion; married

                              Byzantine Basil II's daughter Anne

               1246 - 1263 Alexander Nevsky : prince of Novgorod; beat Swedes at Neva River; beat Teutonic

                              Knights at Lake Peipus Estonia; mediated with Mongols

               1462 - 1505 Ivan III the Great : acquired land from Lapland to Urals; invaded Lithuania; ruled like

                              a Byzantine

               1530 - 1584 Ivan IV the Terrible : son of Basil III; first crowned czar; convoked first national

                              assembly; expanded to Volga River; became erratic and brutal

Time of Troubles

               1598 - 1605 Boris Godunov : regent for young czar Fyodor; became czar; first to banish people

                              to Siberia; civil war against pretender to throne in Poland

               1605 - 1606 False Dmitri

Romanov Dynasty

               1613 - 1645 Michael Romanov : elected tsar by national assemby; established dynasty

               1645 - 1676 Alexis I: lost war to Sweden; schism in Russian Orthodox Church

               1682 - 1725 Peter I the Great : modernized and Westernized Russia; first shared throne with

                              older half brother Ivan V; created first Russian navy; captured Azov from Turks on Black

                              Sea; defeated Sweden in Battle of Poltava 1709; founded St. Petersburg

               1725 - 1727 Catherine I : Peter's wife

               1762 - 1796 Catherine II the Great : married Grand Duke Peter of Holstein who was overthrown

                              by Imperial Guards; expanded serfdom; disbanded Cossack army after revolt; won two

                              wars against Ottomans; annexed Crimea

               1801 - 1825 Alexander I : introduced reforms; allied with Prussia but then France briefly; turned

                              back Napoleon near Moscow; formed Holy Alliance with Austria and Prussia 1815

               1825 - 1855 Nicholas I : suppressed Decembrist revolt of reformist army officers who favored his

                              brother Constantine; wars against Iran; Poland; and Turkey

               1855 - 1881 Alexander II : ended Crimean War with Treaty of Paris; abolished serfdom in 1861;

                              reforms; sold Alaska to US in 1867; assassinated by bomb thrown in his carriage by

                              People's Will revolutionaries

               1881 - 1894 Alexander III : restored absolutism; persecuted Jews; joined France against Triple


               1894 - 1917 Nicholas II : married German princess Alexandra; opposed democracy; lost Russo-

                              Japanese War 1904; formed Duma; relied on mystic Rasputin; abdicated March 1917;

                              executed by Bolsheviks July 16; 1918

Provisional Government

               1917 - 1917 Prince Georgi Lvov

               1917 - 1917 Aleksandr Kerensky : provisional prime minister; suppressed Lenin's Bolshevik

                              Party; who seized power October 25 1917; his troops refused to fight at Petrograd;

                              lectured in US

Soviet Union

               1917 - 1922 Vladimir Ilich Lenin : in exile wrote What Is to Be Done? ; his Bolsheviks were

                              opposed by Mensheviks; took power in second revolution in October 1918; he and Trotsky

                              won civil war; made peace with Germans at Brest-Litovsk; issued New Economic Policy with

                              mixed market; strokes in 1922 and 1923

               1922 - 1953 Joseph Stalin : joined troka with Zinovyev and Kamenev after Lenin's death; sole

                              leader by 1929; forced massive collectivization program; political purges; won in World War II

               1953 - 1964 Nikita Khrushchev : battled for power with Malenkov and KGB head Beria; executed

                              Beria; denounced Stalin; 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis

               1964 - 1982 Leonid Brezhnev : shared power with Kosygin and Podgorny briefly; developed

                              Brezhnev Doctrine saying communist states can intervene in each other's affairs; detente with

                              US; signed first SALT treaty

               1982 - 1984 Yuri Andropov

               1984 - 1985 Konstantin Chernenko

               1985 - 1991 Mikhail Gorbachev : introduced restructuring perestroika and openness glasnost;

                              withdrew troops from Afghanistan; won 1990 Nobel; survived 3-day 1991 coup but then resigned;

                              allowed Baltic independence

Democratic Russia

               1991 - 2000 Boris Yeltsin : resisted August 1991 hard-line coup; elected Russian president;

                              formed Commonwealth of Independent States; introduced free market reforms; Chechnya rebellion;

                              defeated Zyuganov in 1996; Premier Chernomyrdin; cooperated with NATO

               2000 - 2008, 2012 - ? Vladimir Putin : appointed prime minister by Yeltsin in August 1999; led Russia

                              against Chechnya; Unity bloc supported him

               2008 - 2012 Dmitry Medvedev





               846 - 860 Kenneth I MacAlpin : traditional first Scottish king; conquered Pictish Kingdom; made

                              capital at Scone; invaded Lothain

               1034 - 1040 Duncan I : killed by Macbeth of Moray

               1040 - 1057 Macbeth : murdered Duncan I; killed in battle by Malcolm Canmore in 1057

               1093 - 1094 and 1095 - 1097 : Donald Bane; briefly deposed by nephew Duncan II

               1124 - 1153 David I : failed to have niece Matilda enthroned in England

               1165 - 1214 William the Lion : made alliance with French Louis VII; captured by English Henry

                              II near Alnwick and assented to Treaty of Falaise acknowledging Henry as overlord; secured

                              independence of Scottish church from pope; Richard surrendered claims for payment

               1214 - 1249 Alexander II : supported barons against English John; Peace of York established

                              boundary with England

               1292 - 1296 John de Baliol : English Edward I selected him over Robert de Bruce VI as king;

                              allied with France and captured by English

               1306 - 1329 Robert I Bruce : deposed by English Edward I but reconquered most of Scotland

                              within two years; defeated English at Battle of Bannockburn in 1314; made truce with Edward II

                              but warred again with Edward III

               1329 - 1371 David II Bruce : deposed by Edward de Baliol; allied with France and lost to English

                              at Neville's Cross 1346; ransomed

               1371 - 1390 Robert II : founded Stuart dynasty; twice regent for David II

               1406 - 1437 James I : English prisoner 1406-1423; daughter married French Louis XI;

                              assassinated by nobles

               1437 - 1460 James II : Douglas family served as regent; stabbed William 8th earl of Douglas;

                              entangled in War of Roses; killed in siege of Roxburgh Castle

               1460 - 1488 James III : gained Orkney and Shetland islands by marrying Margaret of Denmark;

                              imprisoned by brother Alexander Stewart duke of Albany; English captured Berwick; lost to

                              nobles at Sauchieburn

               1488 - 1513 James IV : supported Perkin Warbeck's claim to English throne; married Margaret

                              Tudor, leading to English-Scottish union eventually; allied with France but lost to English at

                              Battle of Flodden Field; patronized arts

               1513 - 1542 James V : John Stewart duke of Albany became his protector; taken prisoner by

                              stepdad Archibald 6th earl of Angus; refused to repudiate Catholicism and was routed by English

                              Henry VIII at Solway Moss

               1542 - 1567 Mary Queen of Scots (Mary Stuart) : married French Francis II, then Henry Stewart

                              Lord Darnley; defeated revolt by brother James Stuart earl of Moray; Darnley murdered adviser

                              David Rizzio; James Hepburn 4th earl of Bothwell had Darnley strangled and married Mary; lost

                              to nobles; executed by Elizabeth I

               1567 - 1625 James VI : became James I of Great Britain (see Great Britain list)





               1479-1516 Ferdinand V (with wife Isabella I) : empowered by Pope Sixtus IV to start Spanish

                              Inquisition, led by Torquemada; funded Christopher Columbus

               1516-1556 Charles I (Holy Roman Emperor Charles V) : 1552 Peace of Passau allowed Lutherans

                              to exercise religion, reaffirmed by 1555 Peace of Augsburg; fought France and Ottomans

               1556-1598 Philip II : Netherlands began fight for independence; destroyed Ottoman navy at

                              Lepanto; became king of Portugal; Spanish Armada defeated by English 1588

               1598-1621 Philip III : backed Austria in Thirty Years War; drove out last of the Moriscos

               1621-1665 Philip IV : lost Netherlands in Treaty of Westphalia; ceded Roussillon to France in

                              Treaty of the Pyrenees; patron of Velazquez, de Vega, and Calderon

               1700 - 1746 Philip V (Philip of Anjou) : first Spanish Bourbon; grandson of Louis XIV of France;

                              ascension led to War of the Spanish Succession

               1759 - 1788 Charles III : conquered Two Sicilies (becoming Charles IV)

               1788 - 1808 Charles IV : ceded Louisiana to France; navy destroyed at Trafalgar; influenced by

                              wife Maria Louisa of Parma and paramour Manuel de Godoy; deposed by Napoleon

               1808 - 1813 Joseph : brother of Napoleon

               1814 - 1833 Ferdinand VII : arrested by father Charles IV; imprisoned by Napoleon; imprisoned

                              during 1820 rebellion

               1833 - 1868 Isabella II : Salic Law set aside; Carlists supporting her uncle Don Carlos defeated in

                              1839; mom Maria Christina; deposed in 1868 Revolution

               1885 - 1923 Alphonso XIII : lost Cuba, Puerto Rico, Philippines, Sulu Islands, and Marianas in

                              Spanish-American War

               1923 - 1930 Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja : soldier; established military dictatorship but then

                              became prime minister; suppressed Moroccan revolt; son founded Falange Party

               1931 - 1936 Niceto Alcala Zamora : socialist president during Second Republic

               1936 - 1939 Manuel Azana : fled to France after Nationalist victory in civil war; had little control

                              over Republican generals such as Negrin (ousted in coup by Casado, who surrendered to

                              Nationalists under Franco)

               1939 - 1975 Francisco Franco : El caudillo; led Nationalist forces in Spanish Civil War

               1975 - 2014 Juan Carlos : grandson of Alphonso XIII; wife Sofia of Greece; 1978 constitution; son

               2014 - ? Felipe VI





               1130 - 1156 Sverker : united Swedes and Goths; capital at Uppsala

               1397 - 1523 Ruled by Denmark under Union of Kalmar; Riksdag parliament founded 1435

               1523 - 1560 Gustav I Vasa : founded house of Vasa; freed Sweden from Danish Christian II

               1604 - 1611 Charles IX : defeated Catholic nephew Polish Zygmunt III at Stangebro

               1611 - 1632 Gustavus II Adolfphus the Lion of the North : entered Thirty Years' War to acquire

                              Baltic states; killed at Battle of Lutzen

               1632 - 1654 Christina : Axel Oxenstierna served as regent; supported lower estates against nobles

                              and Council of the Realm; Thirty Years' War caused economic problems; influenced by

                              Descartes; never married; converted to Catholicism

               1654 - 1660 Charles X Gustav : first of Palatinate dynasty; invaded Poland against cousin Jan II

                              Kazimierz; allied with Brandenburg Frederick William and won at Warsaw; won lands from

                              Danish Frederick II in Treaty of Roskilde; lost at Copenhagen

               1660 - 1697 Charles XI : allied with French Louis XIV in Dutch Wars; lost land but regained most

                              in Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye; wiped out public debt and strengthened military

               1697 - 1718 Charles XII : fought Great Northern War 1700-1721; invaded Denmark, routed

                              Russia at Narva Estonia, overran Poland; crushed by Russia; besieged at Stralsund; killed

                              in Norway

               1720 - 1751 Frederick I : wife Ulrika Eleonora abdicated for him; Hats wanted to regain land from

                              Russia but Caps wanted peace; warred with Russia 1741-1743

               1792 - 1809 Gustav IV Adolphus : lost land to Napoleon

               1809 - 1818 Charles XIII : lost Finland to Russia 1809 but united with Norway 1814

               1818 - 1844 Charles XIV John : fought in French Revolution and at Austerlitz; fought against

                              France at Leipzig; obtained Norway from Denmark by Treaty of Kiel

               1844 - 1859 Oscar I : second Bernadotte monarch; married granddaughter of Josephine de

                              Beauharnais, wife of Napoleon

               1859 - 1872 Charles XV : made Riksdag bicameral; instituted reforms; wrote poems

               1872 - 1907 Oscar II : allowed Norwegian independence; arbitrated international disputes

               1907 - 1950 Gustavus V : maintained neutrality in WWI and WWII

               1950 - 1973 Gustav VI Adolph : authority on Chinese archaeology

               1973 - ? Carl XVI Gustavus : king became figurehead only





               1994-2005 Leonid Danylovich Kuchma

               2005-2010 Viktor Yushchenko : poisoned by dioxin

               2010-2014 Viktor Yanukovych : favored ties with Russia rather than EU; ousted by Euromaidan protests;

                              Russia annexed Crimea

               2014-? Oleksandr Turchynov






               1918 - 1921 Petar I : Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes established after WWI

               1921 - 1934 Alexandar I : ruled as dictator; assassinated by Croatian separatist in Marseilles

               1943 - 1980 Josep Broz Tito : led Partisans, rivals of Cetniks, during WWII; leader of Nonaligned


               1997 - 2001 Slobodan Milosevic : president of Serbia 1989-1997; supported ethnic cleansing of

                              Bosnian Serbs; signed Dayton Accords; tried in The Hague for war crimes


               1990 - 1999 Franjo Tudjman : leader of Croatian Democratic Union; won independence for

                              Croatia from Yugoslavia; fought Serb-controlled Krajina; signed Dayton Accords

               2000 - present Stipe Mesic

Bosnia and Herzegovina

               1990 - 2001 Alija Izetbegovic : Muslim leader in Bosnian civil war; won independence for Bosnia

                              from Yugoslavia; signed Dayton Accords