Discoveries and Inventions

 

 

Scientific Discoveries and Theories

 

 

 

Acetylene gas

 

 

1862

 

 

Berthelot

 

 

French

 

 

 

 

 

ACTH

 

 

1927

 

 

Evans, Long

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

 

Adrenalin

 

 

1901

 

 

Takamine

 

 

Japanese

 

 

 

 

 

Aluminum, electrolytic process

 

 

1886

 

 

Hall

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

 

Aluminum, isolated

 

 

1825

 

 

Oersted

 

 

Danish

 

 

 

 

 

Anesthesia, ether

 

 

1842

 

 

Long

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

 

Anesthesia, local

 

 

1885

 

 

Koller

 

 

Austrian

 

 

 

 

 

Anesthesia, spinal

 

 

1898

 

 

Bier

 

 

German

 

 

 

 

 

Aniline dye

 

 

1856

 

 

Perkin

 

 

English

 

 

 

 

 

Anti-rabies

 

 

1885

 

 

Pasteur

 

 

French

 

 

 

 

 

Antiseptic surgery

 

 

1867

 

 

Lister

 

 

English

 

 

 

 

 

Antitoxin, diphtheria

 

 

1891

 

 

Von Behring

 

 

German

 

 

 

 

 

Argyrol

 

 

1897

 

 

Bayer

 

 

German

 

 

 

 

 

Arsphenamine

 

 

1910

 

 

Ehrlich

 

 

German

 

 

 

 

 

Aspirin

 

 

1889

 

 

Dresser

 

 

German

 

 

 

 

 

Atabrine

 

 

1932

 

 

Mietzsch, et al.

 

 

German

 

 

 

 

 

Atomic numbers

 

 

1913

 

 

Moseley

 

 

English

 

 

 

 

 

Atomic theory

 

 

1803

 

 

Dalton

 

 

English

 

 

 

 

 

Atomic time clock

 

 

1948

 

 

Lyons

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

 

Atomic time clock,

 

 

1948

 

 

Essen

 

 

English

 

 

 

 

 

cesium beam

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Atom-smashing

 

 

1919

 

 

Rutherford

 

 

English

 

 

 

 

 

theory

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bacitracin

 

 

1945

 

 

Johnson, et al.

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

 

Bacteria (described)

 

 

1676

 

 

Leeuwenhoek

 

 

Dutch

 

 

 

 

 

Barbital

 

 

1903

 

 

Fischer

 

 

German

 

 

 

 

 

Bleaching powder

 

 

1798

 

 

Tennant

 

 

English

 

 

 

 

 

Blood, circulation

 

 

1628

 

 

Harvey

 

 

English

 

 

 

 

 

Bordeaux mixture

 

 

1885

 

 

Millardet

 

 

French

 

 

 

 

 

Bromie from sea

 

 

1924

 

 

Edgar Kramer

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

 

Calcium carbide

 

 

1888

 

 

Wilson

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

 

Calculus

 

 

1670

 

 

Newton

 

 

English

 

 

 

 

 

Camphor synthetic

 

 

1896

 

 

Haller

 

 

French

 

 

 

 

 

Canning (food)

 

 

1804

 

 

Appert

 

 

French

 

 

 

 

 

Carbomycin

 

 

1952

 

 

Tanner

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

 

Carbon oxides

 

 

1925

 

 

Fisher

 

 

German

 

 

 

 

 

Chloamphenicol

 

 

1947

 

 

Burkholder

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

 

Chlorine

 

 

1774

 

 

Scheele

 

 

Swedish

 

 

 

 

 

Chloroform

 

 

1831

 

 

Guthrie, S.

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

 

Chlortetracycline

 

 

1948

 

 

Duggen

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

 

Classification of plants and animals

 

 

1735

 

 

Linnaeus

 

 

Swedish

 

 

 

 

 

Cocaine

 

 

1860

 

 

Niermann

 

 

German

 

 

 

 

 

Combustion explained

 

 

1777

 

 

Lavoisier

 

 

French

 

 

 

 

 

Conditioned reflex

 

 

1914

 

 

Pavlov

 

 

Russian

 

 

 

 

 

Cortisone

 

 

1936

 

 

Kendall

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

 

Cortisone, synthesis

 

 

1946

 

 

Sarett

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

 

Cosmic rays

 

 

1910

 

 

Gockel

 

 

Swiss

 

 

 

 

 

Cyanamide

 

 

1905

 

 

Frank, Caro

 

 

German

 

 

 

 

 

Cyclotron

 

 

1930

 

 

Lawrence

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DDT (not applied as

 

 

1874

 

 

Zeidler

 

 

German

 

 

 

 

insecticide until 1939)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Deuterium

 

 

1932

 

 

Urey, Brickwedde,

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Murphy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DNA (structure)

 

 

1951

 

 

Crick, Wilkins

 

 

English

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Watson

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

Electric resistance (law)

 

 

1827

 

 

Ohm

 

 

German

 

 

 

 

Electric waves

 

 

1888

 

 

Hertz

 

 

German

 

 

 

 

Electrolysis

 

 

1852

 

 

Faraday

 

 

English

 

 

 

 

Electromagnetism

 

 

1819

 

 

Oersted

 

 

Danish

 

 

 

 

Electron

 

 

1897

 

 

Thomson, J.

 

 

English

 

 

 

 

Electron diffraction

 

 

1936

 

 

Thomson,

 

 

English

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

G. Davisson

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

Electroshock treatment

 

 

1938

 

 

Cerletti, Bini

 

 

Italian

 

 

 

 

Erythromycin

 

 

1952

 

 

McGuire

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

Evolution, natural selection

 

 

1858

 

 

Darwin

 

 

English

 

 

 

 

Falling bodies, law

 

 

1590

 

 

Galileo

 

 

Italian

 

 

 

 

Gases, law of

 

 

1808

 

 

Gay-Lussac

 

 

French

 

 

 

 

 

combining volumes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Geometry, analytic

 

 

1619

 

 

Descartes

 

 

French

 

 

 

 

 

Gold (cyanide process for extraction)

 

 

1887

 

 

MacArthur, Forest

 

 

British

 

 

 

 

 

Gravitation, law

 

 

1687

 

 

Newton

 

 

English

 

 

 

 

 

Holograph

 

 

1948

 

 

Gabor

 

 

British

 

 

 

 

 

Human heart transplant

 

 

1967

 

 

Barnard

 

 

S. African

 

 

 

 

 

Human

immunodeficiency

virus identified

 

 

1984

 

 

Montagnier, Gallo

 

 

French, U.S.

 

 

 

 

 

Indigo, synthesis of

 

 

1880

 

 

Baeyer

 

 

German

 

 

 

 

 

Induction, electric

 

 

1830

 

 

Henry

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

 

Insulin

 

 

1922

 

 

Banting, Best,

 

 

Canadian,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Macleod

 

 

Scottish

 

 

 

 

 

Intelligence testing

 

 

1905

 

 

Binet, Simon

 

 

French

 

 

 

 

 

In vitro fertilization

 

 

1978

 

 

Steptoe, Edwards

 

 

English

 

 

 

 

 

Isoniazid

 

 

1952

 

 

Hoffman-La-Roche

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Domagk

 

 

German

 

 

 

 

 

Isotopes, theory

 

 

1912

 

 

Soddy

 

 

English

 

 

 

 

 

 

Laser (light amplification

 

 

1957

 

 

Gould

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

by stimulated emission

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

of radiation)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lasting machine

 

 

1883

 

 

Jan Matzelieger

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

Light, velocity

 

 

1675

 

 

Roemer

 

 

Danish

 

 

 

 

Light, wave theory

 

 

1690

 

 

Huygens

 

 

Dutch

 

 

 

 

Lithography

 

 

1796

 

 

Senefelder

 

 

Bohemian

 

 

 

 

Logarithms

 

 

1614

 

 

Napier

 

 

Scottish

 

 

 

 

Lobotomy

 

 

1935

 

 

Egas Moniz

 

 

Portuguese

 

 

 

 

LSD-25

 

 

1943

 

 

Hoffman

 

 

Swiss

 

 

 

 

Mendelian laws

 

 

1866

 

 

Mendel

 

 

Austrian

 

 

 

 

Mercator projection (map)

 

 

1568

 

 

Mercator (Kremer)

 

 

Flemish

 

 

 

 

Methanol

 

 

1661

 

 

Boyle

 

 

Irish

 

 

 

 

Milk condensation

 

 

1853

 

 

Borden

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

Molecular hypothesis

 

 

1811

 

 

Avogadro

 

 

Italian

 

 

 

 

Motion, laws of

 

 

1687

 

 

Newton

 

 

English

 

 

 

 

 

Neomycin

 

 

1949

 

 

Waksman,

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lechevalier

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Neutron

 

 

1932

 

 

Chadwick

 

 

English

 

 

 

 

Nitric acid

 

 

1648

 

 

Glauber

 

 

German

 

 

 

 

Nitric oxide

 

 

1772

 

 

Priestley

 

 

English

 

 

 

 

Nitroglycerin

 

 

1846

 

 

Sobrero

 

 

Italian

 

 

 

 

Oil cracking process

 

 

1891

 

 

Dewar

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

Oxygen

 

 

1774

 

 

Priestley

 

 

English

 

 

 

 

Oxytetracycline

 

 

1950

 

 

Finlay, et al.

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

Ozone

 

 

1840

 

 

Schonbein

 

 

German

 

 

 

 

Paper, sulfite process

 

 

1867

 

 

Tilghman

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

Paper, wood pulp,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

sulfate process

 

 

1884

 

 

Dahl

 

 

German

 

 

 

 

Penicillin

 

 

1929

 

 

Fleming

 

 

Scottish

 

 

 

 

practical use

 

 

1941

 

 

Florey, Chain

 

 

English

 

 

 

 

Periodic law and

 

 

1869

 

 

Mendeleyev

 

 

Russian

 

 

 

 

table of elements

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Planetary motion, laws

 

 

1609

 

 

Kepler

 

 

German

 

 

 

 

Plutonium fission

 

 

1940

 

 

Kennedy, Wahl,

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Seaborg, Segre

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Polymyxin

 

 

1947

 

 

Ainsworth

 

 

English

 

 

 

 

Positron

 

 

1932

 

 

Anderson

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

Proton

 

 

1919

 

 

Rutherford

 

 

N. Zealand

 

 

 

 

Psychoanalysis

 

 

1900

 

 

Freud

 

 

Austrian

 

 

 

 

Quantum theory

 

 

1900

 

 

Planck

 

 

German

 

 

 

 

 

Quasars

 

 

1963

 

 

Matthews, Sandage

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

 

Quinine synthetic

 

 

1946

 

 

Woodward, Doering

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

 

Radioactivity

 

 

1896

 

 

Becquerel

 

 

French

 

 

 

 

 

Radiocarbon dating

 

 

1947

 

 

Libby

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

 

Radium

 

 

1898

 

 

Curie, Pierre

 

 

French

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Curie, Marie

 

 

Pol.-Fr.

 

 

 

 

 

Relativity theory

 

 

1905

 

 

Einstein

 

 

German

 

 

 

 

 

Reserpine

 

 

1949

 

 

Jal Vaikl

 

 

Indian

 

 

 

 

 

Schick test

 

 

1913

 

 

Schick

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

 

Silicon

 

 

1823

 

 

Berzelius

 

 

Swedish

 

 

 

 

 

Smallpox eradication

 

 

1979

 

 

World Health Organization

 

 

UN

 

 

 

 

 

Streptomycin

 

 

1945

 

 

Schatz, Waksman

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

 

Sulfanilamide

 

 

1935

 

 

Bovet, Trefouel

 

 

French

 

 

 

 

 

Sulfanilamide theory

 

 

1908

 

 

Gelmo

 

 

German

 

 

 

 

 

Sulfapyridine

 

 

1938

 

 

Ewins, Phelps

 

 

English

 

 

 

 

 

Sulfathiazole

 

 

1939

 

 

Fosbinder, Walter

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

 

Sulfuric acid

 

 

1831

 

 

Phillips

 

 

English

 

 

 

 

 

Sulfuric acid, lead

 

 

1746

 

 

Roebuck

 

 

English

 

 

 

 

 

 

Thiacetazone

 

 

1950

 

 

Belmisch, Mietzsch,

 

 

German

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Domagk

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tuberculin

 

 

1890

 

 

Koch

 

 

German

 

 

 

 

Uranium fission

 

 

1939

 

 

Hahn, Meitner,

 

 

German

 

 

 

 

theory

 

 

 

 

 

 

Strassmann

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bohr

 

 

Danish

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fermi

 

 

Italian

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Einstein, Pegram,

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wheeler

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Uranium fission,

 

 

1942

 

 

Fermi, Szilard

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

atomic reactor

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vaccine, measles

 

 

1954

 

 

Enders, Peebles

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

Vaccine, meningitis

 

 

1987

 

 

Gordon, et. al.,

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

(first conjugate)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Connaught Lab., Inc.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vaccine, polio

 

 

1955

 

 

Salk

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

Vaccine, polio, oral

 

 

1955

 

 

Sabin

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

Vaccine, rabies

 

 

1885

 

 

Pasteur

 

 

French

 

 

 

 

Vaccine, smallpox

 

 

1796

 

 

Jenner

 

 

English

 

 

 

 

Vaccine, typhus

 

 

1909

 

 

Nicolle

 

 

French

 

 

 

 

Vaccine, varicella

 

 

1974

 

 

Takahashi

 

 

Japan

 

 

 

 

Van Allen belts,

 

 

1958

 

 

Van Allen

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

radiation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vitamin A

 

 

1913

 

 

McCollum, Davis

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

Vitamin B

 

 

1916

 

 

McCollum

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

Vitamin C

 

 

1928

 

 

Szent-Gyorgyi,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

King

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

Vitamin D

 

 

1922

 

 

McCollum

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

Vitamin K

 

 

1935

 

 

Dam, Doisy

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

Wassermann test for syphilis

 

 

1906

 

 

Wassermann

 

 

German

 

 

 

 

Xerography

 

 

1938

 

 

Carlson

 

 

U.S.

 

 

 

 

X ray

 

 

1895

 

 

Roentgen

 

 

German

 

 

 

 

 

Inventions

 

DATE

INVENTION OR DISCOVERY

INVENTOR OR DISCOVERER

NATIONALITY

1590

Compound microscope

Zacharias Janssen

Dutch

1593

Water thermometer

Galileo

Italian

1608

Telescope

Hans Lippershey

Dutch

1625

Blood transfusion

Jean-Baptiste Denys

French

1629

Steam turbine

Giovanni Branca

Italian

1642

Adding machine

Blaise Pascal

French

1643

Barometer

Evangelista Torricelli

Italian

1650

Air pump

Otto von Guericke

German

1656

Pendulum clock

Christiaan Huygens

Dutch

1668

Reflecting telescope

Isaac Newton

English

1671

Calculating machine

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

German

1698

Steam pump

Thomas Savery

English

1701

Seed drill

Jethro Tull

English

1705

Steam engine

Thomas Newcomen

British

1710

Piano

Bartolomeo Cristofori

Italian

1714

Mercury thermometer

Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit

German

1717

Diving bell

Edmund Halley

English

1725

Stereotyping

William Ged

Scottish

1745

Leyden jar (condenser)

E.G. von Kleist

German

1752

Lightning rod

Benjamin Franklin

American

1758

Achromatic lens

John Dollond

British

1759

Marine chronometer

John Harrison

British

1764

Spinning jenny

James Hargreaves

British

1769

Spinning frame

R. Arkwright

English

1769

Steam engine
(with separate condenser)

James Watt

British

1770

Automobile

Nicholas Joseph Cugnot

French

1775

Submarine

David Bushnell

American

1780

Steel pen

Samuel Harrison

English

1780

Bifocal lens

Benjamin Franklin

American

1783

Balloon

Joseph Michel Montgolfier and
Jacques Étienne Montgolfier

French

1784

Threshing machine

Andrew Meikle

British

1785

Power loom

Edmund Cartwright

British

1786

Steamboat

John Fitch

American

1788

Flyball governor

James Watt

British

1791

Gas turbine

John Barber

British

1792

Illuminating gas

William Murdock

Scottish

1793

Cotton gin

Eli Whitney

American

1795

Hydraulic press

Joseph Bramah

English

1796

Lithography

Aloys Senefelder

German

1796

Smallpox vaccination

Edward Jenner

British

1799

Fourdrinier machine (papermaking)

Louis Robert

French

1800

Jacquard Loom

Joseph Marie Jacquard

French

1800

Electric battery

Count Alessandro Volta

Italian

1801

Pattern loom

Joseph Marie Jacquard

French

1804

Screw propeller

John Stevens

American

1804

Solid-fuel rocket

William Congreve

British

1804

Steam locomotive

Richard Trevithick

British

1805

Electroplating

Luigi Gasparo Brugnatelli

Italian

1810

Food preservation
(by sterilization and exclusion of air)

François Appert

French

1810

Printing Press

Frederick Koenig

German

1814

Railroad locomotive

George Stephenson

British

1815

Safety lamp

Sir Humphry Davy

British

1816

Bicycle

Karl D. Sauerbronn

German

1819

Stethoscope

René Théophile Hyacinthe Laënnec

French

1820

Hygrometer

J.F. Daniell

English

1820

Galvanometer

Johann Salomo Cristoph Schweigger

German

1821

Electric motor

Michael Faraday

British

1823

Electromagnet

William Sturgeon

British

1824

Portland cement

Joseph Aspdin

British

1827

Friction match

John Walker

British

1829

Typewriter

W.A. Burt

American

1829

Braille printing

Louis Braille

French

1830

Platform scales

Thaddeus Fairbanks

American

1830

Sewing machine

Barthélemy Thimonnier

French

1831

Phosphorus match

Charles Sauria

French

1831

Reaper

Cyrus Hall McCormick

American

1831

Dynamo

Michael Faraday

British

1834

Electric streetcar

Thomas Davenport

American

1835

Pistol (revolver)

Samuel Colt

American

1837

Telegraph

Samuel Finley Breese Morse
Sir Charles Wheatstone

American
British

1838

Morse code

Samuel Finley Breese Morse

American

1839

Photography

Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre and
Joseph Nicéphore Niepce
William Henry Fox Talbot

French

British

1839

Vulcanized rubber

Charles Goodyear

American

1839

Steam hammer

James Nasmyth

Scottish

1840

Bicycle

Kirkpatrick MacMillan

British

1845

Pneumatic tire

Robert William Thompson

American

1846

Rotary printing press

Richard March Hoe

American

1846

Guncotton

Christian Friedrich Schönbein

German

1846

Ether

Crawford Williamson Long

American

1849

Reinforced concrete

F.J. Monier

French

1849

Safety pin

Walter Hunt

American

1849

Water turbine

James Bicheno Francis

American

1850

Mercerized cotton

John Mercer

British

1851

Breech-loading rifle

Edward Maynard

American

1851

Opthalmoscope

Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand
von Helmholtz

German

1852

Nonrigid airship

Henri Giffard

French

1852

Elevator (with brake)

Elisha Graves Otis

American

1852

Gyroscope

Jean Bernard Léon Foucault

French

1855

Hypodermic syringe

Alexander Wood

Scottish

1855

Safety matches

J.E. Lundstrom

Swedish

1855

Gas burner

Robert Wilhelm Bunsen

German

1856

Bessemer converter (steel)

Sir Henry Bessemer

British

1858

Harvester

Charles and William Marsh

American

1859

Spectroscope

Gustav Robert Kirchhoff and
Robert Wilhelm Bunsen

German

1860

Gas engine

Étienne Lenoir

French

1861

Web-fed newspaper printing press

Richard March Hoe

American

1861

Electric furnace

Wilhelm Siemens

British

1861

Machine gun

Richard Jordan Gatling

American

1861

Kinematoscope

Coleman Sellers

American

1865

Antiseptic surgery

Joseph Lister

English

1866

Paper (from wood pulp,
sulfite process)

Benjamin Chew Tilghman

American

1866

Dynamite

Alfred Bernhard Nobel

Swedish

1868

Dry cell

Georges Leclanché

French

1868

Typewriter

Carlos Glidden and
Christopher Latham Sholes

American

1868

Air brake

George Westinghouse

American

1870

Celluloid

John Wesley Hyatt and Isaiah Hyatt

American

1874

Quadruplex telegraph

Thomas Alva Edison

American

1876

Telephone

Alexander Graham Bell

American

1877

Internal-combustion engine
(four-cycle)

Nikolaus August Otto

German

1877

Talking machine (phonograph)

Thomas Alva Edison

American

1877

Microphone

Emile Berliner

American

1877

Electric welding

Elihu Thomson

American

1877

Refrigerator car

G.F. Swift

American

1878

Cathode ray tube

Sir William Crookes

British

1879

Cash register

James J. Ritty

American

1879

Incandescent filament lamp

Thomas Alva Edison
Sir Joseph Wilson Swan

American
British

1879

Automobile engine (two-cycle)

Karl Benz

German

1879

Arc lamp

Charles Francis Bush

American

1880

Linotype

Ottmar Mergenthaler

American

1884

Steam turbine

C.A. Parsons

English

1884

Rayon (nitrocellulose)

Comte Hilaire Bernigaud de Chardonnet

French

1884

Multiple-wheel steam turbine

Sir Charles Algernon Parsons

British

1884

Nipkow disk (mechanical
television scanning device)

Paul Gottlieb Nipkow

German

1884

Fountain pen

Lewis Edson Waterman

American

1885

Graphophone (dictating machine)

Chichester A. Bell and
Charles Sumner Tainter

American

1885

AC transformer

William Stanley

American

1887

Air-inflated rubber tire

J.B. Dunlop

Scottish

1887

Gramophone (disk records)

Emile Berliner

American

1887

Gas mantle

Baron Carl Auer von Welsbach

Austrian

1887

Mimeograph

Albert Blake Dick

American

1887

Monotype

Tolbert Lanston

American

1888

Adding machine (recording)

William Seward Burroughs

American

1888

Kodak camera

George Eastman

American

1889

Steam turbine

C.G. de Laval

Swedish

1890

Rayon (cuprammonium)

Louis Henri Despeissis

French

1891

Glider

Otto Lilienthal

German

1891

Synthetic rubber

Sir William Augustus Tilden

British

1892

AC motor

Nikola Tesla

American

1892

Three-color camera

Frederick Eugene Ives

American

1892

Rayon (viscose)

Charles Frederick Cross

British

1892

Vacuum bottle (Dewar flask)

Sir James Dewar

British

1893

Photoelectric cell

Julius Elster
Hans F. Geitel

German

1893

Diesel engine

Rudolf Diesel

German

1893

Gasoline automobile

Charles Edgar Duryea and
J. Frank Duryea

American

1893

Motion picture machine

Thomas Alva Edison

American

1894

Motion picture projection

Louis Jean Lumière and
Auguste Marie Lumière
Charles Francis Jenkins

French

American

1895

X-ray

Wilhelm Konrad Röntgen

German

1895

Rayon (acetate)

Charles Frederick Cross

British

1896

Experimental airplane

Samuel Pierpont Langley

American

1896

Wireless telegraph

Marchese Guglielmo Marconi

Italian

1898

Sensitized photographic paper

Leo Hendrik Baekeland

American

1900

Rigid dirigible airship

Graf Ferdinand von Zeppelin

German

1902

Radiotelephone

Valdemar Poulsen
Reginald Aubrey Fessenden

Danish
American

1903

Airplane

Wilbur Wright and Orville Wright

American

1903

Electrocardiograph

Willem Einthoven

Dutch

1905

Diode rectifier tube (radio)

Sir John Ambrose Fleming

British

1906

Gyrocompass

Hermann Anschütz-Kämpfe

German

1907

Bakelite

Leo Hendrik Baekeland

American

1907

Triode amplifier tube (radio)

Lee De Forest

American

1908

Two-color motion picture camera

C. Albert Smith

British

1909

Salvarsan

Paul Ehrlich

German

1910

Hydrogenation of coal

Friedrich Bergius

German

1910

Gyroscopic compass and stabilizer

Elmer Ambrose Sperry

American

1911

Air conditioning

W.H. Carrier

American

1911

Vitamins

Casimir Funk

Polish

1911

Cellophane

Jacques Edwin Brandenberger

Swiss

1911

Neon lamp

Georges Claude

French

1912

Mercury-vapor lamp

Peter Cooper Hewitt

American

1913

Ramjet engine

René Lorin

French

1913

Multigrid electron tube

Irving Langmuir

American

1913

Cracked gasoline

William Meriam Burton

American

1913

Heterodyne radio receiver

Reginald Aubrey Fessenden

American

1915

Automobile self-starter

Charles Franklin Kettering

American

1916

Browning gun (automatic rifle)

John Moses Browning

American

1916

Gas-filled incandescent lamp

Irving Langmuir

American

1916

X-ray tube

William David Coolidge

American

1919

Mass spectrograph

Sir Francis William Aston
Arthur Jeffrey Dempster

British
American

1922

Insulin

Sir Frederick Grant Banting

Canadian

1922-26

Sound motion pictures

T.W. Case

American

1923

Television iconoscope

Vladimir Kosma Zworykin

American

1925

Quick-frozen food

Clarence Birdseye

American

1925

Television image dissector tube

Philo Taylor Farnsworth

American

1926

Liquid-fuel rocket

Robert Hutchings Goddard

American

1928

Penicillin

Sir Alexander Fleming

British

1930

Nylon (fiber-forming
synthetic polyamides)

Wallace Hume Carothers

American

1930

Bathysphere

(Charles) William Beebe

American

1930

Freon (low-boiling fluorine
compounds)

Thomas Midgley and coworkers

American

1930

Modern gas-turbine engine

Sir Frank Whittle

British

1930

Neoprene (synthetic rubber)

Father Julius Arthur Nieuwland and
Wallace Hume Carothers

American

1931

Cyclotron

Ernest Orlando Lawrence

American

1931

Differential analyzer
(analogue computer)

Vannevar Bush

American

1932

Phase contrast microscope

Frits Zernike

Dutch

1932

Van de Graaff generator

Robert Jemison Van de Graaff

American

1933

Frequency modulation (FM)

Edwin Howard Armstrong

American

1935

Buna (synthetic rubber)

German scientists

German

1935

Radiolocator (radar)

Sir Robert Watson-Watt

British

1935

Cortisone

Edward Calvin Kendall
Tadeus Reichstein

American
Swiss

1935

Electron microscope

German scientists

German

1935

Sulfanllamide

Gerhard Domagk

German

1936

Twin-rotor helicopter

Heinrich Focke

German

1937

Nylon

Wallace Hume Carothers

American

1939

DDT

Paul Müller

Swiss

1939

Helicopter

Igor Sikorsky

American

1940

Betatron

Donald William Kerst

American

1941

Turbojet aircraft engine

Sir Frank Whittle

British

1942

Guided missile

Wernher von Braun

German

1942

Nuclear reactor

Enrico Fermi

American

1942

Xerography

Chester Carlson

American

1944

V-2 (rocket-propelled bomb)

German scientists

German

1945

Atomic bomb

U.S. government scientists

American

1945

Streptomycin

Selman A. Waksman

American

1946

Electronic digital computer

John Presper Eckert, Jr., and
John W. Mauchly

American

1947

Holography

Dennis Gabon

English

1947

Chlormycetin