Treaties, Peaces, Accords, Protocols, Unions, Purchases, Tariffs, Legislation, Acts, Bills, Amendments, Provisos, Resolutions, Ordinances, Compromises, Policies, Plans, Systems, Doctrines, Diplomacies, Edicts, Bulls, Manifestos, Oaths, Concordats, Codes, Orders, Compacts, Statements, Conferences, Conventions, Congresses, Councils, Constitutions, and Court Cases




Treaties that Ended Wars


Peace of Callias - 449 BC, Persian War

Treaty of Bretigny - 1360, Hundred Years War; England gained Aquitaine and Calais

Treaty of Troyes - 1420, Hundred Years War, made Henry V (England) heir to Charles VI (France)

Treaty of Torun - 1466, Poland - Teutonic Knights conflict

Treaty of Westphalia - 1648, Thirty Years War

Treaty of Aix-le-Chapelle - 1688; War of the Devolution

Treaty of Ryswick - 1697, War of the League of Augsburg

Treaty of Utrecht - 1713, Spanish Succession; includes Third Barrier, Baden, and Rastat Treaties; Louis

               XIV's grandson Philip V retained Spanish crown

Treaty of Vienna - 1735, Polish Succession

Treaty of Aix-le-Chapelle - 1748, Austrian Succession; Marie Theresa succeeded Charles VI; Silesia ceded

               to Prussia

Treaty of Paris - 1763, Seven Years War

Treaty of Paris - 1783, American Revolution

Treaty of Greenville - 1795, Miami Indian Wars in Ohio

Treaty of Campo Formio - 1797, War of the First Coalition (Napoleonic Wars)

Treaty of Amiens - 1802, War of the Second Coalition (Napoleonic Wars)

Treaty of Tilset - 1807, Russia and France during the Napoleonic Wars, ending War of the Third Coalition

Treaty of Ghent - 1814, War of 1812

Congress of Vienna - 1815, Napoleonic Wars; included von Metternich, Alexander I, Talleyrand, and

               Duke of Wellington

Treaty of Cordoba - 1821, Mexican Independence

Treaty of Yandabo - 1826, First Anglo-Burmese War

Treaty of Adrianople - 1829, Greek Independence, enforcing Treaty of London

Treaty of New Echota - 1835, Cherokee Wars

Treaty of Velasco - 1836, Texas Revolution

Treaty of Nanking - 1842, First Opium War

Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo - 1848, Mexican-American War

Treaty of Paris - 1856, Crimean War

Treaty of Tianjin - 1860, Second Opium War

Treaty of San Stefano - 1878, Russo-Turkish War

Congress of Berlin - 1878, revised San Stefano; led by von Bismarck

Treaty of Ancon (or Valparaiso) - 1883, War of the Pacific

Treaty of Shimonoseki - 1895, First Sino-Japanese War

Treaty of Paris - 1898, Spanish-American War

Treaty of Vereeniging - 1902, Boer War

Treaty of Portsmouth - 1905, Russo-Japanese War

Treaty of London - 1913, First Balkan War

Treaty of Bucharest - 1913, Second Balkan War

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk - 1918, Russia and Central Powers during World War I

Versailles - 1919, World War I; included George, Wilson, Clemenceau, and Sonnino

Treaty of Saint-Germain - 1919, Allies and Austria after World War I

Treaty of Neuilly - 1919, Allies and Bulgaria after World War I

Treaty of Trianon - 1920, Allies and Hungary after World War I

Treaty of Sevres - 1920, Allies and Turkey after World War I

Geneva Accords - 1954, First Indochina War; partitioned Vietnam, with scheduled 1956 reunification

Lusaka Protocol - 1994, Angolan Civil War

Dayton Accords - 1995, Wars of Yugoslav Succession; signed by Izetbegovic (Bosnia), Tudjman

                (Croatia), and Milosevic (Serbia)



Other Treaties, Accords, Peaces, Unions, Protocols, and Purchases


Treaty of Verdun - 843, divided Charlemagne's empire among Louis the Pious's sons Louis II the German,

               Charles II the Bald, and Lothair I

Treaty of Mersen - 870, Louis II took land from Charles II

Kalmar Union - 1397, Margaret I made grandnephew Eric king of united Denmark, Sweden and Norway

Treaty of Lodi - 1454, Sforza became leader of Milan

Peace of Passau - 1552, granted religious toleration to German states

Pease of Augsburg - 1555, allowed princes in the HRE to decide religion in their own domains

Peace of the Pyrenees - 1659, set France - Spain border and allowed Louis XIV to marry Marie Therese

Treaty of Karlowitz - 1699, Hapsburgs gained control of Hungary

Jay's Treaty - 1794, signed by Jay and Grenville; tried to resolve US - Britain trade and other issues and

               preserve American neutrality in European wars

Pinckney's Treaty - 1795, Spain agreed to US-Florida border at 31 st parallel, and granted US free navigation

               of the Mississippi and right of deposit in New Orleans

Louisiana Purchase - 1803, Monroe and Livingston bought 800,000 square miles from Talleyrand and

               Napoleon for $15 million

Treaty of Kiel - 1814, Denmark ceded Norway to Sweden

Rush-Bagot Treaty - 1817, limited US and British naval power on the Great Lakes

Adams-Onis Treaty - 1819, Spain ceded Florida to US

Clayton-Bulwer Treaty - 1850, neither US nor Britain should control a canal in Panama

Gadsen Purchase - 1853, Gadsen (US) negotiated purchase of land in AZ and NM from Santa Anna

                (Mexico) for $10 million

Kanagawa - 1854, Matthew Perry got Japanese to open ports to US vessels

Burlingame Treaty - 1868, allowed Chinese to immigrate to US

Treaty of Washington - 1871, Fish negotiated agreement with Britain over reparations for damage by

               English-built Confederate ships, the San Juan boundary, and North Atlantic fishing dispute

Gentlemen's Agreement - 1900, Japan would stop issuing passports to emigrants

Hay-Pauncefote Treaty - 1901, overrode Clayton-Bulwer, allowing US to build a canal in Panama

Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty - 1903, Panama gave US canal zone

Root-Takahira Treaty - 1908, Japan respected US's Open Door policy in China

Bryan-Chamorro Treaty - 1916, gave US exclusive rights to build a canal in Nicaragua

Treaty of Rapallo - 1920, settled Italy-Yugoslavia boundary dispute

Treaty of Lausanne - 1923, Greece returned land to Turkey

Locarno Pact - 1925, drafted by Chamberlain, demilitarized Rhineland, allowed Germany in League of


Geneva Protocol - 1925, bans bacterial and gas weapons

Kellogg-Briand Pact - 1928, also Pact of Paris or Treaty for the Renunciation of War; 15 nations agreed to

               ban war as an instrument of national policy

Munich Pact - 1938, let Germany annex Czech Sudetenland; signed by N Chamberlain (England, "peace in

               our time"), Mussolini (Italy), Daladier (France), and Hitler (Germany)

Treaty of San Francisco - 1951, ended occupation of Japan

Treaty of Rome - 1957, established European Economic Community

SALT I - (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks) 1972, US and USSR signed Anti-Ballistic Missiles Treaty and

               Interim Agreement on the Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms

Camp David Accords - 1978, peace between Egypt and Israel; included al-Sadat, Begin, and Carter

SALT II - 1979, US and USSR limited nuclear launchers; never officially ratified

Meech Lake Accord - 1987, plan to revise Canada's constitution for Quebec; never ratified; second try with

               Charlottetown Accord

START I - (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) 1991, Bush (US) and Gorbachev (USSR) reduced nuclear

               arsenals; five former Soviet republics signed on in 1992

Treaty of Maastricht - 1992, European Union established

START II - 1993, Bush (US) and Yeltsin (Russia) reduced nuclear arsenals

Declaration of Principles - 1993, Rabin (Israel) and Arafat (PLO) agreed to limited Palestinian self-rule in

               Gaza and Jericho

Good Friday Agreement - 1998, Catholics and Protestants agreed to share power in Northern Ireland



Tariffs and Trade Laws


Tariff Act of 1789 - 1789, first tariff; protected domestic glass and earthenware

Embargo Act - 1807, supported by Jefferson, prohibited US vessels from trading with European nations

               involved in the Napoleonic Wars

Enforcement Act - 1809, provided for stricter enforcement of the Embargo Act

Non-Intercourse Act - 1809, reinstated trade with all nations except Britain and France

Macon's Bill #2 - 1810, reinstated trade with all nations

Tariff Act of 1816 - 1816, first complete tariff

Tariff of Abominations - 1828, increased rates to highest ever; protected wool; angered the South

Tariff of 1832 - reduced rates to those of 1824, SC declared Tariff of Abominations and Tariff of 1832 null

Compromise Tariff - 1833, proposed by Clay, reduced rates gradually

Tariff Act of 1842 - 1842, raised rates back to 1832 levels to make up for revenue lost in Panic of 1832

McKinley - 1890, increased tariffs

Dingley - 1897, increased rates to the highest levels since the Civil War

Payne-Aldrich - 1909, reduced rates slightly

Underwood - 1913, greatly reduced rates

Fordney-McCumber - 1922, greatly increased rates, allowed President to adjust rates in trade wars

Hawley-Smoot - 1930, increased rates to try to protect industries during the Great Depression

Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act - 1934, allowed President to negotiate trade agreements

General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade - 1947, international agreement to reduce tariffs

Trade Act of 1974 - 1974, established Generalized System of Preferences to reduce tariffs for developing


Tokyo Round - 1979, GATT conference that further reduced international tariffs

North American Free Trade Agreement - 1992, eliminated most tariffs among US, Canada, and Mexico

World Trade Organization - 1994, WTO established by GATT Uruguay Round conference

Trans-Pacific Partnership - 2016, signed in Auckland, major nations around Pacific Rim; Trump withdrew U.S.



British Legislation and Acts


Magna Carta - 1215, signed by King John; gave barons increased feudal powers; contains 63 articles

Provisions of Oxford - 1258, constitution forced upon Henry III after Barons' Revolt

Corn Laws - 1436, amended often, including 1463, 1815, and 1828, regulated the supply and price of

               grains (called corn), repealed by Parliament and Prime Minister Peel in 1846 after the Irish potato


Act of Union - 1536, united England and Wales under Henry VIII

Thirty-Nine Articles - 1563, established doctrine of Anglican Church

Instrument of Government - 1648, constitution written by Lambert during English Civil War; Cromwell

               became Lord Protector

Navigation Acts - 1651, intended to promote English trade; many similar acts passed later

Clarendon Code - 1661-1665, acts passed establishing supremacy of the Anglican Church; includes the

               Corporation Act, the Five Mile Act, the Act of Uniformity, and the Conventicle Act

Act of Settlement - 1701, provided for succession to the throne by the house of Hanover unless Queen

               Anne provided an heir; George I became king in 1714

Act of Union - 1701, united England and Scotland

Molasses Act - 1733, imposed tax on molasses, used by American colonists to produce rum

Royal Proclamation of 1763 - 1763, limited American colonies to east of the Appalachians; prompted by

               Pontiac's rebellion

Currency Act - 1764, prevented American colonies from using paper money for payment of debts

Sugar Act - 1764, Prime Minister Grenville replaced Molasses Act with tax on sugar

Stamp Act - 1765, supported by Prime Minister Grenville; required a tax stamp on all legal documents in

               the American colonies

Declaratory Act - 1766, declared Parliament's right to impose laws on the American colonies; accompanied

               repeal of the Stamp Act

Townshend Acts - 1767, included Revenue Act, imposing taxes on various items, and suspended NY


Intolerable Acts - 1774, also Coercive Acts; punished MA; included Boston Port Act (closed Boston

               harbor), Quartering Act, MA Government Act (revoked MA charter), and Impartial Administration

               of Justice Act (removing British soldiers from jurisdiction of MA)

Quebec Act - 1774, expanded Quebec into the Ohio River Valley and instituted French civil law

Act of Union - 1800, united England and Ireland

Orders in Council - 1807, George III prohibited neutral nations from trading with France; led to US

               Embargo Act

Reform Act of 1832 - 1832, increased suffrage; eliminated rotten and pocket boroughs

Act of Union - 1840, united Upper and Lower Canada

British North America Act - 1867, united Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick into new

               nation, the Dominion of Canada

Home Rule Act - 1914, provided for self-government of Ireland; had earlier been supported by Parnell and

               Gladstone but hadn't passed

"Brexit" - 2016, referendum to leave the European Union passed, invoking Article 50 of the Treaty on the

               European Union



American Legislation, Acts, Bills, Ordinances, Amendments, and Provisos


Northwest Ordinance - 1787, divided territories in the Midwest into townships and allowed them to

               eventually become states; supported public schools; prohibited slavery in the region; written by


Fugitive Slave Laws - 1793, updated in Compromise of 1850, providing different fees to judges

               depending on their verdict

Naturalization Act - 1798, increased citizen residency requirement from 5 to 14 years; repealed in 1802

Alien Act - 1798, allowed President to deport any alien considered dangerous; expired in 1800

Alien Enemies Act - 1798, allowed for the deportation of citizens of nations at war with the US; expired in


Sedition Act - 1798, prohibited printing of libel or fostering opposition to US laws

Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions - 1798, drafted by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to

               infringements of civil liberties in the Alien and Sedition Acts; later cited by nullification proponents

Missouri Compromise - 1820, Clay's (KY) proposal allowed slave state MO and free state ME to enter

                (keeping balance at 12 each);

Thomas Proviso to Missouri Compromise - 1820, Thomas (IL) added proviso preventing slavery north of

               36 30 in LA purchase

Tallmadge Amendment to Missouri Compromise - 1820, would have freed slaves born in MO at age 25

Specie Circular - 1836, required land payments be made in gold or silver; devalued currency; supported by

               Jackson; written by Benton, delivered by Treasury Secretary Woodbury

Wilmot Proviso - 1846, proviso added by Wilmot (PN) to appropriations bill preventing slavery in lands

               acquired from Mexico; removed from the bill by the Senate

Compromise of 1850 - 1850, Clay's (KY) proposal included ending of slavery in DC, admission of CA, a

               new Fugitive Slave Law, establishment of NM and UT territories, and $10 million payment to TX

Kansas-Nebraska Act - 1854, Douglas's (IL) proposal created KS and NE, and allowed settlers in both

               states to decide slavery issue for themselves, repealing Missouri Compromise

Homestead Act - 1862, provided free land up to 160 acres to people who would settle on it for five years

Morrill Land-Grant College Act - 1862, provided much federal land to states for establishing state


Enrollment Act - 1863, instituted a draft for the Civil War, allowing exception by the payment of $300

Wade-Davis Bill - 1864, Wade (OH) and Davis (MD) proposed bill requiring half a state's white males to

               swear loyalty before reestablishing state governments in the South; pocket-vetoed by Lincoln, who

               supported his Ten Percent Plan

Freedmen's Bureau - 1865, also Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands; established

               Freedmen's Bureau to help freed slaves; headed by Howard

Tenure of Office Act - 1867, prevented the President from removing officials without Senate's consent;

               violated by Andrew Johnson when he replaced Secretary of War Stanton with Thomas, leading to

               his impeachment trial

Bland-Allison Act - 1878, created silver certificate and allowed silver purchase by the government

Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act - 1883, required competitive tests for federal civil service jobs; passed

               in response to Garfield's assassination by Guiteau; drafted by Pendleton and Eaton

Sherman Antitrust Act - 1890, proposal by Sherman (OH) outlawed all trusts in restraint of free trade

Sherman Silver Purchase Act - 1890, proposal by Sherman (OH) provided by monthly purchase of silver

               by federal government

Teller Amendment to Declaration of War with Spain - 1898, stated that the US would not annex Cuba

Platt Amendment to the Army Appropriations Bill of 1901 - 1901, ended US occupation of Cuba;

               established naval base at Guantanamo Bay

Spooner Amendment to the Army Appropriations Bill of 1901 - 1901, provided for civilian government in

               the Philippines

Pure Food and Drug Act - 1906, supported by Wiley; inspired by Sinclair's Jungle; amended 1938

Owen-Glass Act - 1913, established Federal Reserve

Clayton Antitrust Act - 1914, amendment to Sherman Antitrust Act by Clayton (AL); dealt with new

               monopolistic practices

Espionage Act - 1917, provides stiff penalties for spying against the US

Glass-Steagull Act - 1932, extended credit and gold to industries

Norris-LaGuardia Act - 1932, banned yellow-dog contracts and prevented injunctions

National Industrial Recovery Act - 1933, established Public Works Administration (under Ickes) and

               National Recovery Administration to help economic recovery from Great Depression; NRA was ruled

               unconstitutional in Schechter Poultry v. US

Wagner Act - 1935, also National Labor Relations Act; granted rights to unions; allowed collective


Hatch Act - 1939, also Political Activity Act; limited political activities of federal employees; limited

               individual campaign contributions

Smith Act - 1940, also Alien Registration Act; outlawed advocacy of force to change government

Lend-Lease Act - 1941, allowed the President to grant economic aid to nations important to the defense of

               the US

Taft-Hartley Act - 1947, also Labor-Management Relations Acts; curbed powers of unions; outlawed

               closed shop; allowed right-to-work laws; passed over Truman's veto

McCarran-Walter Act - 1952, removed ban on immigration by Asians to US

Landrum-Griffin Act - 1959, also Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act; Bill of Rights for

               union members; regulated union internal affairs; required reporting of union dealings

Voting Rights Act of 1965 - 1965, provided federal enforcement of laws allowing minorities to vote

Medicare Act - 1965, established health insurance for the elderly

Medicaid Act - 1965, established health insurance for the poor

Social Security Act of 1967 - 1967, established social welfare insurance

Civil Rights Act of 1968 - 1968, prohibited racial or religious discrimination in housing

Boland Amendment - 1984, prevented US aid for contras in Nicaragua

USA Patriot Act - 2001, expanded search powers of law enforcement for counter-terrorism; "Uniting and

               Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct


TARP (Troubled Asset Relief Program) - 2008, Government purchase of toxic assets in response to

               subprime mortgage crisis

Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act - 2010, created individual insurance exchanges, expanded

               Medicare, created individual mandate for health insurance, "Obamacare"



Policies, Plans, Systems, Doctrines, and Diplomacies


Virginia Plan - 1787, proposed by Randolph and Madison; provided Congressional representation for

               states on the basis of population

New Jersey Plan - 1787, proposed by Patterson, provided equal Congressional representation for each state

Great Compromise - 1787, also CT Compromise, proposed by Sherman and Ellsworth, provided for

               bicameral Congress

Plan of Iguala - 1821, Iterbide and Guerrero's plan for Mexican independence from Spain

American System - 1820s, Clay's policies, calling for high tariffs, internal improvements, and a strong

               national bank

Monroe Doctrine - 1823, Monroe's statement that European powers should not interfere in the affairs of

               nations in the Western Hemisphere

Doctrine of Nullification - 1832, Calhoun and SC declared a state could suspend federal laws; Webster

               argued the issue with Hayne in the Senate

Freeport Doctrine - 1858, Stephen Douglas's support for popular sovereignty on the slavery issue,

               espoused during his debates with Lincoln in Illinois Senate election

Open Door Policy - 1899, Secretary of State Hay negotiated for equal trading rights in China

Square Deal - 1903, Theodore Roosevelt's policies of treating everyone equally

Roosevelt Corollary - 1904, Theodore Roosevelt's assertion that the US could intervene in affairs of Latin

               American nations, such as Venezuela
Dollar Diplomacy - 1909, Taft's policies of investing money in Latin America; led to military involvement

               in places such as Nicaragua

Plan of San Luis Potosi - 1910, Madero's plan for revolution in Mexico

Plan of Ayala - 1911, Zapata's agrarian reform plan for Mexico

New Nationalism - 1912, Theodore Roosevelt's policies as Progressive Party candidate

New Freedom - 1912, Wilson's policies of limited government, low tariffs, banking reform, and antitrust


Dawes Plan - 1924, plan to reduce reparations imposed on Germany at Versailles

Young Plan - 1929, further reduced reparations imposed on Germany after WWI

Stimson Doctrine - 1932, Hoover's Secretary of State said the US would not recognize territorial changes

               resulting from Japan's invasion of Manchuria

New Deal - 1933, FDR's plan for economic recovery during the Great Depression

Fair Deal - 1945, Truman's plan for social legislation

Marshall Plan - 1947, also European Recovery Program, allotted $13 billion for rebuilding Europe after


Containment - 1947, plan to limit spread of Communism; outlined by Kennan

Schumann Plan - 1950s, idea to form European Coal and Steel Community

Hundred Flowers - 1956, Mao encouraged intellectuals to criticize the government for a short time

Great Leap Forward - 1957 - 1962, Mao tried unsuccessfully to rapidly increase China's industrial and

               agricultural production

Great Society - 1964, LBJ's policies of fighting poverty and racial injustice

Cultural Revolution - 1966 - 1976, Mao attempted to rekindle revolutionary fervor, organizing students

               into groups of Red Guards; ended with arrest of the Gang of Four (including Mao's wife Jiang


Shuttle Diplomacy - 1973, Secretary of State Kissinger traveled back and forth between nations in the

               Arab-Israeli War



Edicts, Bulls, Manifestos, Oaths, Concordats, Codes, Orders, Compacts, and Statements


Code of Hammurabi - 1700s BC, Hammurabi (Babylonia) established laws of equal retaliation; discovered

               at Susa in 1901

Edicts of Ashoka - 200s BC, Ashoka (Mauryan) spelled out his Buddhist-based policies; included Minor,

               Major Rock, and Pillar Edicts

Edict of Milan - 313, Constantine the Great (Rome) legalized Christianity in the Roman Empire

Theodosian Code - 438, compilation of opinions of Roman jurists by Antiochus Chuzon

Justinian Code - 534, Body of Civil Law compiled by Trebonianus for Byzantine Emperor Justinian I

Oath of Strasbourg - 842, Charles II the Bald and Louis II the German allied against brother Lothair I; had

               briefly imprisoned Lothair and dad Louis the Pious at Field of Lies in 833

Golden Bull - 1222, Hungarian nobles forced Andrew II to issue the Golden Bull

Unam Sanctum Bull - 1302, Boniface VIII asserted supremacy of the pope over secular leaders; ignored by

               Philip IV (France)

Golden Bull - 1356, Charles IV (HRE) established rules for election of emperors in the HRE

Pragmatic Sanction - 1438, Charles VII (France) limited papal authority in France

Concordat of Bologna - 1516, Francis I (France) obtained the right to appoint church officials without

               papal approval

Edict of Worms - 1521, Charles V (HRE) condemned the teachings of Luther

Edict of Nantes - 1598, Henry IV (France) granted partial religious freedom to Huguenots; revoked by

               Louis XIV in 1685

Mayflower Compact - 1620, signed by Pilgrim Separatists led by Brewster and Bradford, establishing laws

               for Plymouth colony

Edict of Restitution - 1629, Ferdinand II (HRE) ordered return of Catholic land seized by Protestants

Fundamental Orders of Connecticut - 1637, Hooker and Haynes established laws for colony; considered

               first written constitution

Pragmatic Sanction - 1713, Charles VI (HRE) willed Hapsburg lands to daughter Maria Theresa

Tennis Court Oath - 1789, members of National Assembly vowed to create a constitution for France

Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen - 1789, proclaimed by National Assembly during

               French Revolution; ended divine right of kings and guaranteed personal freedoms

Code Napoleon - 1804, body of French civil law established by Napoleon; still used in Belgium, Louisiana,

               and France

Tamworth Manifesto - 1832, Peel outlined his plan for the Conservative Party

Southern Manifesto - 1956, opposition of southern congressmen to Brown v. Board of Education decision

Port Huron Statement - 1962, manifesto of the Students for a Democratic Society by Tom Hayden



American Conferences, Conventions, and Congresses


Albany Congress (1754, NY) - meeting between American colonies and Iroquois in preparation for war

               with France; Franklin presented a plan of union for the colonies

First Continental Congress (1774, PN) - met at Carpenter's Hall; Randolph was president; issued

               Declaration of Rights and Grievances; established Continental Association, protected by

               Committees of Safety

Second Continental Congress (1775 - 1777, PN) - drafted Declaration of Independence; Dickinson headed

               committee that wrote Articles of Confederation, contributed to by Burke; Hancock was president

Annapolis Convention (1786, MD) - decided the convention's powers were too limited to make needed

               changes in commerce laws, so it called for a convention in Philadelphia in 1787

Constitutional Convention (1787, PN) - framed new Constitution; Washington was president

Hartford Convention (1814 - 1815, CT) - NE Federalists, opposed to the War of 1812, proposed

               constitutional amendments, including 2/3 majority for war or new states, and one-term presidency;

               disbanded when Treaty of Ghent was signed; led by Cabot and Otis

Harrisburg Convention (1827, PN) - discussed Tariff of Abominations; dominated by textile industry

Seneca Falls Convention (1848, NY) - adopted Declaration of Sentiments for women's rights, especially

               suffrage; led by Mott and Stanton

Hampton Roads Conference (1865, VG) - Lincoln and Seward (Union) met with Stephens, Campbell, and               

               Hunter (Confederate) aboard the River Queen but reached no agreement on ending Civil War

Atlantic Charter (Aug. 1941, Newfoundland) - Roosevelt and Churchill expressed postwar aims, including

               right of self-determination

Casablanca (Jan. 1943, Morocco) - Roosevelt and Churchill decided to follow up African campaign with a

               Mediterranean campaign rather than immediate attack on Germany

Cairo (Nov. 1943, Egypt) - Roosevelt, Churchill, and Chiang discussed WWII Pacific Theater

Tehran (Nov. - Dec. 1943, Iran) - Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin discussed WWII and postwar plans;

               Stalin's first appearance at a conference

Dumbarton Oaks (1944, DC) - US, China, Britain, and USSR outlined plan for UN; estate was deeded by

               Bliss to Harvard in 1940

Bretton Woods (July 1944, NH) - also United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference; 44 nations

               established IMF and International Bank for Reconstruction and Development

Yalta (Feb. 1945, Ukraine) - Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met; agreed on reparations, partition of

               Germany, and (secretly) that the USSR would join the war on Japan

United Nations Conference on International Organization (Apr. - June 1945, SF) - established UN

Potsdam Conference (July-Aug. 1945, Germany) - implemented Yalta decisions; issued ultimatum to

               Japan; Stalin, Truman, and Churchill (replaced by new Prime Minister Attlee)



Church Councils and Their Associated Heresies


First Council of Nicaea - 325; called by Constantine the Great (Rome); condemned Arianism; adopted

               Nicaen Creed

Council of Ephesus - 431; called by Valentinian III (Western Rome) and Theodosius II (Eastern Rome); St.

               Cyril led condemnation of Nestorianism

Council of Chalcedon - 451; called by Leo I and Marcian (Eastern Rome); condemned Monophysitism

Second Council of Nicaea - 787; called by Irene (Byzantine); supported iconoclasm

Council of Clermont - 1095; called by Urban II; initiated First Crusade; excommunicated Philip I (France)

Fourth Lateran Council - 1215; called by Innocent III; condemned Cathari (Albigenses) and Waldenses

Council of Constance - 1414 - 1418; called by antipope John XXIII and Sigismund (HRE); elected Martin

               V over John, Gregory XII, and antipope Benedict XIII, ending Rome - Avignon schism; declared

               Wycliffe, Huss, and Jerome of Prague heretics; declared council supremacy over the pope

Council of Basel - 1431 - 1449; called by Martin V; Eugene IV replaced it with Ferrara-Florence Council;

               it elected anti-pope Felix V, threatening to reopen the Great Schism

Council of Ferrara-Florence - 1438 - 1445; Eugene IV tried to reunite Eastern Church under John VIII

               Palaeologus with the Western Church; moved to Florence when plague broke out in Ferrara

Council of Trent - 1545 - 1563; called by Paul III to consider reforms proposed by the Reformation; Pius

               IV confirmed its decrees; met in three periods

First Vatican Council - 1869 - 1870; called by Pius IX; affirmed papal infallibility (Pastor Aeternus)

Second Vatican Council - 1962 - 1965; called by John XXIII; promoted Christian unity and reforms in the

               church; condemned anti-Semitism; led by Paul VI


Associated Heresies

Arianism - belief that Jesus was created and is not eternal like the Father; proposed by Arius of Libya

Nestorianism - belief that Christ's divine and human natures were distinct, and so Mary was not the "mother

               of God", proposed by patriarch Nestorius

Monophysitism - belief that Christ has divine nature but no human nature, supported by Robber Synod and

               Coptic Church

Albigensian Heresy - belief in two gods (Dualism), one good and the other bad; adherents often called

               Cathari; based on Persian Manichaeism



US Constitution



Article I - Powers of Congress

Article II - Powers of the President

Article III - Judiciary Powers

Article IV - Admission of New States

Article V - Process of Amending the Constitution

Article VI - Supremacy of the Constitution

Article VII - Ratification process of the Constitution Amendments



1 - Freedom of speech, press, and religion

2 - Right to bear arms

3 - Quartering of troops

4 - Search and seizure

5 - Due process, do not have to witness against yourself, no double jeopardy

6 - Right to speedy trial

7 - Right to trial by jury

8 - Excessive bail and cruel and unusual punishment

9 - Constitutional rights do not deny rights retained by people

10 - Rights not delegated by the Constitution are retained by the states

11 - Limits of federal judicial power (1795)

12 - Separate electoral ballots for President and Vice President (1804)

13 - Abolition of Slavery (1865)

14 - Rights of citizenship unabridged (1868)

15 - Voting rights to all races (1870)

16 - Federal income tax (1913)

17 - Direct election of senators (1913)

18 - Prohibition (1919)

19 - Women's suffrage (1920)

20 - Lame Duck amendment (1933)

21 - Repeal Prohibition (1933)

22 - Presidential term limits (1951)

23 - DC given vote in Presidential elections (1961)

24 - Poll tax ban (1964)

25 - Presidential succession (1967)

26 - Voting age lowered to 18 (1971)

27 - No congressional pay raises effective until after intervening election (1992)



1 - Delaware

2 - Pennsylvania

3 - New Jersey

4 - Georgia

5 - Connecticut

6 - Massachusetts

7 - Maryland

8 - South Carolina

9 - New Hampshire

10 - Virginia

11 - New York

12 - North Carolina

13 - Rhode Island

14 - Vermont

15 - Kentucky



1 - South Carolina

2 - Mississippi

3 - Florida

4 - Alabama

5 - Georgia

6 - Louisiana

7 - Texas

8 - Virginia

9 - Arkansas

10 - North Carolina

11 - Tennessee



Supreme Court Cases


1789 - 1795 John Jay

1795 - 1795 John Rutledge

1796 - 1801 Oliver Ellsworth

1801 - 1835 John Marshall

               Chisholm v. Georgia (1793) - ruled the federal government had jurisdiction in the case of an

                              individual (Chisholm of SC) against another state (GA); led to Eleventh Amendment

               Marbury v. Madison (1803) - ruled Congress exceeded its power in Judiciary Act of 1789,

                              establishing Supreme Court's power to invalidate laws

               Fletcher v. Peck (1810) - first state law ruled unconstitutional; case based on Yazoo land fraud

               McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) - ruled Congress had authority to charter a national bank under

                              "necessary and proper" clause, and that the Second National Bank was immune to

                              taxation from Baltimore County

               Trustees of Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819) - ruled state could not arbitrarily alter terms

                              of a college's contract

               Cohens v. Virginia (1821) - again overruled state law; case based on two brothers illegally selling

                              lottery tickets

               Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) - ruled that Congress could regulate commerce and struck down

                              monopoly on NY-NJ ferries given to Ogden, Fitch, Livingston, and Fulton

               Worcester v. Georgia (1832) - ruled state of GA could not remove Cherokees, but Jackson did not

                              enforce the decision ("Let him enforce it")

               Barron v. Baltimore (1833) - ruled Bill of Rights did not apply to state governments; case based

                              on a claim for compensation from city of Baltimore for reducing wharf's value

1836 - 1864 Roger Taney

               Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857) - ruled Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional because it

                              deprived a person of his property (slaves) without due process, and that slaves are not citizens

               Ex parte Merryman (1861) - ruled Lincoln could not suspend habeas corpus for secessionist at

                              Fort McHenry

1864 - 1873 Salmon P. Chase

               Ex parte Milligan (1866) - ruled an Indiana civilian could not be tried in military courts when civil

                              courts existed

               Ex parte Garland (1867) - ruled unconstitutional a law requiring attorneys to have always been

                              loyal to US

1874 - 1888 Morrison Waite

               Munn v. Illinois (1877) - upheld laws supported by Grangers regulating railroad rates

               Ex parte Yarbrough (1884) - upheld conviction of Klansmen who prevented a black man from

                              voting in GA

1888 - 1910 Melville Fuller

               United States v. E.C. Knight Co. (1895) - ruled manufacturing was not commerce and so not

                              covered by Sherman Antitrust Act; let stand a sugar monopoly

               Pollock v. Farmers' Loan and Trust Co. (1895) - ruled part of Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act that

                              established an income tax was unconstitutional; led to Sixteenth Amendment

               Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) - ruled constitutional a state law requiring separate but equal

                              facilities for black and white passengers

               Northern Securities Co. v. US (1904) - ruled a holding company formed solely to eliminate

                              competition between two railroad lines violated antitrust act

               Lochner v. New York (1905) - limited power of states to regulate working conditions by finding

                              in favor of Lochner, a NY bakery owner fined by the state

               Muller v. Oregon (1908) - ruled constitutional a state law limiting the working hours of women

               Loewe v. Lawler (Danbury Hatters) (1908) - ruled secondary boycotts illegal under Sherman

                              Antitrust Act

1910 - 1921 Edward White

               Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey et al. v. US (1911) - ruled Standard Oil Trust must be dissolved

                              because of its unreasonable restraint of trade, not because of its size

               Hammer v. Dagenhart (1918) - ruled unconstitutional a law prohibiting commerce of goods

                              produced by child labor; case brought by NC man with two sons in a cotton mill

               Schenck v. US (1919) - sustained Espionage Act of 1917, saying freedom of speech could be

                              constrained if it presents a "clear and present danger"; based on a case in which a man

                              distributed anti-draft pamphlets

1921 - 1930 William Howard Taft

               Gitlow v. New York (1925) - ruled freedom of speech in First Amendment applies to states also,

                              but let stand a law preventing advocacy of violent overthrow of government

1930 - 1941 Charles Evans Hughes

               Schechter Poultry v. US (1935) - ruled unconstitutional the National Industrial Recovery Act

               National Labor Relations Board v. Jones & Laughlin Steel (1937) - upheld Wagner Act

1941 - 1946 Harlan Stone

1946 - 1953 Fred Vinson

               Dennis et al. v. US (1951) - upheld Smith Act of 1940 outlawing speaking about Communist

                              theory of advocating the forcible overthrow of US government

1953 - 1969 Earl Warren

               Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954) - ruled that separate schools for black and white

                              students were inherently unequal, violating Fourteenth Amendment

               Roth v. US and Alberts v. California (1957) - ruled that obscene material not protected by

                              freedom of speech, defining obscene as "utterly without redeeming social value"

               Mapp v. Ohio (1961) - ruled evidence obtained in violation of Fourth Amendment could not be

                              used in court

               Engel v. Vitale (1962) - ruled public school officials could not require school prayer

               Baker v. Carr (1962) - ruled federal courts could redistrict legislative districts in TN

               Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) - ruled that due process in Fourteenth Amendment applies to states,

                              so all persons charged with crimes must be provided an attorney

               New York Times v. Sullivan (1964) - ruled freedom of press protected press from libel suits for

                              reports on public officials unless it could be proven he reports were made from malice

               Griswold v. Connecticut (1965) - ruled state could not prohibit contraceptives

               Miranda v. Arizona (1966) - ruled suspects must be informed of their right to remain silent and to

                              obtain an attorney before questioning them

               Loving v. Virginia (1967) - ruled unconstitutional a law banning interracial marriages, saying

                              laws with racial classifications are "inherently suspect"

1969 - 1986 Warren Burger

               Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education (1971) - permitted busing to end school


               Furman v. Georgia and Branch v. Texas and Jackson v. Georgia (1972) - ruled death penalty, as

                              instituted, unconstitutional

               Wisconsin v. Yoder (1972) - ruled Amish could be exempted from compulsory education law

               Roe v. Wade and Doe v. Bolton (1973) - ruled fetus was not a person and that Fourteenth

                              Amendment protected women's rights to abortion

               US v. Nixon (1974) - ruled executive privilege of immunity from judicial demands for evidence to

                              be used in a criminal trial were not applicable in this case

               Buckley v. Valeo (1976) - ruled campaign spending limits violate First Amendment

               Gregg v. Georgia and Profit v. Florida and Jurek V. Texas (1976) - ruled capital punishment was

                              not in violation of ban on cruel and unusual punishments but required consideration of

                              individual character and circumstances of the crime in sentencing

               Coker v. Georgia (1977) - ruled death penalty excessive for rape

               Regents of University of California v. Bakke (1978) - ruled special affirmative action medical

                              admissions program violated 1964 Civil Rights Act, but that race could be considered in


               Bowers v. Hardwick (1986) - upheld Georgia law against homosexuality

1986 - 2005 William Rehnquist

               Cruzan v. Missouri (1990) - ruled person has right to refuse life-sustaining medical treatment, but

                              there must be "clear and convincing evidence" of that desire

               Adarand Constructors v. Pena (1995) - ruled federal programs classifying people by race may

                              deny right to equal protection and be unconstitutional, unless "narrowly tailored" to a

                              "compelling governmental interest"

               US Term Limits Inc. v. Thorton (1995) - ruled Congressional term limits unconstitutional

               Bush v. Gore (2000) - ended manual recounts of Florida Presidential ballots

               Atkins v. Virginia (2002) - ruled execution of mentally retarded violated Eighth Amendment

2005 - ? John Roberts, Jr.

               Hamdan v. Rumsfeld (2006) - ruled against system for trying terrorism detainees at Guantanamo Bay

               District of Columbia v. Heller (2008) - overturned DC handgun ban

               Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (2010) - ruled that the ban on corporations financing

                              Campaign advertisements was unconstitutional

               National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius (2012) - ruled that the individual mandate of

                              the Affordable Care Act was within Congressional powers of taxation

               Shelby County v. Holder (2013) - ruled unconstitutional part of the 1965 Civil Rights Act targeting

                              specific jurisdictions for additional scrutiny

               Burwell v. Hobby Lobby Stores (2014) - ruled some closely held corporations could claim religious

                              exemption from mandate to provide contraception under Affordable Care Act

               Obergefell v. Hodges (2016) - ruled that state bans on same-sex marriage violated 14th Amendment