Mythology

 

 

Canaanite Mythology

 

The Poem of Aqhat - found in Ugarit Syria, Baal and El allow Danel and Danatiya to have son Aqhat;

Koshar-wa-Khasis gives him a bow intended for goddess Anat, whose henchman Yatpan kills him;

Aqhat's sister Paghat avenges him

The Poem of Baal - dragon sea god Yam and irrigation god Ashtar battle for earth; sun goddess Shapash

warns Ashtar; rain god Ball, son of chief god El defeats Yam with help of two thunderbolts made by

Koshar-wa-Khasis; war goddess Anat helps Baal win approval of palace from mother of gods Asherat;

Baal destroys Yam and allows windows in his palace;  Baal has relations with a heifer and goes to

underworld to fight death god Mot; Ashtar took Baal's throne on earth; Anat and sun god Shapash

rescue Baal

 

 

Celtic Mythology

 

Tuatha De Danann Group ("peoples of the goddess Danu") : defeated older deities but were overrun by the

Milesians, forerunners of the Irish

                                Dagda : Irish "good god"; had never-empty cauldron, never-barren fruit tree, two pigs,

and self-playing harp

                                Gobniu

                                Lug : identified with Mercury; sole survivor of triplets; father of Ulster hero Cu Chulainn

Matronae : the three mothers

Festivals

                Samain : new years; November 1; celebrated marriage of Dagda to Morrigan (queen of demons) or

Boann (Boyne)

                Beltire : May 1; fires burned for Belenus, god of sheep and cattle

Brigit : Dagda's daughter; identified with Minerva; goddess of poetry, crafts, prophesy, and fertility

Esus : "master" god of Gaul

Druids : Celtic priests

Ulster Cycle (sagas about

Deirdre [daughter of King Conchobar's storyteller Felim destined to be beautiful and bring death;

she is raised by Lavarcham in woods; falls in love with Conchobar's nephew Naisi and flees to

Alba with his brothers; they are persuaded to return and Usnech's sons are killed and Deirdre

commits suicide],

Cu Chulainn [son of sun god Lugh, Cu Chulainn kills hound but takes its place until owner gets

new one; trained by woman warrior Scathach; subdues Aoife and has son Conlaoch by her;

Conlaoch returns later and kills many but is killed by Cu; Cu fights army of Queen Maeve;

seduced by sea god Mananaan's wife Fand; Queen Medb of Cruachain creates imaginary

host whom Cu fights to exhaustion and dies tied to pillar; wife Emer dies with him],

King Conchobar, Medb and Ailill, Fergus, Cu Roi, Finnabair, Noisi, Emer, Bricriu Poison-tongue,

Cathbad the Druid, Etain, Da Derga, Mac Datho, Conaire, and Conall Cernach;

Cattle-Raid of Cooley [Cu Chulainn deters army of Queen Maeve while Red Branch warriors of

Ulster awaken; duels and kills foster brother Ferdiad])

 

 

Egyptian Mythology

 

Set murdered his brother King Osiris, but Horus, the hawk-headed son of Osiris and his sister-wife Isis,

took power back from his usurping uncle; Isis and her sister Nephthys buried all 14 pieces of Osiris

except the phallus; pharaohs ruled on earth as Horus and would rule in Underworld as Osiris

Anubis was the jackal-headed protector of the dead, and weighed the hearts of the dead on a balance

against a feather

Heliopolitan Ennead

                Atum : merged with Re as Re-Atum; creator; lived in Nun (primordial waters of chaos); appears as

Khepri at dawn and Re at noon

                Osiris : god of fertility; embodiment of the dead; resurrected king

                Set : brother of Osiris; murdered Osiris but was defeated by Horace

                Isis : sister and wife of Osiris

                Nephthys : sister of Isis and Osiris

                Shu : god of the air; created by Atum alone

                Tefnut : goddess of moisture; sister and wife of Shu

                Nut : goddess of the sky; daughter of Shu and Tefnut

                Geb : god of the earth; son of Shu and Tefnut

Four couples of Hermopolis

                Nu and Naunet : depth

                Huh and Hauhet : infinity

                Kuk and Kauket : darkness

                Amon and Amaunet : invisibility

Regional development

                Buto, Lower Egypt : Horus, Hather

                Ombus, Upper Egypt : Set

                Heliopolis : Ra

                Memphis : Ptah

                Thebes : Amon-Re

                Abydos : Osiris

Theban Triad

Amon-Re : king of the gods; means "The Hidden One"; painted blue to indicate invisibility; Amon

cult suppressed by Akhenaton

Mut : a goddess

Khons : a youthful god

New Kingdom Triad : Amon, Ptah, and Re

Apis : holy bull of Osiris

Onurus : warrior god

The 27-day Feast of Opet was the greatest feast in Egypt

 

 

Greek and Roman Mythology

 

The Gods

                Titans

                                Cronus (Saturn) - chief, Zeus's father

                                Ocean - river encircling Earth

                                Tethys - Ocean's wife

                                Hyperion - father of sun, moon, dawn

                                Mnemosyne - Memory

                                Themis - Justice

                                Iapetus - father of Atlas (who holds Earth on shoulders)

                                Prometheus - gave man fire

                12 Gods of Olympus (eat ambrosia, drink nectar)

Zeus (Jupiter) - chief, sky god, Rain-god, cloud-gatherer, used thunderbolt, not

omnipotent, many affairs, used aegis breastplate, eagle and oak sacred to him

Hera (Juno) - Zeus's wife and sister, protector of marriage, jealous, punished those who

had affairs with Zeus, daughter Hithyia (protects childbirth), city was Argos,

cow and peacock sacred to her

                                Artemis (Diana) - daughter of Zeus and Leta, Apollo's twin, chief huntress, goddess of

nature, harvest and childbirth, protector of youth, moon goddess

Poseidon (Neptune) - god of sea, Zeus's brother, wife was Amphitrite, gave horse to man,

Earth-shaker

Hades (Pluto) - underworld, god of wealth and precious metals, helmet made him

invisible, terrible but just, abducted Persephone (Proserpine) as wife, death itself is

Thanatos (Orcus)

Pallas Athena (Minerva) - sprang from Zeus's head, goddess of Battle, the City,

handicrafts, and agriculture, invented bridle, carried aegis and thunderbolt as Zeus's

favorite child, "gray-eyed", the Maiden, temple was the Parthenon, goddess of wisdom,

city was Athens, olive and owl sacred to her

Phoebus Apollo - son of Zeus and Leto (Latona), born in Delos, lyre musician, Archer-

god, Healer, god of light and truth, oracle at Delphi priestess on tripod answered

questions, killed Python, Mouse-god, sun god is Helios (Hyperion's son), laurel and

dolphin and crow sacred to him

Aphrodite (Venus) - goddess of love, beauty, and laughter, daughter of Zeus and Dione

or born of  sea foam at Cythera near Cyprus, wife of Hephaestus, myrtle and dove

sacred to her

Hermes (Mercury) - son of Zeus and Maia (daughter of Atlas), messenger, had winged

sandles and Caduceus magic wand, Master Thief, stole Apollo's cattle at age one day,

god of commerce, Divine Herald, guides dead to underworld, gave Apollo lyre

Ares (Mars) - son of Zeus and Hera who both hated him, god of War, coward in Greek

myths, sister Eris and nephew Strife, born in Thrace, vulture and dog sacred to him

Hephaestus (Vulcan and Mulciber) - god of fire, son of Hera and possibly Zeus, ugly

and lame, thrown out of Olympus, later popular on Earth and Olympus, forges weapons,

furnishings, houses, works under volcanos, wife Aphrodite or Aglaia (a Grace), god of

smiths and handicrafts, important in city

Hestia (Vesta) - Zeus's sister, goddess of Hearth, meal offerings to her, each city had a

public Hearth with eternal fire, Rome's Hearth cared for by 6 vestals (priestesses)

                Lesser Gods of Olympus

Eros (Cupid) - love god, Aprodite's son or companion, mischievious, blindfolded,

attended by Anteros (slighted love), Himeros (longing), and Hymen (wedding feast)

Hebe - Youth, daughter of Hera and Zeus, cupbearer, Trojan prince Ganymede abducted

by Zeus's eagle was also a cupbearer

                                Iris - rainbow, messenger

                                Graces - Aglaia (Splendor), Euphrosyne (Mirth), Thalia (Good Cheer), daughters of Zeus

and Eurynome (daughter of Ocean ), queens of song, dance to Apollo's lyre

                                Muses - daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne (Memory), born at Mount Pierus in Pieria,

inspired men, dance to lyre

                                                                Clio - history

                                                                Urania - astronomy

                                                                Melpomene - tragedy

                                                                Thalia - comedy

                                                                Terpsichore - dance

                                                                Calliope - epic poetry

                                                                Erato - love poetry

                                                                Polyhymnia - songs to gods

                                                                Euterpe - lyric poetry

                                                Zeus's attendants

                                                                Themis - divine justice

                                                                Dike - human justice

                                                Nemesis - righteous anger

                                                Aidos - shame

                Lesser Gods of the Sea

Nereus - Old Man of the Sea, wife Doris and 50 nymph daughters (Nereids) incl.

Achille's mom Thetis and Posidon's wife Amphitrite

                                Triton - shell trumpeter

                                Natads - water nymphs

                Underworld

                                Erebus - upper level

                                Tartarus - lower level

                                Rivers

                                                Acheron - woe

                                                Cocytus - lamentation

                                                Lethe - forgetfulness

                                                Phlegethon - fire

                                                Styx - unbreakable oath

                                Charon - old boatman, ferries dead to gates of Tartarus

                                Cerberus - 3-headed dog who lets no one leave

                                Judges - Rhadamanthus, Minos, Aeacus

                                Elysian Fields - where the good are rewarded

                                Erinyes (Furies) - pursue sinners, inexorable but just, Tisiphone, Megaera,

Alecto

                                Sleep and Death - brothers, send true dreams via horn gate and false via ivory

gate

                Lesser Gods of the Earth

                                Demeter (Ceres) - goddess of corn, daughter of Cronus and Rhea

                                Dionysus (Bacchus) - god of the vine

                                Pan - Hermes's son, part goat, lived in wild thickets and forests, ugly

                                Silenius - son or brother of Pan, always drunk

                                Castor - son of Leda and King Tyndareus of Sparta as was Clytemnestra

(Agamemnon's wife)

                                Pollux - son of Zeus and Leda as was Helen of Troy, Castor was killed by Idas,

avenged by Pollux, brothers shared immortality even though only

Pollux was immortal, protect sailors

                                Sileni - part horse, part man

                                Satyrs - part goat, part man

                                Aeolus - King of Winds, lived at Aeolia, Boreas (North), Zephyr (West), Nortus

(South), Eurus (East)

                                Centaurs - part horse, part man, Chiron was wisest

                                Gorgons - dragonlike, look turned men to stone

                                Graiae - 3 gray sisters with total of one eye

                                Sirens - voices lured sailors to death

                                Fates - (Greek Moirae, Roman Parcae)

                                                Clotho - spinner

                                                Lachesis - disposer of lots

                                                Atropos - cut thread of life at death

                Additional Roman Gods

                                The Numina - the Will-Powers

                                Lares - spirits of ancestors

                                Penates - gods of storehouses

                                Saturn - protector of sowers and seed

                                Ops - Saturn's wife, Harvest Helper

                                Janus - two-faced, good beginnings and endings, January

                                Faunus - like Pan, Saturn's grandson

                                Fauns - Roman satyrs

                                                Quinirus - Romulus as a god

                                                Manes - spirits of good dead in Hades

                                                Lemures - spirits of bad dead in Hades

                                                Camenae - goddesses of springs, cured disease, foretell, became like Muses

                                                Lucina - childbirth

                                                Pomona and Vertumnus - loved each other

Man's Best Friends - Demeter (corn) and Bacchus (wine)

                Demeter

                                temple and secret festival at Eleusis

                                daughter Persephone abducted by Hades

                                Demeter's sadness caused famine

                                tried to make Metaneira's son immortal but stopped in anger when spied upon

                                Zeus ordered Hades to return Persephone

                                Persephone ate a pomegranate seed so had to return to Hades 4 monthes/year

when Demeter is sad (winter)

                Dionysus (Bacchus)

                                drama festivals in his honor

                                born in Thebes to Zeus and Semele

                                only god with a mortal parent

                                mom asked to see Zeus as a god which killed her

                                Dionysus rescued by Zeus and taken to nymphs of Nysa by Hermes

                                captured by pirates for ransom but turned into lion and killed all except a

helmsman who recognized him as a god

                                went to underworld and brought dead mom to Olympus

                                caused mom of King Pentheus of Thebes, who mocked him, to go mad and tear

him to pieces

                                like wine, Bacchus could bring happiness or madness

Creation

                Chaos's children - Night and Erebus

                Love born, then Earth formed

                Mother Earth (Gaea) and Father Heaven (Ouranos)'s children - monsters, 3 with 100

hands and 50 heads, 3 Cyclopses (one eye), lastly Titans (some good)

                Ouranos imprisoned monsters, Gaea convinced Titan Cronus to oppose father

                Cronus injured Ouranos and Giants sprung up from blood as did Erinyes (Furies)

                Monsters driven from Earth but Erinyes remain until sin gone

                Cronus and sister-queen Rhea ruled

                Cronus ate 5 children to keep them from overthrowing him but Rhea saved Zeus,

replacing him with a stone

                Zeus and Gaea made Cronus disgorge 5 kids who, with Titan Prometheus, battled Cronus

and the other Titans and won, punishing the losers

                Zeus opposed by Gaea's last son Typhon monster and rebellion of the Giants but Zeus

with Hercules's help won

                Earth a disk divided by Mediterranean and Black (Axine or Unfriendly, later Euxine or

                                Friendly) Seas and Ocean River

                Creation of man

                                Story 1 - Epimetheus gave all good gifts to animals so brother Prometheus gave

fire to man

                                Story 2 - gods created golden race, then silver, brass, another, iron, each inferior

to previous and each generation declining

                Creation of woman

                                Zeus angered when Prometheus tricked him into choosing bad part of sacrifice

                                Story 1 - gods created Pandora, beautiful but evil to men

                                Story 2 - gods gave Pandora box of plagues which she opened out of curiosity,

Hope only good thing in box

                Punishment of Prometheus - tied to rock for befriending man, wouldn't tell Hermes who

would be mom of child that would overthrow Zeus so an eagle ate his liver daily, finally rescued

by either Chiron the Centaur's death in exchange or by Hercules

                Deluge Story - Zeus sent flood to destroy Iron Race but Prometheus saved his family

(Deucalion and wife Pyrrha) in chest on Mt. Parnassus, created more men by throwing stones

Prometheus and Io

                Io in form of a heifer talked to Prometheus at Caucasus about woes by Zeus, Zeus had

sent dreams about loving him, then went down under cover of cloud

                Hera went to Earth and found him, Zeus turned her to heifer which Hera requested and

put under guard of 100-eyed Argus

                Hermes put all 100 eyes to sleep with tale of Pan and Syrinx and killed him

                Hera sent gad-fly to torment her

                Io wandered for years but reached Nile and restored to human form by Zeus

                Had son Epaphus and descendant Hercules, Ionian Sea named for her

Europa

                Europa, daughter of King of Sidon, had dream of Asia and nameless continent arguing

for her

                Zeus in form of beautiful bull got her to ride him while she was picking flowers

                                went to Crete and had sons Minos and Rhadamanthus (judges)

Cyclops Polyphemus

                Odysseus and 12 men returning from Trojan War landed on Polyphemus's island and went to cave

                Cyclopses had one eye, forged thunderbolts, herded goats and sheep

                Polyphemos ate 6 men (2 per meal) and closed giant boulder door

                Odysseus blinded him with sharpened wooden log and escaped by hanging on belly of rams

                in other stories Polyphemus loved sea nymph Galatea but not loved back

                Galatea talked to Doris and married prince Acis whom Polyphemus killed in jealousy but became

a river-god

Narcissus

                scorned love of maidens

                Hera had unjustly punished Echo by only letting her echo others

                Echo was ignored by handsome Narcissus

                a maiden prayed that Narcissus fall in love with himself and he did

                stared at own reflection in pool until death

                narcissus flower sprung up in place of body

Hyacinthus - killed accidentally by discus thrown by sorrowful Apollo (possibly blown by jealous west

wind Zephyr) and hyacinth flower sprung up

Adonis

                handsome Adonis loved by Aphrodite and Persephone

                Zeus awarded him to Aphrodite spring/summer, Persephone autumn/winter

                while hunting with Aphrodite was killed by boar

                crimson flower sprung up

Cupid and Psyche

                Psyche, 1 of 3 sisters, admired for beauty more than was Venus

                jealous Venus asked son Cupid to make her fall in love with an ugly man

                Cupid fell in love with her instead and no man fell in love with her

                Oracle at Delphi told parents to leave her on cliff

                Cupid took her to a mansion as his wife but wouldn't let her see him

                despite warnings, Psyche saw her sisters who convinced her to take lamp at night and see if

husband was monster

                falling wax awoke Cupid and he left

                after searching long for Cupid, Psyche went to Venus and became her servant

                animals helped her in impossible tasks Venus gave her: ants in sorting seeds, reed in gathering

wool, eagle in filling vase with river water

                Cupid escaped his room and took Psyche to Olympus

                Jupiter made Psyche immortal which pleased Venus

Pyramus and Thisbe

                talked to each other through wall that divided their houses

                agreed to meet at night at Tomb of Ninus

                Pyramus saw lioness with Thisbe's cloak, thought her dead, and killed himself with his sword

                Thisbe saw Pyramus dying and fell on his sword also

Orpheus and Eurydice

                Orpheus was greatest musician and loved Eurydice

                she was bitten by viper and died just after marriage

                he went to underworld and sang so beautifully Pluto returned her

                he looked back too soon and she was snatched back to underworld

                Orpheus roamed in sadness until Maenads tore him to pieces

Ceyx and Alcyone

                Ceyx (Thessaly king, son of Lucifer) left wife Alcyone (daughter of Aelous) to visit Oracle

                died in hurricane as she feared

                Juno sent Iris to tell Somnus to tell Alcyone in dream that Ceyx was dead

                body washed up to Alcyone on shore

                gods turned both to birds

                7 days/year sea is peaceful (Halcyon days)

Pygmalion and Galatea

                Pygmalion hated women but fell in love with his statue of perfect woman

                Venus granted his prayer and turned statue to life

                their son Paphos was namesake of Venus's favorite city

Baucis and Philemon

                only old Baucis and Philemon showed hospitality to Mercury and Jupiter, disguised as poor

wayfarers

                all neighbors were swallowed by water but their hut was turned into a temple and they lived long

and died together, turning into an oak and a linden tree from same trunk in Phrygia

Endymion - shepherd Endymion loved by Selene (Moon) who put him in immortal sleep forever so she can

caress him at night

Daphne

                Apollo chased Daphne, who prefered to be a maiden

                as he was about to catch her, her father river-god Peneus turned her into a laurel, which became

Apollo's sacred tree

Alpheus and Arethusa

                Arethusa of Ortygia (Syracuse, Sicily) was maiden huntress like Artemis

                bathed in spring

                river-god Alpheus chased her until Artemis changed her into a spring of water

                tunnel created between Greece and Sicily

                Arethusa's well in Sicily

                Alpheus changed back to river and waters mingled with hers

The Quest of the Golden Fleece

                generation before Odysseus

                King Athamus put away wife Nephele and married Princess Ino (daughter of King Cadmus of

                                Thebes)

                Ino caused famine and tricked messenger to say oracle demanded sacrifice of Nehele's son Phrixus

                Hermes sent a ram to rescue Phrixus and sister Helle

                Helle fell to death but Phrixus made it to Colchis

                sacrificed ram and gave its Golden Fleece to King Aertes

                Phrixus's Uncle Pelias had usurped throne and Pelias's nephew (rightful heir) Jason came to claim

throne

                Jason wore one sandal as in profphesy of doom to Pelias

                Pelias offered throne if Jason could bring back the Golden Fleece

                Hercules, Orpheus, Castor and Pollux, Peleus (Achille's dad), and others joined quest

                all-women island (had killed all men except Hypsipyle's dad) friendly to Argonauts

                Hercule's armor-bearer Hylas abducted by water nymph and Hercules left searching for him

                sons of North wind Boreas saved old prophet from bird-like Harpies who had eaten his food (a

punishment from Zeus for foretelling his plans)

                on prophet's advice Jason sent dove through Clashing Rocks Symplegades first and was safe so

boat followed

                ship passed country of fearsome Amazon women, daughters of Harmony and Ares

                Hera asked Aphrodite to make son Cupid make Aertes's magical daughter Medea fall in love with

Jason, which he did on bribe of gold ball

                Argonauts reached Aertes who disliked foreigners

                required Jason to plow field with fire-breathing bulls and sow corn that turned into armed men and

to kill them, as he had done

                Medea, partly on request of a prince Jason had saved, gave Jason one-day invincible powder

                Jason completed task and Medea lulled guardian serpent to sleep as Jason took fleece and fled

with her and Argonauts

                Medea's brother Apsyrtus or Aertes pursued them but they escaped because Medea killed her

brother

                Hera helped cross Scylla rock and Charybdis whirlpool

                returned to Greece

                Pelias had killed Jason's father, mom died of grief

                Medea tricked Pelias's daughters into thinking they could make Pelias young by chopping him up

                had 2 sons in Corinth, Medea may have restored Jason's dad and given Jason youth

                Jason married daughter of King of Corinth for ambition

                Medea cursed her and was exiled by the King of Corinth

                Jason blamed exile on Medea's foolishness but she felt forsaken

                Medea sent her sons to kill Jason's wife with poisoned coat

                she then killed her kids who would have been unsafe in exile and she was carried away by dragon

chariot

Phaethon

                Phaethon, son of mortal Clymene and the Sun, came to Sun's palace to ask if he was Sun's son

                Sun said yes and swore by Styx to give him anything

                wanted to ride Sun's chariot across sky one day

                Sun knew danger and tried to disuade but had to agree

                Phaethon rode chariot but horses went wild

                caught Earth on fire and River Nile hid its head

                Zeus saved Earth by killing Phaethon with thunderbolt

                fell into river Eridanus and mourned by naiads and Heliades sisters

Pegasus and Bellerophon

                King Glaucus of Ephyre (Corinth), son of Sisyphus (who had to roll stone up hill in Hades forever

as Zeus's punishment) fed horses humans to make them fierce but gods caused horses to

eat him

                Bellerophon, son of Eurynome and Glaucus or Poseidon, wanted Pegasus, winged horse who had

sprung from Gorgon's blood when Perseus slew her

                Athena sent dream and golden bridle

                Pegasus accepted Bellerophon and bridle

                accidentally killed brother and fled to King Proetus of Argos whose wife falsely accused him

                Proetus sent him to King Lycia of Asia with note saying to kill him

                fearing Zeus's wrath for inhospitality, Lycia instead sent him on dangerous mission to slay

lion/goat/snake Chimaeva but he did slay it with help of Pegasus

                returned to Proetus who made him battle Solymi and the Amazons, finally befriended him

                Bellerophon became arrogant and tried to fly to Olympus but Pegasus threw him and made him

wander on foot

                Pegasus went to Zeus's stables and delivers thunderbolt

Otus and Ephialtes

                twin giants Otus and Ephialtes, sons of Poseidon and Iphimedia or Canace, imprisoned Ares but

Hermes helped him escape

                Zeus wanted to kill them but Poseidon promised to keep them in line

                Otus wanted Hera but decided first to pursue Artemis for Ephialtes

                Artemis turned into hind in woods of Naxos island and tricked them into throwing weapons at

each other, each slaying his beloved brother

Daedalus

                Daedalus designed Labyrinth for Minotaur in Crete

                Minos suspected he helped Athenians escape so imprisoned him in Labyrinth

                built wings for him and son Icarus to fly out

                despite warnings son flew too high and fell into water

                Daedalus arrived in Sicily

                Minos found him by offering contest of passing thread through intricate shell, knowing only

Daedalus could (by using ant to crawl through it), but Minos was killed

Perseus

                King Acrisius of Argos feared daughter Danae and later her son Perseus because oracle said his

grandson would kill him, so he shut them in underground bronze house and then sent them to

sea in a chest

                fisherman Dictys on island opened chest and let them live with him and his wife

                King Polydectes later wanted Danae but to get rid of Perseus

                Polydectes told Perseus how much he wanted head of Gorgon Medusa, and Perseus promised to

get it as wedding present

                Medusa only mortal of 3 sisters, looking at her turns one to stone

                oracle told him to go to Selli in land of acorns who told him only that gods protected him

                Hermes took Perseus to Gray Women who told him where nymphs of North were when he

kidnapped their one shared eye

                Hermes gave him sword and Athena gave a mirror shield

                Athena told which was Medusa and Perseus looked in mirror-shield, cut off her head, and put it in

magic wallet

                Queen Cassiopeia had been arrogant towards gods so daughter Andromeda was required as

sacrifice to be eaten by serpent

                Perseus slew serpent and took Andromeda as wife and returned to island

                Dictys's wife was dead, Dictys and Danae hid in temple

                Perseus went to Polydectes's banquet and showed Medusa's head, turning all to stone

                returned to Greece to reconcile with Acrisius, who had been driven from his city

                Perseus's discus in athletic contest of King of Larissa in North accidentally hit and killed Acrisius

                Perseus's son Electryon was Hercules's granddad

                Athena given Medusa's head and bore it on aegis

Theseus

                son of King Aegeus of Athens but raised by mom until old enough to roll away stone to get dad's

                                sword and go to Athens

                went by land because more dangerous and wanted to be hero like cousin Hercules

                killed bandits as they killed others:  kicked Sciron into sea, Sinis fastened to pine trees, Procrustes

fit to table length

                Aegeus didn't know Theseus was son so gave him Medea's poison but found out just in time and

dashed cup away before Theseus drank

                Aegeus had sent Minos of Crete's son Androgeus on fatal expedition against a bull and Mino

captured Athens and demanded 7 maidens and 7 youths every 9 years to feed Minotaur

bull/man

                Poseidon had given Minos the Minotaur to sacrifice but instead kept it in Daedalus-designed

Labyrinth, Poseidon punished him by making the Minotaur's mom Pasiphae fall in love

with him

                Theseus volunteered to be sacrifice but planned to kill Minotaur

                Minos's daughter Ariadne fell in love with Theseus and told him to string thread from entrance to

retrace steps and escape, in exchange he would marry her

                Theseus killed Minotaur with his fists

                on way back he either deserted Ariadne on island or she died accidentally

                forgot to give sign of his success by replacing black sail with white so sad Aegeus jumped into

sea, now named Aegean Sea

                Theseus became king and established democracy

                victorious Thebans of the Seven Against Thebes refused to bury enemy so Theseus made them

                only Theseus received outcast Oedipus and protected his daughters

                fought Amazons and took one back, Antiope or Hippolyta, and had son Hippolyta

                Amazons invaded Attica near Athens but were defeated

                went on Argo with Jason and on the Calydonian boar hunt

                saved rash friend Piritheus's life, who had stolen his cattle but surrendered, many times, Piritheus

was King of Lapithae

                helped defeat drunk Centaur horse/men at Piritheus's wedding

                after wife died Piritheus wanted to abduct Persephone

                Theseus kidnapped young Helen but later she was rescued by her brothers Caster and Pollux

                went to Hades with Piritheus but Hades put them in Chair of Forgetfulness and later Hercules

could rescue only Theseus

                Hippolytus was raised in same region dad was and avoided women

                Theseus married Ariadne's sister Phaedra who fell in love with stepson Hippolytus who refused

her nurses's pleas to love her

                Phaedra committed suicide but left note accusing Hippolytus of violence

                Theseus banished son and son was killed when chariot crashed after Poseidon fulfilled dad's curse

by sending a sea monster to attack chariot

                Artemis told Theseus his son was not guilty but it was Aphrodite's fault

                son brought back and died in his arms

                King Lycomedes later killed Theseus for some reason

                Athens honored Theseus and his tomb is sanctuary for poor and helpless

Hercules

                brave and strong but not smart

                helped gods defeat Giants

                threatened to steal oracle's tripod when it didn't answer him said he would fight Apollo

                strong emotions, deserted Argonauts in grief when his armor-bearer Hylas killed

                born to Zeus and Alcides, Amphitryon's wife, with half-brother Iphicles

two snakes attacked brothers in crib before they were a year old but Hercules strangled them,

snakes had been sent by Hera

                Teiresias (blind prophet) said he would be famous

                unintentionally killed his music teacher

                at 18 killed Thespian lion in Cithaeron woods and wore its skin thereafter

                conquered Minyans who plagued Thebans and was given Princess Megara as wife

                Hera made him go mad and he killed his wife and 3 sons

                Amphitryon told him what happened, cousin Theseus saved him from suicide

                oracle at Delphi told him to be purified by performing labors for King Eurystheus of Mycenae

                12 Labors of Hercules

                                killed lion of Nemea

                                killed 9-headed Hydra of Lerna (1 immortal head buried, other 8 grew 2 when 1 cut off

but used nephew Iolaus's brand on severed necks)

                                captured golden horned stag in Cerynitia sacred to Artemis

                                captured great boar on Mt. Erymanthus

                                cleaned Augean stables in a day by diverting 2 rivers

                                drove away Stymphalus birds, helped by Athena

                                captured Minos's bull in Crete

                                stole man-eating mares of King Diomedes of Thrace

                                captured girdle of Hippolyta the Amazon

                                stole cattle of 3-bodied monster in Erythia, set up Gibraltar and Ceuta pillars as memorial

                                tricked Atlas into getting Golden Apples of his sons the Hesperides

                                captured Cerberus from underworld and freed Theseus from Chair of Forgetfulness

                killed Giant wrestler Antaeus, immortal on ground, by lifting and strangling him

                fought river-god Achelous (in form of bull) for Deianira (his daughter) as wife, broke off his horn

                King Laomedon had cheated Apollo and Poseidon of wages for building walls of Troy so a

monster was sent to devous his daughter, Hercules rescued her in return for Zeus's horses owned

by Laomedon but he wouldn't give them to Hercules so Hercules conquered the city, killed the king,

and gave the daughter to his friend Telamon of Salamis

                freed Prometheus on way to Atlas

                carelessly killed servant boy and exiled self as punishment

                killed son of King Eurytus, who had insulted him, as penance was slave of Queen Omphale of

Lydia who made him do women's work

                Apollo, a slave of Admetus as punishment for kiling Zeus's Cyclopses in revenge for death of his

son Aesculaplus, told Admetus he could get a substitute to die for him, and his wife Alcestis agreed

Admetus told Hercules when he came to visit that no one important had died, Hercules got drunk

but was ashamed when he learned Admetus's wife died

                to make amends, Hercules wrestled Death and brought Alcestis back from dead

                Hercules killed King Eurytus and sent captured maidens, including beleved Iole (Eurytus's

daughter) to wife Deianira

                Deianira sent him a coat with what she thought was a love potion from the blood of a ferryman

Hercules had slain (Centaur Nessus)

                was actually poison and nearly killed Hercules but he killed the one who had delivered it, Deianira

killed herself when she found out, and finally Hercules killed himself in a pyre, giving box and arrows

to Philoctetes

                taken to heaven, reconciled with Hera, married Hera's daughter Hebe

Atalanta

                Atalanta's dad, wanting a son, left her in mountains, raised by bear and later by kindly hunters

                Artemis punished King Oeneus by sending terrible bear, King called for heros to hunt it

                in Calydonian boar hunt, Oeneus's son Meleager fell in love with Atalanta and insisted she be

allowed on hunt

                3 men killed, then Atalanta's arrow hit boar and Meleager killed it but gave prize skin to Atalanta

                Meleager's chauvinist uncles complained but he killed them

                upset at brothers' deathes, Meleager's mom Althea threw a log in fire that fates had said would kill

Meleager, and he did die, mom then hanged self

                at Pelias's funeral Atalanta outwrestled Achille's dad Peleus

                Atalanta's dad accepted her back

                she didn't want to marry and disposed of suitors by beating them in a footrace

                Melanion (or Hippomenes) beat her by dropping Aphrodite's irrestible golden apples, which she

had to stop and pick up

                they married and had son Parthenopaeus (one of the Seven Against Thebes) before they were

turned into lions

Trojan War

                at marriage of King Peleus and sea nymph Thetis shunned Eris (goddess of Discord) threw in

golden apple "for the fairest"

                Zeus sent 3 goddesses to be judged by Prince Paris (son of King Priam of Troy) who was herding

sheep

                Paris chose Aphrodite's bribe of most beautiful woman in world over Hera's of being lord over

Europe and Asia and Athena's of leading Troy over the Greeks

                Helen was most beautiful, daughter of Zeus and Leda, King Tyndareus made all suiters promise to

help her future husband if any wrong done

                gave Helen to Menelaus, Agamemnon's brother, and made him King of Sparta

                Paris visited Menelaus but kidnapped Helen when Menelaus was gone

                all Greek chieftans bound to help attack Troy

                Odysseus tried to feign madness by sowing field with salt but didn't run over his son with plow so

messenger knew he was sane and made him go

                Achilles's mom sent him to King Lycomedus and disguised him as girl but Odysseus found he

preferred weapons not girls' trinckets, and he confessed and agreed to go

                Agamemnon was told by soothsayer Calchas he had to sacrifice daughter Iphigenia to Artemis

(upset about a slain hare) to get favorable winds), and he did this

                at Troy Protesilaus was first ashore, brave because it was prophesied that first to shore would be

first to die

                King Priam and Queen Hecuba ruled Troy, Achilles (Greek) and Hector (Troy) fated to die

                9 years of battle

                Greeks carried off Chryseis, daughter of Apollo's priest, for Agamemnon, Apollo shot arrows at

Greeks, Calchus told Greeks to return her, Agamemnon did but took Achilles's Briseis instead

                gods divide

                                for Greeks:  Hera, Athena, Poseidon

                                for Trojans:  Aphrodite, Ares, Apollo, Zeus

                Achilles's mom Thetis mad and asked Zeus to help Troy

                Zeus sent false dream telling Agamemnon to fight without Achilles

                Menelaus and Paris fought alone, Paris lost and fled

                Troy would have returned Helen and ended war but Hera and Athena made Lycian archer

Pandarus break the truce and war started again

                Greeks Ajax and Diomedes killed many, Diomedes wounded Aeneas, his mom Aphrodite tried to

save him but was wounded herself, Apollo then saved Aeneas

                Greeks feared Ares with Hector but Hera helped Diomedes wound Ares and he returned whining

to Olympus

                Hector's mom prayed to Athena but was denied

                Hector bid farewell to wife Andromache and son Astyanax

                Achilles, upset at wrongful stealing of Briseis by Agamemnon, stayed in tent

                wise Nestor told Agamemnon to appease Achilles but sending Briseis back along with many

treasures would not appease him

                Hera put Zeus to sleep and helped Greeks advance, Ajax threw down Hector but Aeneas saved

him

                Zeus awoke but Hera blamed Poseidon

                Apollo and Hector led Tory on advance

                Achilles's beloved friend Patroclus borrowed his armor and fought to help his countrymen despite

Agamemnon's wrong, led Achiles's men (the Myrmidons), Hector slew Patroclus and took

Achilles's armor

                Nestor's son Antilochus told Achilles Patroclus was slain

                Achilles vowed to avenge but mom warned that he was fated to die right after Hector, but she

brought him arms made by Hephaestus

                river Scamander tried to drown Achilles

                Athena took form of Hector's brother Deiphobus to trick him

                Achilles pursued Hector 3 times around Troy

                Achilles slew Hector with spear into hole in armor at throat

                dragged body behind his chariot around Troy

                Zeus sent Iris to Priam and told him to ransom Hector's body back

                Achilles agreed and declared a 9-day truce for mourning Hector in Troy

                burned Hector on big pyre and buried his bones in urn

Fall of Troy

                Achilles killed Prince Memnon of Ethiopia who fought with Troy

                Paris's arrow hit Achilles in the heel, only vulnerable spot because mom Thetis had held him by

heel when dipping in Styx to make him invincible, Achilles died, put in urn with Patroclus

                Greeks voted on whether Odysseus or Ajax would get Achilles's armor, Odysseus won, in anger

Ajax came to kill Agamemnon and Menelaus but Athena made him go mad and he slaughtered

cattle and rams, thinking they were Greeks, then became sane and killed self

                Calchas told Greeks to ask Trojan prophet Helenus, Odysseus captured him and he said Greeks

must use Hercules's bow and arrow, which Philoctetes, who had been bitten by serpent on way

to Troy and abandoned on an island, owned

                Odysseus retrieved Philoctetes and physician healed him, he then shot Paris who went to magical

nymph Oenone (his first wife) for healing but she refused because he had left her for Helen, and

Paris and Oenone died

                Greeks had to steal Troy's image of Athena before it would fall so Diomedes, with Odysseus, did

so at night

                Odysseus devised plan of wooden horse to sneak army into city, all afraid except Achilles's son

Neoptalemus

                Trojans found Greeks' ships gone, camps deserted, and a big horse at Troy's gates

                Sinon, only visible Greek, told story that Athena was upset her image was stolen and demanded a

sacrifice and he was chosen but escaped and wanted to be a Trojan now, said horse was gift to

Athena and Greeks wanted Trojans to burn it and incur Athena's wrath, not bring it in city and

bring her favor

                priest Laocoon and 2 sons doubted the story but Poseidon sent 2 serpents to strangle them and

Trojans took this to mean story was true

                took horse inside gates, at night Greeks got out, opened city gates to let returned army in, and

butchered sleeping Trojans and burned Troy

                vicious fighting in streets, Achilles's son killed Priam

                only Aphrodite's son Aeneas, with her help, escaped, along with his father and son

                Helen returned to Menelaus

                women captives included Queen Hecuba and Hector's wife Andromache

                Hecuba's daughter Polyxena killed on Achilles's grave and Hector's son Astyanax thrown from

wall to death

Adventures of Odysseus

                gods mad at Greeks for forgetting to honor gods in victory over Troy

                a lesser Ajax committed sacrilege of dragging Cassandra, whom Apollo had given power to

prophesy but no one to believe her, out of Athena's sanctuary

                Ajax drowned by Poseidon when he bragged to sea

                many suitors came to apparently widowed Penelope (Odysseus's wife), and lived arrogantly and

recklessly in their house

                Penelope wouldn't marry until wove a shroud for father-in-law Laertes, but she unwove it every

night until suitors discovered the trick

                after 10 years of wandering gods, especially Athena but not Poseidon, took mercy on Odysseus

                when Poseidon was away in Ethiopia Athena convinced gods to free Odysseus from Calypso, a

nymph who loved him and kept him on her isle

                Athena disguised as a seafarer told Odysseus's son Telemachus to go to Nestor and Menelaus to

get info on dad

                Athena disguised as trusted Mentor went with Telemachus on voyage to Pylos home of Nestor

after suitors refused to help

                Nestor told Telmachus to go to Menelaus, who on return from Troy had been blown off course to

Egypt, before returning to Sparta

                Telemachus and Nestor's son went to Menelaus, who received them with great hospitality and told

how he had been trapped on Pharos by bad weather but with help of sea-goddess captured her

dad sea-god Proteus on seal beach who told how to get home and that Odysseus was on

Calypso's isle

                Zeus sent Hermes to tell Calypso to free Odysseus, and she sadly helped him build sturdy raft with

20 trees for 5 days

                on 18th day on sea Odysseus saw mountain but Poseidon returned and sent fierce winds, goddess

Ino helped him swim to shore in 2 days, slept under dry trees

                                was in land of kind Phaeacians with King Alcinous and wise Queen Arete

king's daughter Nausicaa went to river to wash clothes and bathe, found naked Odysseus and

kindly agreed to bring him to palace

                Odysseus asked Arete for mercy and was given good hospitality

                asked next day to tell Phaeacians of his journey returning from Troy

                                landed at land of Lotus-eaters, those who ate lost desire to go home and had to be chained

to ships

                                lost several men to Cyclops Polyphemus (see above)

                                came to King Aeolus of the winds, given bag with all bad winds so would sail peacefully

but sailors opened it and storms hit

                                finally saw land but all ships except Odysseus's destroyed by cannibalistic giants the

Laestrygens

                                came to Aeaea, realm of Circe, who turned men to swine, Hermes gave Odysseus herb to

protect him from Circe's magic, she was amazed her powers failed on him and fell in love

with Odysseus, turned swine back to men and treated them very well for a year

as Circe told them they had to do, Odysseus went to entrance to Hades at Erebus and

filled trench with sheep blood to lure spirits of the dead and ask ghost of Teiresias of

Thebes for help

                                Teiresias warned not to hurt the Sun's oxen and that Odysseus would be safe, other spirits

talked with Odysseus

                                to pass Sirens, who lured men to deaths with beautiful songs, Odysseus was tied to mast

and all others put wax in their ears

                                passed Scylla monster and Charybdis whirlpool although Scylla killed several

                                landed at Island of the Sun and men foolishly killed and ate oxen, mad Sun shattered ship

with thunderbolt and all but Odysseus drowned

                                Odysseus drifted to Calypso's island, then after many years made it to Phaeacian's land

                Alcinous sent Odysseus back to Ithaca on one of his ships with many gifts

                Athena disguised as shepherd met Odysseus and he, cautious, told false story of self, she then

revealed self and they made plans, disguised him as beggar

                disguised Odysseus given hospitality by loyal swineherd Eumaeus

                Telemachus returned and Odysseus revealed himself, agreed to hide all weapons from suitors

                old dog Argos recognized Odysseus, then died

                suitors mocked beggar but Penelope was kind, beggar told story of seeing Odysseus, but didn't

reveal self, old nurse Eurycleia when washing his feet noticed Odysseus's scar from boyhood hunt,

promised not to tell anyone

Penelope asked suitors for costly gifts which they gave her, then told them that whoever could

string Odysseus's bow and shoot arrow through 12 rings would be new husband but no one could

string it

beggar was mocked but Telemachus let him try feat which he did with ease, then Eumaeus closed

women's quarters, cattle keeper shut gates of court, Telemachus with spear guarded exit, Athena

protected Odysseus from attack, and Odysseus killed suitors with arrows

suitors' priest prayed for mercy but was killed with sword, bard was spared

Penelope didn't believe when Eurycleia told her Odysseus returned but went down and found him

still wasn't sure it was him but had 2 ways to know

Adventures of Aeneas

                escaped from Troy with dad and son, sailed with other Trojans

                started several cities but gave up because of bad omens

                dream told him to build in Hesperia (Western Country, Italy), left from Crete

                driven away by Harpies

                met Hector's wife Andromache who had been given to Neoptalemus (Achilles's son) who left her

for Helen's daughter and then died, then she married Trojan prophet Helenus and ruled this land

                Helenus told Aeneas to land on west coast of Italy and avoid Scylla and Charybdis between Italy

and Sicily

                landed in southern Sicily but warned by one of Odysseus's abandoned men that Cyclopses were

there, escaped just in time as Polyphemus waded out to sea

                Juno caused storm with waves from ocean floor to start, Juno knew Fates had said Aeneas's

descendants would conquer her beloved Carthage, asked Aeolus to send winds, but Neptune

calmed sea and reprimanded Aeolus, Aeneas landed near Carthage

                Juno wanted Dido, Carthage's founder, and Aeneas to fall in love, but Venus made Jupiter promise

to foil plan, sent Cupid to make Dido love Aeneas but not Aeneas to love her

                Aeneas and friend Achates explored land and told by Venus disguised as huntress to go to Queen

at Carthage

                saw carvings of Trojan War and were encouraged

                Dido loved Aeneas and made him co-ruler and gave him and his men many gifts

                after a while of living happily Jupiter sent Mercury to tell him to go found city

                Aeneas was sad to leave Dido but had to on Jupiter's orders, left at night, Dido killed herself

                trusty pilot Palinurus died at sea

                landed in western Italy and found wise Sibyl of Cumae as Helenus had said to, she guided

Achilles and Achates to underworld to speak to Achilles's dad Anchises

                killed 4 black bullocks for Night Goddess Hecate, then went down past Disease, Hunger, Discord,

etc. on way to underworld

                gave a golden bough to Charon to ferry them across (ususally only took dead who had been given

proper burial, others had to wander for 100 years), gave cake to Cerberus

                saw Dido in Fields of Mourning for suicide lovers but she didn't respond

                to left Rhadamanthus punished the bad, to right were Elysian Fields where dad was

                Anchises showed Aeneas future descendants, the great Romans, at the River of Forgetfulness for

reincarnation

                Aeneas returned to Italy

                Latinus (great-grandson of Saturn) of Latium told by spirit of dad Faunus to marry daughter

Lavinia only to foreigner whose descendants would rule world

                Latinus thought Aeneas was this man but Juno made Fury Alecto make Queen Amato oppose

marriage and jealous suiter King Turnus of Rutulians attack, Latinus hid and let events unfold

                Juno opened doors of her war temple

                Mezentius helped the Rutulians, was so cruel the Etruscans had overthrown him, Camilla, who

killed cranes and swans and led marriage-hating maiden army, also fought with them

                Father Tiber told Aeneas to go to King Evander of what would later be Rome, he received Aeneas

kindly, told how Saturn led Golden Age in town followed by tyrants before he came from Arcady

in Greece and became king naming city Arcady also, gave Aeneas son Pallas and horses and sent

to much stronger Etruria who hated Mezentius (who had killed people by linking them with

corpses) for help

                Trojans without Aeneas defended selves but took no offensive, as Aeneas had instructed

                veteran Nisus decided to go through enemy lines to send message to Aeneas, friend Euryalus

insisted on going also, Ascanius said he would treat Euryalus's mom as his own if he was killed,

Nisus and Euryalus killed many silently in enemy lines but at daylight troopers caught Euryalus

and killed him, Nisus died trying to rescue him

                fierce battle, all enemies and many with Aeneas including Pallas were killed

                superhuman Aeneas killed Turnus, married Lavinia, and founded Roman race

The House of Atreus

                Tantalus, son of Zeus, ate with gods and was honored by gods but played evil trick:  when gods

gave him honor of dining at his palace he fed them his son Pelops, gods realized this and punished

him by putting him near pool and fruit trees in Hades that disappeared when he tried to eat or drink,

Pelops restored to life but had to have ivory shoulder because Demeter had accidentally eaten his

                Pelops won chariot race against Hippodamia's dad who had beaten and killed many others with his

horses from Ares, was helped by Hippodamia, horses from Poseidon, and King's charioteer Myrtilus

(whom he later killed), Pelops married Hippodamia

                Tantalus's daughter Niobe became great with husband Amphion who played music so well stones

followed him to help brother Zethus (both sons of Zeus) build walls of Thebes, ruled Thebes and

had 14 great kids but in arrogance Niobe made Leto's temple her own, Leto's children Apollo and

Artemis killed all her kids with arrows and she turned into a crying stone

                Pelops's son Atreus killed brother Thyestes's 2 kids and made Thyestes eat them because he had

affair with Atreus's wife

                Odysseus heard spirit of Agamemnon tell of his wretched death:  wife Clytemnestra killed

Cassandra and Clytemnestra's lover Aegisthus killed him

                Alternate story of Agamemnon's death

                                Atreus's son Menelaus lived happily with Helen after returning from Troy via Egypt

                                Agamemnon returned without trouble and received as hero but old men worried because

they knew curse of House of Atreus and that Agamemnon had sacrificed daughter

                                Queen Clytemnestra did not send Aegisthus away, only Agamemnon didn't know of her

infidelity, she greeted Agamemnon lovingly in public

                                Cassandra, war captive who prophesied correctly but no one believed her, told old men

that two, including her, would die that night because of curse of House of Atreus, men

tried to keep her from going into house but she refused

heard Agamemnon cry out and blood-stained Clytemnestra emerged and told all she

had executed husband for sacrificing daughter

                                Aegisthus son of Thyestes helped to avenge wrong Agamemnon's dad Atreus had done to

Thyestes

                                Agamemnon's son Orestes was away with trusted friend, daughter Electra was mistreated

and hoped only for brother's return

                                Orestes asked oracle's help to decide if it was right to kill mom to avenge dad, Apollo

told him to kill her

                                Orestes and friend Pylades came to Electra, proving identity with cloak she made, and

planned to pretend to be messenger with good news that Orestes was dead

                                Orestes killed Aegisthus and mom despite her pleas, was plagued by visions of black

women with snak hair, wandered and suffered for many years, purifying self

                                asked Athena for purification and Apollo helped him, tormenting Furies the Erinyes

became Benignant Ones the Eumenides to protect suppliants,  curse of the House of

Atreus ended

                Iphigenia Among Taurians

                                later Greeks, despising human sacrifice story, changed story of Agamemnon sacrificing

Iphigenia to Artemis because it slandered goddess as bloodthirsty

                                on altar Artemis made Iphigenia disappear and provided deer instead, good news sent to

mom via messenger

                                Iphigenia taken to Tauria (now Crimea) and made priestess at Artemis's temple, job was

to prepare captured Greeks for sacrifice

                                after a few years Orestes, with Pylades, landed there to bring image of Artemis to Greece

to purify self from mom's murder, but was very dangerous

                                were captured and taken to Iphigenia for sacrifice, she asked about their home in

Mycenae and asked Orestes (unrecognized) to take message but he told Pylades to take

it and be saved, message was to Orestes to come rescue her, delivered immediately,

Orestes told her details of home and she knew it was him

                                she devised plan to tell King Thoas that Artemis said the Greeks were impure from

killing mom and had to take them alone to sea to purify, and he allowed it

                                set out to sea but winds blew them back, Thoas was about to kill them but Athena

appeared in air and told him not to, so he stopped, and Poseidon calmed sea and they

sailed away

Royal House of Thebes

                Cadmus

                                Europa's dad sent brothers to look for her, brother Cadmus asked oracle for help, told to

found city where a cow rested, there established Thebes in Boeotia (heifer's land), slew

dragons at nearby springs, Athena told him to sow dragons' teeth, armed men grew up

and killed each other except 5 who helped Cadmus build Thebes

                                introduced alphabet, married Harmonia, daughter of Ares and Aphrodite (who gave them

necklace made by Hephaestus)

                                4 daughters and 1 son

                                                Semele mom of Dionysus was killed by seeing Zeus in his glory

                                                Ino step-mom of Phrixus, her husband went mad and killed son Melicertes and

she jumped into sea, but she was made into a sea-goddess and later saved

Odysseus, in later myths renamed Leucothea and her son Palaemon

                                                Dionysus made Agave go mad and he killed son Pentheus thinking he was a lion

                                                Autonoe had to watch innocent son die because he accidentally saw Artemis

naked and was turned to stag and killed by dogs

                                Cadmus and Harmonia fled from Thebes and were unjustly turned into serpents

                Oedipus

                                Laius (great-grandson of Cadmus), king of Thebes with wife Jocasta queen, told by

oracle his son would kill him, sent baby son to mountain to die, then he and 3

attendants were killed, 1 who survived told Thebes that robbers had attacked them

                                lion/woman Sphinx killed wayfarers who couldn't answer her riddle: what animal walks

on 4 feet in morning, 2 at noon, and 3 in the evening?

                                Oedipus fled Corinth because oracle said he would kill dad, who he thought was King

Polybus, and marry mom

                                answered Sphinx's riddle (man) and it killed itself

                                grateful Thebes made him king, married Jocasta

                                famine came and Oedipus sent Jocasta's brother Creon to oracle, told to punish murderer

of Laius, Oedipus glad but prophet Teiresias, upon threats and accusations, finally told

him he was the murderer but Oedipus thought Teiresias had gone mad

                                Jocasta told how robbers killed Laius on road, Oedipus told how he had attacked and

killed rude travellers on way to Thebes

                                messenger said Polybus was dead but Oedipus wasn't his son, Oedipus had been given to

messenger as baby by shepherd who then appeared and was recognized and finally

confessed

                                Oedipus realized he had killed dad Laius and married mom, Jocasta then killed self,

Oedipus blinded self

                Antigone

                                Jocasta's brother Creon ruled Thebes, all treated Oedipus well but after several years

banished him with consent of sons Polyneices and Eteocles, daughter Antigone traveled

with him and daughter Ismene stayed in Thebes to send him news

                                younger Eteocles took throne, Polyneices went to Argos to raise an army

                                Oedipus cared for by Benignant Goddesses and Theseus of Athens, died happy with

daughters by side

                                Polyneices with 6 chieftans including King Adrastus of Argos and his brother-in-law

Amphiaraus (unwillingly, knowing only Adrastus would survive, but made to come by

bribed wife Eriphyle whom he had sworn could decide disputes between him and

Adrastus), attacked Thebes, sisters couldn't take sides

                                Teiresias said Thebes would fall unless Eteocles's son Menoeceus died, dad refused but

selfless son fought and died when dad went to get gold to send him away

                                armies agreed to let brothers fight it out alone, both killed each other

                                armies fought on, attackers driven away

                                Creon declared Eteocles should be buried but not Polyneices, Thebes agreed

                                Antigone upset because unburied wouldn't be ferried by Charon and so she buried him

during dust storm

                                a guard told Creon Antigone had disobeyed his order, sister Ismene said she helped but

hadn't actually, Antigone led to death

                Seven Against Thebes

                                5 chieftans remained unburied, moms and sons came to Theseus for help, Theseus's mom

Aethra convinced him to put matter to vote, Athens voted to demand burial but Creon

refused

                                Athens attacked and won but didn't destroy city or kill citizens

                                Theseus buried Capaneus, Eteocles, Hippomedon, Parthenopaeus (Atalanta's son), and

Tydeus, Adrastus spoke last words for each

                                Capaneus's wife Evadne leaped into pyre to kill self

                                sons of dead chieftans vowed vengeance on Thebes, 10 years later they destroyed

Thebes, Harmonia's necklace taken to Delphi, despite success they were known as

"After-Born"

                                Tydeus's son Diomedes was hero at Troy

Royal House of Athens

                Cecrops

                                first king of Attica was dragon/man Cecrops

                                Poseidon wanted to be Athen's benefactor and made salt water flow from Acropolis but

Athena also wanted this and made prized olive tree for Athens

                                Athena won

                                                Story 1:  arbiter Cecrops chose Athena, mad Poseidon sent flood

                                                Story 2:  all men voted for Poseidon, women for Athena, 1 more woman so

Athena won, mad men took vote away from women

                                some said Cecrops was normal human, great-granddad of Theseus, Demeter began

agriculture in reign of Theseus's dad King Erechtheus's

                Procne and Philomela

                                Procne was daughter of Erechtheus, married Tereus of Thrace, son of Ares

                                when son Itys was 5 Procne asked him to let her sister visit

                                Tereus escorted her sister Philomela but fell in love with her, told her that Procne was

dead, pretended marriage to her, she later found out and threatened to tell on

him, he cut out her tongue and left her guarded, told Procne she had died on journey

                                Philomela wove her story into tapestry, old woman took it to Procne who was outraged

and went to sister, killed son Itys and served him to Tereus for dinner

                                when she told him what he had eaten he chased her, near Daulis he almost caught her but

all were turned into birds:  Procne nightengale, Tereus hawk, and Philomela swallow

(can't sing)

                                Romans mixed up sisters:  Philomela a nightengale (despite having no tongue)

                Procris and Cephalus

                                Procris, niece of Procne and Philomela, married Cephalus, grandson of Aeolus

                                few days later Aurora (Dawn) carried off Cephalus whom she saw hunt at dawn and fell

in love with him, he refused her and she returned him but hinted that Procris might be

unfaithful

                                to test wife he disguised self as stranger and tried many days to have affair, one day she

paused in her refusals and he revealed self and accused her of treachery, she fled

                                he realized he was wrong and begged forgiveness when he found her, she finally forgave

                                on hunt together they separated and he threw javelin which never missed at moving

thicket and killed Procris accidentally

                Orithyia and Boreas

                                Procris's sister Orithyia was courted by North Wind Boreas but all feared those from

North because Tereus was from North

Boreas carried her away from river bank, had sons Zetes and Calais, who both went on

Quest of the Golden Fleece

                Creusa and Ion

                                another of Procris's sisters, Creusa, was kidnapped when young by Apollo, taken to cave

                                in shame she left her son in same cave to die so no one would know

                                her dad King Erechtheus gave her as wife to Greek foreigner Xuthus who had helped him

in war, Xuthus wanted son but didn't have one, went to oracle for help

                                young priest Ion at Delphi said priestess Pythoness had found him as baby and he was

happy to serve gods

                                she told him her story but said it was about a friend

                                Xuthus came and said Apollo had told him Ion was his son

                                priestess gave swaddling clothes to Ion and Creusa recognized them, proved she was his

mother by describing embroidery and golden serpents on clothes

                                Athena, sent by Apollo, told them Ion was her son and had been rescued by Apollo and

that Ion was worthy to rule kingdom

Less Important Myths

                Midas

                                King Midas of Phrygia entertained drunk Silenus, whom servants had found and tied up

with roses, for 10 days

                                took him back to Bacchus who was so delighted he promised any gift

                                Midas asked that all he touched turn to gold, couldn't eat or drink, asked to take gift back,

Bacchus said to wash in source of river Pactolus, this is why gold is found in river's banks

                                Midas foolishly chose Pan over Apollo to win music contest (mountain-god Tmolus

chose Apollo) and was punished by getting donkey ears

                                wore hat so only his hair-cutter knew about ears, he whispered secret into ground and

when reeds grew and stirred by wind they repeated secret

                Aesculapius

                                maiden Coronis of Thessaly loved mortal not Apollo who loved her

                                Apollo's white raven told of her unfaithfulness and Apollo turned it black in anger

                                either Apollo killed Coronis or got sister Artemis to shoot her

                                in grief he took baby to be raised by wise Centaur Chiron on Mt. Pelion

                                son Aesculapius learned art of healing and helped all who came

                                once paid much to bring Theseus's son Hippolytus back to life who became immortal

Virbius worshipped in Italy

                                Zeus slew Aesculapius with thunderbolt because a mortal should not have power over

death

                                Apollo, upset at son's death, shot Zeus's Cyclopses or their sons

                                Zeus condemned Apollo to be slave of King Admetus for 1-9 years

                                sick went to Aesculopius's temples where his spirit told them what to do, often using

snakes

                The Danaids

                                50 daughters of Danaus (descendants of Io) lived by Nile and didn't want to marry their

50 cousins, sons of Aegyptus

                                fled with dad to city of Argos which vowed to protect them

                                all did marry cousins but dad gave them daggers and that night all killed husbands except

Hypermnestra who had mercy on Lynceus who fled

                                dad threw Hypermnestra into prison for treachery, Lynceus rescued her and lived happily

together, son Abas was great-granddad of Perseus

                                49 sisters sent to Hades and had to try forever to carry water in leaky jars

                Glaucus, Scylla, and Circe

                                fisherman Glaucus saw his fish go back to sea and he wanted to also

                                sea-gods made Ocean and Tethys make him into a sea-god with green hair and fish tail

                                loved nymph Scylla but she fled

                                asked Circe for help, she fell in love with him but he would only love Scylla, Circe gave

Glaucus poison instead of love potion and turned Scylla into beast with heads of serpents

and dogs, in misery ate passing sailors

                Erysichton

                                Erysichthon chopped down tallest oak in Ceres's sacred grove, she punished him by

giving him a hunger no food could satisfy

                                to get money for food sold daughter but she had power to change into different forms,

owners didn't know where she had gone, she returned to dad who sold her over and

over to get money

                                finally he ate himself

                Pomona and Vertumnus (Roman only)

                                Pomona, only nymph who hated wild woodland, also hated men

                                Vertumnus courted her but was refused

                                he disguised himself as an old woman and told her to accept man who loved garden like

her and loved her and to fear Venus who opposed maidens who wouldn't marry (e.g. in

story of Anaxarete who refused Iphis and was turned into a stone)

                                he then revealed himself and she accepted him

Brief Myths

                Amalthea

                                goat (or nymph who owned it) named Amalthea gave milk to baby Zeus

                                horn always full of food, known as Cornucopia (Horn of Plenty)

                                Latins said Cornucopia was from horn of river-god Achelous which Hercules broke off

                Amazons

                                Amazons were men-hating women warriors

                                lived in Caucasus, main city was Themiscyra

                                beaten by Bellerophon in Lycia and Theseus in Attica, invaded Phrygia when Priam was

young

                                Achilles killed Queen Penthesilca who fought with Troy

                Amymone

                                Poseidon saved Amymone, one of the Danaids, from a satyr who chased her and made a

spring with his trident in her honor

                Antiope

                                Thebes Princess Antiope left her sons (fathered by Zeus) Zethus and Amphion on

mountain in shame but were raised by herdsman

                                later found sons in cottage and together with friends killed King Lycus and Queen Dirce,

who had been cruel to her, by tying hair to bull

                                brothers threw body into spring named for her

                Arachne

                                Arachne claimed she weaved better than Minerva, challenged by Minerva to contest and

won

                                Minerva attacked girl and Arachne hanged herself

                                guilty Minerva turned her into spider with same great weaving power

                Arion

                                poet Arion won music prize

                                sailors wanted to steal prize but he asked to play one last song, as Apollo in dream had

told him to do, and then jumped in ocean, rescued by dolphins drawn by music

                Aristaeus

                                Aristaeus, son of Apollo and nymph Cyrene, kept bees but they died

                                mom told him to capture sea-god Proteus who changed forms but finally told him to

leave sacrificed carcasses for 9 days

                                he did and then found swarm of bees in a carcass and never again were his bees hurt by

disease

                Aurora and Tithonus

                                Aurora (Dawn) asked Zeus to make husband Tithonus (dad of Memnon of Ethiopia who

died at Troy) immortal and he agreed

                                Tithonus got old and miserable but couldn't die

                                Aurora finally turned wretched old man into grasshopper

                                statue to Memnon in Thebes makes harp sound when struck by dawn

                Biton and Cleobis

                                Hera's priestess Cydippe wanted to see Polyclitus's statue of Hera but had no horses

                                sons Biton and Cleobis pulled her car to statue in Argos but then died from exhaustion

                Callisto

                                Callisto was daughter of King Lycaon of Arcadia who had served Zeus human flesh and

was turned into wolf as punishment

                                hunted with Artemis

                                she had son with Zeus but jealous Hera turned her into a bear hoping her son would shoot

her

                                Zeus placed her and son Arcas in sky as Great and Lesser Bear

                                Hera persuaded god of sea not to let them descend into sea like other constellations

                Chiron

                                good wise Centaur entrusted to teach many including Achilles, physician Aesculapius,

and hunter Actaeon

                                Hercules convinced Centaur Pholus to give him wine from jar belonging to all Centaurs

                                many Centaurs attacked but defeated by Hercules

                                innocent Chiron accidentally injured, hurt so badly Zeus let him die even though

immortal

                Clytie

                                maiden Clytie loved Sun-god but not loved back, watched him move across sky daily

                                turned into sunflower which follows sun

                Dryope

                                Dryope with sister Iole went to pool, plucked blossoms of lotus tree which bled because it

was nymph Latis who had become a tree to flee a pursuer

                                as punishment Dryope was turned into a tree while her dad and son watched, she warned

son not to pluck flowers as it could be a goddess

                Epimenides

                                while looking for lost sheep Epimenides fell asleep for 57 years

                                sent by oracle to purify Athens from plague, only asked for Athens-Cnossus (his

hometown in Crete) friendship as his reward

                Ericthonius (Erechtheus)

                                serpent/man son of Hephaestus, Erichthonius was reared by Athena who put him in box

and gave it to 3 daughters of Cecrops with warning not to open

                                they did open it, Athena made them go mad and jump from Acropolis to deaths

                                Ericthonius later became king of Athens

                Hero and Leander

every night Leander of Abydus swam to Hero (priestess of Aphrodite) in Sestus guided

by lighthouse or torch

                                one night wind blew out light, he died, she committed suicide

                The Hyades

                                6 daughters of Atlas, the Hyades, were rainy stars, bringing rain May - November

                                Zeus entrusted baby Dionysus to them, rewarded them by setting them among stars

                Ibycus and the Cranes

                                Ibycus attacked by robbers, as dying told cranes to avenge him

                                during a play in Corinth cranes appeared and robber panicked, crowd put him and other

robbers to death

                Leto (Latona)

                                Leto, daughter of Titans Phoebe and Coeus, pregnant by Zeus, was rejected by all lands,

who feared Hera

                                finally welcomed by floating island Delos, had kids Apollo and Artemis, pillars formed

to anchor island

                                formerly barren Delos now known as "heaven-built isle"

                Linus

                                Linus, son of Apollo and Psamathe, was abandoned , raised by shepherds, killed by dogs

                                "ailion" (woe for Linus) means "alas"

                                another Linus taught music to Orpheus and Hercules, who killed him

                Marpessa

                                Zeus made Marpessa choose between Apollo and Idas (a hero of Calydonian Hunt and an

Argonaut) for husband

                                afraid a god would be unfaithful, chose mortal Idas

                Marsyas

                                Athena invented flute but gave to Apollo

                                Marsyas, a satyr, challenged Apollo to flute contest but lost, punished by flaying

                Melampus

                                kept 2 snakes as pets (servants had killed parent snakes) who taught him language of

animals, making him a great soothsayer

                                when enemies captured him worms told him roof would fall, he warned captors, when

roof fell they freed him

                Merope

                                Merope's husband King Cresphontes of Messenia (son of Hercules) killed in rebellion

                                next King Polyphontes took her as wife

                                she hid 3rd son Aepytus in Arcadia, who returned claiming to be slayer of Aepytus

                                Aepytus and Merope killed Polyphontes and Aepytus became king

                The Myrmidons

                                Zeus loved Aegina whose son Aeacus was king of Aegina island, Hera sent pestilence

                                Aeacus prayed to Zeus who turned an army of ants into people for desolated city

                                brave industrious people from ants called Myrmidons

                Nisus and Scylla

                                Minos of Crete laid siege to Megara but King Nisus was safe as long as he had his purple

lock of hair on his head

                                Nisus's daughter Scylla fell in love with Minos and cut dad's lock and took it to Minos

who sent her away, disgusted with her treachery

                                Cretans conquered city, Scylla seized rudder of Minos's boat, her dad (changed into an

eagle) swooped down, but she was changed into a bird also

                Orion

                                hunter Orion loved daughter of King Oenopion of Chios, cleared land of beasts and he

                                                promised to let him marry his daughter but put it off

                                Orion once insulted Oenopion's daughter Aero or Merope, and Oenopion blinded him in

his sleep with the help of Dionysus

                                Orion went to Lemnos in the east and rising sun's rays healed his eyes as oracle had said

                                Orion couldn't find Oenopion to get vengeance so became hunter with Artemis in Crete

                                killed by Artemis either in jealousy because Dawn loved him or because he had angered

Apollo

                                placed in sky as constellation

                Phineus

                                Blind soothsayer tormented by Harpies, who carried away his meals

                                Rescued by Argonauts

                The Pleiades

                                7 daughters of Atlas:  Electra, Meia, Taygete, Alcyone, Merope, Celaeno, Sterope,

known as the Pleiades

                                pursued unsuccessfully but persistently by Orion

                                Zeus placed them in sky but Orion still chases them

                                Maia  was mom of Hercules, Electra of Dardanus (founder of Trojan race)

                                only 6 of 7 clearly visible

                Rhoecus

                                Rhoecus saved oak, actually a dryad in disguise, from falling, and asked only for her love

as reward, and she agreed

                                he forgot her and injured her messenger bee

                                dryad blinded him in anger

                Salmoneus

                                on Zeus's festival day Salmoneus foolishly drove chariot in city pretending to be Zeus,

perhaps mad or trying to bring rain

                                struck dead by Zeus's lightning

                Sisyphus

                                King Sisyphus of Corinth told river-god Asopus that he had seen an eagle carrying

Asopus's daughter to an island

                                Zeus, who had carried her off, punished Sisyphus by making him forever roll a rock

uphill in Hades

                                Zeus drove Asopus away with thunderbolt

                                island named Aegina for the maiden, her son Aeacus was Achilles's granddad

                Tyro

                                Tyro, daughter of Salmoneus, had sons Pelias and Neleus by Poseidon but abandoned

them in shame, found and raised by Salmoneus's horsekeeper

                                Tyro's husband Cretheus found out later and put her away and married her cruel maid

Sidero

                                when Cretheus died foster-mom told kids that Tyro was their mom

                                Pelias slew Sidero in Hera's temple

                                Pelias's half-brother was dad of Jason whom he sent after Golden Fleece but Pelias was

killed by his daughters under the direction of Jason's wife Medea, as punishment

from Hera

 

 

Hinduism

 

Gods

                Shiva : appears in male (linga) or female (yoni) forms

                Parvati / Uma : wife of Shiva

                Vishnu : two main incarnations (avators)

                                Rama-Chandra, hero of the Ramayana

                                Krishna, hero of the Bhagavad Gita

                Lakshmi : wife of Vishnu; goddess of prosperity; incarnated as milkmaid Radha

                Skanda : god of war; son of Shiva and Parvati

                Ganesha : elephant-headed god who removes obstacles; son of Shiva and Parvati

                Shakti : universal mother; worship of Shakti is a form of Tantrism, which can be left-handed or

right-handed

                Brahma : monistic god worshipped by those who have reached the peak of Hinduism

Caste System (called jati, meaning "group by rebirth")

                Brahmans : priests and scholars

                Kshatriyas : temporal rulers

                Vaishyas : commoners

                Sudras : servants

                Panchamas / Fifths / Pariahs / Outcastes / Harijan : lowest

Terms

                dvija : Brahmans, Kshatriyas, and Vaishyas are "twice-born"

                karma : rebirth

                samsara : cycle of rebirth

                dharma : man's duty

                ahinsa : nonviolence

                pralaya : dissolution of the universe

                pratisarga : recreation

                prakrti : matter, including goodness (sattval), passion (rajas), and darkness (tanas)

                purusa : spirit

Vedas

                Rig Veda : written around 1000 BC; 1028 hymns written by rsi sages

                                Asura : superhumans

                                Indra : chief god

                                Sat and asat lands

                                Vritra : evil serpent from whose belly (cut open by Indra) the world was created

                                Agni : god of fire sacrifices

                                Yama : the first man

                                Sabala and Syama : dogs of heaven

                Yajur Veda : rituals in prose

                Sama Veda : chants

                Atharva Veda : household religions

Upanishads : 108 texts which expand on the Vedas; concerned with philosophy rather than mythology;

contrast the atman (human soul) and brahman (universal soul)

Two great Sanskrit epics

                Mahabharata : traditionally by Vyasa; divided in to 18 parvans; tells of feud between cousins;

Kauravas and Pandavas; aided by Krishna (Vishnu), the Pandavas defeat the Kauravas at

Kuruksetra in 1302 BC; Bhagavad Gita ("Song of the Lord") section relates Krishna's

instructions to Arjuna, the army commander

                Ramayana : by Valmiki; shorter than the Mahabharata; Rama won Sita as his wife by bending

Shiva's bow; the demon Ravana kidnapped Sita, but Rama rescued her with help from

monkey-king Sugriva and monkey-general Hanuman; Sita banished for suspicion of adultery;

Sita returned after birth of her two sons but requested to be swallowed by the earth

Other works

                Puranas tell about cosmology; Mahatmya tells about local religions; Sutras were the old law

books; Shastras are the new law books

 

 

Norse Mythology

 

Signy and Sigmund - Signy's husband fed her dad Volsung and all her brothers, except Sigmund whom she

rescued, to wolves, but Signy and Sigmund, with help of their incest son Sinfiotli, killed his kids and burned

him in his home, Signy chose to die with him in burning house

Brynhild and Sigurd - Brynhild put to sleep by Odin in Ring of fire until a hero would wake her, Sigurd

woke her but later put her back and was made to marry Gudrun and to wake Brynhild again to

give her to Gunnar, a friend of Gudurn's dad, Brynhild found out in quarrel with Gunnar and vowed revenge,

Gunnar got Gudrun to kill Sigurd and Brynhild killed self

Norse gods

                doomed to be conquered by evil Giants

                live in Asgard and heros live in Valhalla Hall (Val means "slain") but all will eventually lose to

Giants

                Odin sky-father, informed of world happenings by ravens Thought (Hugin) and Memory (Munin),

trys to postpone Rognarok (day of doom), lost eyes to Mimir to gain knowledge of the

Well of Wisdom, suffered also to learn from the Ruses, took skaldic mead (which makes men into

poets) from the Giants, was man's benefactor in many ways, attended by Valkyries, maidens who

carried slain warriors to Valhalla

                Balder was most beloved god, Loki (mischievious son of a Giant whom Odin had inexplicably

sworn brotherhood with) tricked Balder's brother into killing Balder with mistletoe despite mom

Frigga's (Odin's wife) efforts to protect him, Hela goddess of Niflheim (land of dead) promised to

restore Balder to life if all mourned for him but one giantess refused to, Loki punished by dropping

serpent's venom on his face in cavern although his wife Sigyn usually catches venom in cup

                Thor - thunder-god, strongest of Aesir

                Freyr - cared for the fruits of the earth

                Heimdall - warder of Bifrost (rainbow bridge to Asgard)

                Tyr - god of war

                Frigga - Odin's wife, wise but silent, works at spinning wheel using gold thread

                Freya - goddess of love and beauty, claimed half of those slain in battle

                Hela - goddess of dead

                Midgard - battlefield of men

                days with Norse names

                                Tuesday - Tyr, Wednesday - Odin (Woden), Thursday - Thor, Friday - Freya

                Creation

first creatures were frost maidens and Giant Ymir (Odin's granddad), Odin and 2 brothers

killed Ymir, made sea from his blood, Earth from his body, and heavens from his skull

man created from ash tree, woman from elm tree, dwarfs and elves also on Earth

ash tree Yggdrasil supported universe, none could drink from holy Urda's Well

universe will end when serpent gnaws through root of tree near Niflheim

Frost Giants and Mountain Giants of Jotunheim enemies of all good

all are eventually doomed

                Norse Wisdom in Elder Edda - based on common sense, similar to Proverbs but not nearly as

profound, includes humor, shrewd knowledge of human nature, some cheerfulness, tolerance, and

sometimes depth of understanding and wisdom, "the mind knows only what lies near the heart"

 

 

Sumerian Mythology

 

Big 4 gods

                An - Heaven

                Ki - Earth

                Enlil - Lord Air

                Enki - Lord of the Deep (water and wisdom)

Me is the universal law

Stories

                Enlil was banished to the Nether World and was accompanied by his beloved Ninlil

                Enki brought man civilization and saved him from the Flood but ate of the forbidden fruit in

Dilmun, paradise of the gods

                Dumuzi took the place of his cruel wife Inanna who had gone to the Nether World despite laws

forbidding it

Epic of Gilgamesh

Goddess Aruru made hairy wild man Enkidu out of clay to oppose oppressive King Gilgamesh of

Erech; Enkidu protected the beasts; Gilgamesh sent a woman to seduce him; Enkidu defeated Gilgamesh in

wrestling, and they became friends; Gilgamesh and Enkidu cut down a cedar in the sacred woods and

beheaded the one-eyed monster Humbaba with the help of Gigamesh's mom Ninsun; Ishtar tried to seduce

Gilgamesh but he knew how she had treated others such as Tammuz and refused; Enkidu died because he

killed the storm bull of heaven; Gilgamesh consulted Utnapishtim, who had been warned of a flood by

wisdom god Ea and survived by building an arc; got herb of youth from bottom of sea but stolen by a snake

War of the Gods

                "Enuma elish"; fresh water Apsu and salt water wife Tiamat had kids gods of the deep

Lahmu and Lahamu who had Anshar and Kishar, parents of sky Anu, father of wisdom god Ea; Ea drugged

and killed Apsu and dwarf counselor Mummu; Tiamat took Kingu as consort; Ea and Damkina had storm

god Marduk; Tiamat warred with principals gods who supported Marduk; Marduk destroyed Tiamat and

formed firmament and earth foundations from her body; Anu rules area above firmament, Enlil between

firmament and earth, and Ea waters below earth; Kingu killed to make man puppet; gods built Babylon as

shrine for Marduk