Canaanite Mythology


The Poem of Aqhat - found in Ugarit Syria, Baal and El allow Danel and Danatiya to have son Aqhat;

               Koshar-wa-Khasis gives him a bow intended for goddess Anat, whose henchman Yatpan kills him;

               Aqhat's sister Paghat avenges him

The Poem of Baal - dragon sea god Yam and irrigation god Ashtar battle for earth; sun goddess Shapash

               warns Ashtar; rain god Ball, son of chief god El defeats Yam with help of two thunderbolts made by

               Koshar-wa-Khasis; war goddess Anat helps Baal win approval of palace from mother of gods Asherat;

               Baal destroys Yam and allows windows in his palace; Baal has relations with a heifer and goes to

               underworld to fight death god Mot; Ashtar took Baal's throne on earth; Anat and sun god Shapash

               rescue Baal



Celtic Mythology


Tuatha De Danann Group ("peoples of the goddess Danu") : defeated older deities but were overrun by the

               Milesians, forerunners of the Irish

                              Dagda : Irish "good god"; had never-empty cauldron, never-barren fruit tree, two pigs,

                                             and self-playing harp


                              Lug : identified with Mercury; sole survivor of triplets; father of Ulster hero Cu Chulainn

Matronae : the three mothers


               Samain : new years; November 1; celebrated marriage of Dagda to Morrigan (queen of demons) or

                              Boann (Boyne)

               Beltire : May 1; fires burned for Belenus, god of sheep and cattle

Brigit : Dagda's daughter; identified with Minerva; goddess of poetry, crafts, prophesy, and fertility

Esus : "master" god of Gaul

Druids : Celtic priests

Ulster Cycle (sagas about

               Deirdre [daughter of King Conchobar's storyteller Felim destined to be beautiful and bring death;

                              she is raised by Lavarcham in woods; falls in love with Conchobar's nephew Naisi and flees to

                              Alba with his brothers; they are persuaded to return and Usnech's sons are killed and Deirdre

                              commits suicide],

               Cu Chulainn [son of sun god Lugh, Cu Chulainn kills hound but takes its place until owner gets

                              new one; trained by woman warrior Scathach; subdues Aoife and has son Conlaoch by her;

                              Conlaoch returns later and kills many but is killed by Cu; Cu fights army of Queen Maeve;

                              seduced by sea god Mananaan's wife Fand; Queen Medb of Cruachain creates imaginary

                              host whom Cu fights to exhaustion and dies tied to pillar; wife Emer dies with him],

               King Conchobar, Medb and Ailill, Fergus, Cu Roi, Finnabair, Noisi, Emer, Bricriu Poison-tongue,

                              Cathbad the Druid, Etain, Da Derga, Mac Datho, Conaire, and Conall Cernach;

               Cattle-Raid of Cooley [Cu Chulainn deters army of Queen Maeve while Red Branch warriors of

                              Ulster awaken; duels and kills foster brother Ferdiad])



Egyptian Mythology


Set murdered his brother King Osiris, but Horus, the hawk-headed son of Osiris and his sister-wife Isis,

               took power back from his usurping uncle; Isis and her sister Nephthys buried all 14 pieces of Osiris

               except the phallus; pharaohs ruled on earth as Horus and would rule in Underworld as Osiris

Anubis was the jackal-headed protector of the dead, and weighed the hearts of the dead on a balance

               against a feather

Heliopolitan Ennead

               Atum : merged with Re as Re-Atum; creator; lived in Nun (primordial waters of chaos); appears as

                              Khepri at dawn and Re at noon

               Osiris : god of fertility; embodiment of the dead; resurrected king

               Set : brother of Osiris; murdered Osiris but was defeated by Horace

               Isis : sister and wife of Osiris

               Nephthys : sister of Isis and Osiris

               Shu : god of the air; created by Atum alone

               Tefnut : goddess of moisture; sister and wife of Shu

               Nut : goddess of the sky; daughter of Shu and Tefnut

               Geb : god of the earth; son of Shu and Tefnut

Four couples of Hermopolis

               Nu and Naunet : depth

               Huh and Hauhet : infinity

               Kuk and Kauket : darkness

               Amon and Amaunet : invisibility

Regional development

               Buto, Lower Egypt : Horus, Hather

               Ombus, Upper Egypt : Set

               Heliopolis : Ra

               Memphis : Ptah

               Thebes : Amon-Re

               Abydos : Osiris

Theban Triad

               Amon-Re : king of the gods; means "The Hidden One"; painted blue to indicate invisibility; Amon

                              cult suppressed by Akhenaton

               Mut : a goddess

               Khons : a youthful god

New Kingdom Triad : Amon, Ptah, and Re

Apis : holy bull of Osiris

Onurus : warrior god

The 27-day Feast of Opet was the greatest feast in Egypt



Greek and Roman Mythology


The Gods


                              Cronus (Saturn) - chief, Zeus's father

                              Ocean - river encircling Earth

                              Tethys - Ocean's wife

                              Hyperion - father of sun, moon, dawn

                              Mnemosyne - Memory

                              Themis - Justice

                              Iapetus - father of Atlas (who holds Earth on shoulders)

                              Prometheus - gave man fire

               12 Gods of Olympus (eat ambrosia, drink nectar)

                              Zeus (Jupiter) - chief, sky god, Rain-god, cloud-gatherer, used thunderbolt, not

                                             omnipotent, many affairs, used aegis breastplate, eagle and oak sacred to him

                              Hera (Juno) - Zeus's wife and sister, protector of marriage, jealous, punished those who

                                             had affairs with Zeus, daughter Hithyia (protects childbirth), city was Argos,

                                             cow and peacock sacred to her

                              Artemis (Diana) - daughter of Zeus and Leta, Apollo's twin, chief huntress, goddess of

                                             nature, harvest and childbirth, protector of youth, moon goddess

                              Poseidon (Neptune) - god of sea, Zeus's brother, wife was Amphitrite, gave horse to man,


                              Hades (Pluto) - underworld, god of wealth and precious metals, helmet made him

                                             invisible, terrible but just, abducted Persephone (Proserpine) as wife, death itself is

                                             Thanatos (Orcus)

                              Pallas Athena (Minerva) - sprang from Zeus's head, goddess of Battle, the City,

                                             handicrafts, and agriculture, invented bridle, carried aegis and thunderbolt as Zeus's

                                             favorite child, "gray-eyed", the Maiden, temple was the Parthenon, goddess of wisdom,

                                             city was Athens, olive and owl sacred to her

                              Phoebus Apollo - son of Zeus and Leto (Latona), born in Delos, lyre musician, Archer-

                                             god, Healer, god of light and truth, oracle at Delphi priestess on tripod answered

                                             questions, killed Python, Mouse-god, sun god is Helios (Hyperion's son), laurel and

                                             dolphin and crow sacred to him

                              Aphrodite (Venus) - goddess of love, beauty, and laughter, daughter of Zeus and Dione

                                             or born of sea foam at Cythera near Cyprus, wife of Hephaestus, myrtle and dove

                                             sacred to her

                              Hermes (Mercury) - son of Zeus and Maia (daughter of Atlas), messenger, had winged

                                             sandles and Caduceus magic wand, Master Thief, stole Apollo's cattle at age one day,

                                             god of commerce, Divine Herald, guides dead to underworld, gave Apollo lyre

                              Ares (Mars) - son of Zeus and Hera who both hated him, god of War, coward in Greek

                                             myths, sister Eris and nephew Strife, born in Thrace, vulture and dog sacred to him

                              Hephaestus (Vulcan and Mulciber) - god of fire, son of Hera and possibly Zeus, ugly

                                             and lame, thrown out of Olympus, later popular on Earth and Olympus, forges weapons,

                                             furnishings, houses, works under volcanos, wife Aphrodite or Aglaia (a Grace), god of

                                             smiths and handicrafts, important in city

                              Hestia (Vesta) - Zeus's sister, goddess of Hearth, meal offerings to her, each city had a

                                             public Hearth with eternal fire, Rome's Hearth cared for by 6 vestals (priestesses)

               Lesser Gods of Olympus

                              Eros (Cupid) - love god, Aprodite's son or companion, mischievious, blindfolded,

                                             attended by Anteros (slighted love), Himeros (longing), and Hymen (wedding feast)

                              Hebe - Youth, daughter of Hera and Zeus, cupbearer, Trojan prince Ganymede abducted

                                             by Zeus's eagle was also a cupbearer

                              Iris - rainbow, messenger

                              Graces - Aglaia (Splendor), Euphrosyne (Mirth), Thalia (Good Cheer), daughters of Zeus

                                             and Eurynome (daughter of Ocean ), queens of song, dance to Apollo's lyre

                              Muses - daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne (Memory), born at Mount Pierus in Pieria,

                                             inspired men, dance to lyre

                                                            Clio - history

                                                            Urania - astronomy

                                                            Melpomene - tragedy

                                                            Thalia - comedy

                                                            Terpsichore - dance

                                                            Calliope - epic poetry

                                                            Erato - love poetry

                                                            Polyhymnia - songs to gods

                                                            Euterpe - lyric poetry

                                             Zeus's attendants

                                                            Themis - divine justice

                                                            Dike - human justice

                                             Nemesis - righteous anger

                                             Aidos - shame

               Lesser Gods of the Sea

                              Nereus - Old Man of the Sea, wife Doris and 50 nymph daughters (Nereids) incl.

                                             Achille's mom Thetis and Posidon's wife Amphitrite

                              Triton - shell trumpeter

                              Natads - water nymphs


                              Erebus - upper level

                              Tartarus - lower level


                                             Acheron - woe

                                             Cocytus - lamentation

                                             Lethe - forgetfulness

                                             Phlegethon - fire

                                             Styx - unbreakable oath

                              Charon - old boatman, ferries dead to gates of Tartarus

                              Cerberus - 3-headed dog who lets no one leave

                              Judges - Rhadamanthus, Minos, Aeacus

                              Elysian Fields - where the good are rewarded

                              Erinyes (Furies) - pursue sinners, inexorable but just, Tisiphone, Megaera, Alecto

                              Sleep and Death - brothers, send true dreams via horn gate and false via ivory gate

               Lesser Gods of the Earth

                              Demeter (Ceres) - goddess of corn, daughter of Cronus and Rhea

                              Dionysus (Bacchus) - god of the vine

                              Pan - Hermes's son, part goat, lived in wild thickets and forests, ugly

                              Silenius - son or brother of Pan, always drunk

                              Castor - son of Leda and King Tyndareus of Sparta as was Clytemnestra

                                             (Agamemnon's wife)

                              Pollux - son of Zeus and Leda as was Helen of Troy, Castor was killed by Idas,

                                             avenged by Pollux, brothers shared immortality even though only

                                             Pollux was immortal, protect sailors

                              Sileni - part horse, part man

                              Satyrs - part goat, part man

                              Aeolus - King of Winds, lived at Aeolia, Boreas (North), Zephyr (West), Nortus

                                             (South), Eurus (East)

                              Centaurs - part horse, part man, Chiron was wisest

                              Gorgons - dragonlike, look turned men to stone

                              Graiae - 3 gray sisters with total of one eye

                              Sirens - voices lured sailors to death

                              Fates - (Greek Moirae, Roman Parcae)

                                             Clotho - spinner

                                             Lachesis - disposer of lots

                                             Atropos - cut thread of life at death

               Additional Roman Gods

                              The Numina - the Will-Powers

                              Lares - spirits of ancestors

                              Penates - gods of storehouses

                              Saturn - protector of sowers and seed

                              Ops - Saturn's wife, Harvest Helper

                              Janus - two-faced, good beginnings and endings, January

                              Faunus - like Pan, Saturn's grandson

                              Fauns - Roman satyrs

                                             Quinirus - Romulus as a god

                                             Manes - spirits of good dead in Hades

                                             Lemures - spirits of bad dead in Hades

                                             Camenae - goddesses of springs, cured disease, foretell, became like Muses

                                             Lucina - childbirth

                                             Pomona and Vertumnus - loved each other

Man's Best Friends - Demeter (corn) and Bacchus (wine)


                              temple and secret festival at Eleusis

                              daughter Persephone abducted by Hades

                              Demeter's sadness caused famine

                              tried to make Metaneira's son immortal but stopped in anger when spied upon

                              Zeus ordered Hades to return Persephone

                              Persephone ate a pomegranate seed so had to return to Hades 4 monthes/year

                                             when Demeter is sad (winter)

               Dionysus (Bacchus)

                              drama festivals in his honor

                              born in Thebes to Zeus and Semele

                              only god with a mortal parent

                              mom asked to see Zeus as a god which killed her

                              Dionysus rescued by Zeus and taken to nymphs of Nysa by Hermes

                              captured by pirates for ransom but turned into lion and killed all except a

                                             helmsman who recognized him as a god

                              went to underworld and brought dead mom to Olympus

                              caused mom of King Pentheus of Thebes, who mocked him, to go mad and tear

                                             him to pieces

                              like wine, Bacchus could bring happiness or madness


               Chaos's children - Night and Erebus

               Love born, then Earth formed

               Mother Earth (Gaea) and Father Heaven (Ouranos)'s children - monsters, 3 with 100

                              hands and 50 heads, 3 Cyclopses (one eye), lastly Titans (some good)

               Ouranos imprisoned monsters, Gaea convinced Titan Cronus to oppose father

               Cronus injured Ouranos and Giants sprung up from blood as did Erinyes (Furies)

               Monsters driven from Earth but Erinyes remain until sin gone

               Cronus and sister-queen Rhea ruled

               Cronus ate 5 children to keep them from overthrowing him but Rhea saved Zeus,

                              replacing him with a stone

               Zeus and Gaea made Cronus disgorge 5 kids who, with Titan Prometheus, battled Cronus

                              and the other Titans and won, punishing the losers

               Zeus opposed by Gaea's last son Typhon monster and rebellion of the Giants but Zeus

                              with Hercules's help won

               Earth a disk divided by Mediterranean and Black (Axine or Unfriendly, later Euxine or

                              Friendly) Seas and Ocean River

               Creation of man

                              Story 1 - Epimetheus gave all good gifts to animals so brother Prometheus gave

                                             fire to man

                              Story 2 - gods created golden race, then silver, brass, another, iron, each inferior

                                             to previous and each generation declining

               Creation of woman

                              Zeus angered when Prometheus tricked him into choosing bad part of sacrifice

                              Story 1 - gods created Pandora, beautiful but evil to men

                              Story 2 - gods gave Pandora box of plagues which she opened out of curiosity,

                                             Hope only good thing in box

               Punishment of Prometheus - tied to rock for befriending man, wouldn't tell Hermes who

                              would be mom of child that would overthrow Zeus so an eagle ate his liver daily, finally rescued

                              by either Chiron the Centaur's death in exchange or by Hercules

               Deluge Story - Zeus sent flood to destroy Iron Race but Prometheus saved his family

                              (Deucalion and wife Pyrrha) in chest on Mt. Parnassus, created more men by throwing stones

Prometheus and Io

               Io in form of a heifer talked to Prometheus at Caucasus about woes by Zeus, Zeus had

                              sent dreams about loving him, then went down under cover of cloud

               Hera went to Earth and found him, Zeus turned her to heifer which Hera requested and

                              put under guard of 100-eyed Argus

               Hermes put all 100 eyes to sleep with tale of Pan and Syrinx and killed him

               Hera sent gad-fly to torment her

               Io wandered for years but reached Nile and restored to human form by Zeus

               Had son Epaphus and descendant Hercules, Ionian Sea named for her


               Europa, daughter of King of Sidon, had dream of Asia and nameless continent arguing for her

               Zeus in form of beautiful bull got her to ride him while she was picking flowers

                              went to Crete and had sons Minos and Rhadamanthus (judges)

Cyclops Polyphemus

               Odysseus and 12 men returning from Trojan War landed on Polyphemus's island and went to cave

               Cyclopses had one eye, forged thunderbolts, herded goats and sheep

               Polyphemos ate 6 men (2 per meal) and closed giant boulder door

               Odysseus blinded him with sharpened wooden log and escaped by hanging on belly of rams

               in other stories Polyphemus loved sea nymph Galatea but not loved back

               Galatea talked to Doris and married prince Acis whom Polyphemus killed in jealousy but became

                              a river-god


               scorned love of maidens

               Hera had unjustly punished Echo by only letting her echo others

               Echo was ignored by handsome Narcissus

               a maiden prayed that Narcissus fall in love with himself and he did

               stared at own reflection in pool until death

               narcissus flower sprung up in place of body

Hyacinthus - killed accidentally by discus thrown by sorrowful Apollo (possibly blown by jealous west

               wind Zephyr) and hyacinth flower sprung up


               handsome Adonis loved by Aphrodite and Persephone

               Zeus awarded him to Aphrodite spring/summer, Persephone autumn/winter

               while hunting with Aphrodite was killed by boar

               crimson flower sprung up

Cupid and Psyche

               Psyche, 1 of 3 sisters, admired for beauty more than was Venus

               jealous Venus asked son Cupid to make her fall in love with an ugly man

               Cupid fell in love with her instead and no man fell in love with her

               Oracle at Delphi told parents to leave her on cliff

               Cupid took her to a mansion as his wife but wouldn't let her see him

               despite warnings, Psyche saw her sisters who convinced her to take lamp at night and see if

                              husband was monster

               falling wax awoke Cupid and he left

               after searching long for Cupid, Psyche went to Venus and became her servant

               animals helped her in impossible tasks Venus gave her: ants in sorting seeds, reed in gathering

                              wool, eagle in filling vase with river water

               Cupid escaped his room and took Psyche to Olympus

               Jupiter made Psyche immortal which pleased Venus

Pyramus and Thisbe

               talked to each other through wall that divided their houses

               agreed to meet at night at Tomb of Ninus

               Pyramus saw lioness with Thisbe's cloak, thought her dead, and killed himself with his sword

               Thisbe saw Pyramus dying and fell on his sword also

Orpheus and Eurydice

               Orpheus was greatest musician and loved Eurydice

               she was bitten by viper and died just after marriage

               he went to underworld and sang so beautifully Pluto returned her

               he looked back too soon and she was snatched back to underworld

               Orpheus roamed in sadness until Maenads tore him to pieces

Ceyx and Alcyone

               Ceyx (Thessaly king, son of Lucifer) left wife Alcyone (daughter of Aelous) to visit Oracle

               died in hurricane as she feared

               Juno sent Iris to tell Somnus to tell Alcyone in dream that Ceyx was dead

               body washed up to Alcyone on shore

               gods turned both to birds

               7 days/year sea is peaceful (Halcyon days)

Pygmalion and Galatea

               Pygmalion hated women but fell in love with his statue of perfect woman

               Venus granted his prayer and turned statue to life

               their son Paphos was namesake of Venus's favorite city

Baucis and Philemon

               only old Baucis and Philemon showed hospitality to Mercury and Jupiter, disguised as poor


               all neighbors were swallowed by water but their hut was turned into a temple and they lived long

                              and died together, turning into an oak and a linden tree from same trunk in Phrygia

Endymion - shepherd Endymion loved by Selene (Moon) who put him in immortal sleep forever so she can

               caress him at night


               Apollo chased Daphne, who prefered to be a maiden

               as he was about to catch her, her father river-god Peneus turned her into a laurel, which became

                              Apollo's sacred tree

Alpheus and Arethusa

               Arethusa of Ortygia (Syracuse, Sicily) was maiden huntress like Artemis

               bathed in spring

               river-god Alpheus chased her until Artemis changed her into a spring of water

               tunnel created between Greece and Sicily

               Arethusa's well in Sicily

               Alpheus changed back to river and waters mingled with hers

The Quest of the Golden Fleece

               generation before Odysseus

               King Athamus put away wife Nephele and married Princess Ino (daughter of King Cadmus of Thebes)

               Ino caused famine and tricked messenger to say oracle demanded sacrifice of Nehele's son Phrixus

               Hermes sent a ram to rescue Phrixus and sister Helle

               Helle fell to death but Phrixus made it to Colchis

               sacrificed ram and gave its Golden Fleece to King Aertes

               Phrixus's Uncle Pelias had usurped throne and Pelias's nephew (rightful heir) Jason came to claim throne

               Jason wore one sandal as in profphesy of doom to Pelias

               Pelias offered throne if Jason could bring back the Golden Fleece

               Hercules, Orpheus, Castor and Pollux, Peleus (Achille's dad), and others joined quest

               all-women island (had killed all men except Hypsipyle's dad) friendly to Argonauts

               Hercule's armor-bearer Hylas abducted by water nymph and Hercules left searching for him

               sons of North wind Boreas saved old prophet from bird-like Harpies who had eaten his food (a

                              punishment from Zeus for foretelling his plans)

               on prophet's advice Jason sent dove through Clashing Rocks Symplegades first and was safe so

                              boat followed

               ship passed country of fearsome Amazon women, daughters of Harmony and Ares

               Hera asked Aphrodite to make son Cupid make Aertes's magical daughter Medea fall in love with

                              Jason, which he did on bribe of gold ball

               Argonauts reached Aertes who disliked foreigners

               required Jason to plow field with fire-breathing bulls and sow corn that turned into armed men and

                              to kill them, as he had done

               Medea, partly on request of a prince Jason had saved, gave Jason one-day invincible powder

               Jason completed task and Medea lulled guardian serpent to sleep as Jason took fleece and fled

                              with her and Argonauts

               Medea's brother Apsyrtus or Aertes pursued them but they escaped because Medea killed her brother

               Hera helped cross Scylla rock and Charybdis whirlpool

               returned to Greece

               Pelias had killed Jason's father, mom died of grief

               Medea tricked Pelias's daughters into thinking they could make Pelias young by chopping him up

               had 2 sons in Corinth, Medea may have restored Jason's dad and given Jason youth

               Jason married daughter of King of Corinth for ambition

               Medea cursed her and was exiled by the King of Corinth

               Jason blamed exile on Medea's foolishness but she felt forsaken

               Medea sent her sons to kill Jason's wife with poisoned coat

               she then killed her kids who would have been unsafe in exile and she was carried away by dragon chariot


               Phaethon, son of mortal Clymene and the Sun, came to Sun's palace to ask if he was Sun's son

               Sun said yes and swore by Styx to give him anything

               wanted to ride Sun's chariot across sky one day

               Sun knew danger and tried to disuade but had to agree

               Phaethon rode chariot but horses went wild

               caught Earth on fire and River Nile hid its head

               Zeus saved Earth by killing Phaethon with thunderbolt

               fell into river Eridanus and mourned by naiads and Heliades sisters

Pegasus and Bellerophon

               King Glaucus of Ephyre (Corinth), son of Sisyphus (who had to roll stone up hill in Hades forever

                              as Zeus's punishment) fed horses humans to make them fierce but gods caused horses to

                              eat him

               Bellerophon, son of Eurynome and Glaucus or Poseidon, wanted Pegasus, winged horse who had

                              sprung from Gorgon's blood when Perseus slew her

               Athena sent dream and golden bridle

               Pegasus accepted Bellerophon and bridle

               accidentally killed brother and fled to King Proetus of Argos whose wife falsely accused him

               Proetus sent him to King Lycia of Asia with note saying to kill him

               fearing Zeus's wrath for inhospitality, Lycia instead sent him on dangerous mission to slay

                              lion/goat/snake Chimaeva but he did slay it with help of Pegasus

               returned to Proetus who made him battle Solymi and the Amazons, finally befriended him

               Bellerophon became arrogant and tried to fly to Olympus but Pegasus threw him and made him

                              wander on foot

               Pegasus went to Zeus's stables and delivers thunderbolt

Otus and Ephialtes

               twin giants Otus and Ephialtes, sons of Poseidon and Iphimedia or Canace, imprisoned Ares but

                              Hermes helped him escape

               Zeus wanted to kill them but Poseidon promised to keep them in line

               Otus wanted Hera but decided first to pursue Artemis for Ephialtes

               Artemis turned into hind in woods of Naxos island and tricked them into throwing weapons at

                              each other, each slaying his beloved brother


               Daedalus designed Labyrinth for Minotaur in Crete

               Minos suspected he helped Athenians escape so imprisoned him in Labyrinth

               built wings for him and son Icarus to fly out

               despite warnings son flew too high and fell into water

               Daedalus arrived in Sicily

               Minos found him by offering contest of passing thread through intricate shell, knowing only

                              Daedalus could (by using ant to crawl through it), but Minos was killed


               King Acrisius of Argos feared daughter Danae and later her son Perseus because oracle said his

                              grandson would kill him, so he shut them in underground bronze house and then sent them to

                              sea in a chest

               fisherman Dictys on island opened chest and let them live with him and his wife

               King Polydectes later wanted Danae but to get rid of Perseus

               Polydectes told Perseus how much he wanted head of Gorgon Medusa, and Perseus promised to

                              get it as wedding present

               Medusa only mortal of 3 sisters, looking at her turns one to stone

               oracle told him to go to Selli in land of acorns who told him only that gods protected him

               Hermes took Perseus to Gray Women who told him where nymphs of North were when he

                              kidnapped their one shared eye

               Hermes gave him sword and Athena gave a mirror shield

               Athena told which was Medusa and Perseus looked in mirror-shield, cut off her head, and put it in

                              magic wallet

               Queen Cassiopeia had been arrogant towards gods so daughter Andromeda was required as

                              sacrifice to be eaten by serpent

               Perseus slew serpent and took Andromeda as wife and returned to island

               Dictys's wife was dead, Dictys and Danae hid in temple

               Perseus went to Polydectes's banquet and showed Medusa's head, turning all to stone

               returned to Greece to reconcile with Acrisius, who had been driven from his city

               Perseus's discus in athletic contest of King of Larissa in North accidentally hit and killed Acrisius

               Perseus's son Electryon was Hercules's granddad

               Athena given Medusa's head and bore it on aegis


               son of King Aegeus of Athens but raised by mom until old enough to roll away stone to get dad's

                              sword and go to Athens

               went by land because more dangerous and wanted to be hero like cousin Hercules

               killed bandits as they killed others: kicked Sciron into sea, Sinis fastened to pine trees, Procrustes

                              fit to table length

               Aegeus didn't know Theseus was son so gave him Medea's poison but found out just in time and

                              dashed cup away before Theseus drank

               Aegeus had sent Minos of Crete's son Androgeus on fatal expedition against a bull and Mino

                              captured Athens and demanded 7 maidens and 7 youths every 9 years to feed Minotaur


               Poseidon had given Minos the Minotaur to sacrifice but instead kept it in Daedalus-designed

                              Labyrinth, Poseidon punished him by making the Minotaur's mom Pasiphae fall in love

                              with him

               Theseus volunteered to be sacrifice but planned to kill Minotaur

               Minos's daughter Ariadne fell in love with Theseus and told him to string thread from entrance to

                              retrace steps and escape, in exchange he would marry her

               Theseus killed Minotaur with his fists

               on way back he either deserted Ariadne on island or she died accidentally

               forgot to give sign of his success by replacing black sail with white so sad Aegeus jumped into

                              sea, now named Aegean Sea

               Theseus became king and established democracy

               victorious Thebans of the Seven Against Thebes refused to bury enemy so Theseus made them

               only Theseus received outcast Oedipus and protected his daughters

               fought Amazons and took one back, Antiope or Hippolyta, and had son Hippolyta

               Amazons invaded Attica near Athens but were defeated

               went on Argo with Jason and on the Calydonian boar hunt

               saved rash friend Piritheus's life, who had stolen his cattle but surrendered, many times, Piritheus

                              was King of Lapithae

               helped defeat drunk Centaur horse/men at Piritheus's wedding

               after wife died Piritheus wanted to abduct Persephone

               Theseus kidnapped young Helen but later she was rescued by her brothers Caster and Pollux

               went to Hades with Piritheus but Hades put them in Chair of Forgetfulness and later Hercules

                              could rescue only Theseus

               Hippolytus was raised in same region dad was and avoided women

               Theseus married Ariadne's sister Phaedra who fell in love with stepson Hippolytus who refused

                              her nurses's pleas to love her

               Phaedra committed suicide but left note accusing Hippolytus of violence

               Theseus banished son and son was killed when chariot crashed after Poseidon fulfilled dad's curse

                              by sending a sea monster to attack chariot

               Artemis told Theseus his son was not guilty but it was Aphrodite's fault

               son brought back and died in his arms

               King Lycomedes later killed Theseus for some reason

               Athens honored Theseus and his tomb is sanctuary for poor and helpless


               brave and strong but not smart

               helped gods defeat Giants

               threatened to steal oracle's tripod when it didn't answer him said he would fight Apollo

               strong emotions, deserted Argonauts in grief when his armor-bearer Hylas killed

               born to Zeus and Alcides, Amphitryon's wife, with half-brother Iphicles

               two snakes attacked brothers in crib before they were a year old but Hercules strangled them,

                              snakes had been sent by Hera

               Teiresias (blind prophet) said he would be famous

               unintentionally killed his music teacher

               at 18 killed Thespian lion in Cithaeron woods and wore its skin thereafter

               conquered Minyans who plagued Thebans and was given Princess Megara as wife

               Hera made him go mad and he killed his wife and 3 sons

               Amphitryon told him what happened, cousin Theseus saved him from suicide

               oracle at Delphi told him to be purified by performing labors for King Eurystheus of Mycenae

               12 Labors of Hercules

                              killed lion of Nemea

                              killed 9-headed Hydra of Lerna (1 immortal head buried, other 8 grew 2 when 1 cut off

                                             but used nephew Iolaus's brand on severed necks)

                              captured golden horned stag in Cerynitia sacred to Artemis

                              captured great boar on Mt. Erymanthus

                              cleaned Augean stables in a day by diverting 2 rivers

                              drove away Stymphalus birds, helped by Athena

                              captured Minos's bull in Crete

                              stole man-eating mares of King Diomedes of Thrace

                              captured girdle of Hippolyta the Amazon

                              stole cattle of 3-bodied monster in Erythia, set up Gibraltar and Ceuta pillars as memorial

                              tricked Atlas into getting Golden Apples of his sons the Hesperides

                              captured Cerberus from underworld and freed Theseus from Chair of Forgetfulness

               killed Giant wrestler Antaeus, immortal on ground, by lifting and strangling him

               fought river-god Achelous (in form of bull) for Deianira (his daughter) as wife, broke off his horn

               King Laomedon had cheated Apollo and Poseidon of wages for building walls of Troy so a

                              monster was sent to devous his daughter, Hercules rescued her in return for Zeus's horses owned

                              by Laomedon but he wouldn't give them to Hercules so Hercules conquered the city, killed the king,

                              and gave the daughter to his friend Telamon of Salamis

               freed Prometheus on way to Atlas

               carelessly killed servant boy and exiled self as punishment

               killed son of King Eurytus, who had insulted him, as penance was slave of Queen Omphale of

                              Lydia who made him do women's work

               Apollo, a slave of Admetus as punishment for kiling Zeus's Cyclopses in revenge for death of his

                              son Aesculaplus, told Admetus he could get a substitute to die for him, and his wife Alcestis agreed

               Admetus told Hercules when he came to visit that no one important had died, Hercules got drunk

                              but was ashamed when he learned Admetus's wife died

               to make amends, Hercules wrestled Death and brought Alcestis back from dead

               Hercules killed King Eurytus and sent captured maidens, including beleved Iole (Eurytus's

                              daughter) to wife Deianira

               Deianira sent him a coat with what she thought was a love potion from the blood of a ferryman

                              Hercules had slain (Centaur Nessus)

               was actually poison and nearly killed Hercules but he killed the one who had delivered it, Deianira

                              killed herself when she found out, and finally Hercules killed himself in a pyre, giving box and arrows

                              to Philoctetes

               taken to heaven, reconciled with Hera, married Hera's daughter Hebe


               Atalanta's dad, wanting a son, left her in mountains, raised by bear and later by kindly hunters

               Artemis punished King Oeneus by sending terrible bear, King called for heros to hunt it

               in Calydonian boar hunt, Oeneus's son Meleager fell in love with Atalanta and insisted she be

                              allowed on hunt

               3 men killed, then Atalanta's arrow hit boar and Meleager killed it but gave prize skin to Atalanta

               Meleager's chauvinist uncles complained but he killed them

               upset at brothers' deathes, Meleager's mom Althea threw a log in fire that fates had said would kill

                              Meleager, and he did die, mom then hanged self

               at Pelias's funeral Atalanta outwrestled Achille's dad Peleus

               Atalanta's dad accepted her back

               she didn't want to marry and disposed of suitors by beating them in a footrace

               Melanion (or Hippomenes) beat her by dropping Aphrodite's irrestible golden apples, which she

                              had to stop and pick up

               they married and had son Parthenopaeus (one of the Seven Against Thebes) before they were

                              turned into lions

Trojan War

               at marriage of King Peleus and sea nymph Thetis shunned Eris (goddess of Discord) threw in

                              golden apple "for the fairest"

               Zeus sent 3 goddesses to be judged by Prince Paris (son of King Priam of Troy) who was herding sheep

               Paris chose Aphrodite's bribe of most beautiful woman in world over Hera's of being lord over

                              Europe and Asia and Athena's of leading Troy over the Greeks

               Helen was most beautiful, daughter of Zeus and Leda, King Tyndareus made all suiters promise to

                              help her future husband if any wrong done

               gave Helen to Menelaus, Agamemnon's brother, and made him King of Sparta

               Paris visited Menelaus but kidnapped Helen when Menelaus was gone

               all Greek chieftans bound to help attack Troy

               Odysseus tried to feign madness by sowing field with salt but didn't run over his son with plow so

                              messenger knew he was sane and made him go

               Achilles's mom sent him to King Lycomedus and disguised him as girl but Odysseus found he

                              preferred weapons not girls' trinckets, and he confessed and agreed to go

               Agamemnon was told by soothsayer Calchas he had to sacrifice daughter Iphigenia to Artemis

                              (upset about a slain hare) to get favorable winds), and he did this

               at Troy Protesilaus was first ashore, brave because it was prophesied that first to shore would be

                              first to die

               King Priam and Queen Hecuba ruled Troy, Achilles (Greek) and Hector (Troy) fated to die

               9 years of battle

               Greeks carried off Chryseis, daughter of Apollo's priest, for Agamemnon, Apollo shot arrows at

                              Greeks, Calchus told Greeks to return her, Agamemnon did but took Achilles's Briseis instead

               gods divide

                              for Greeks: Hera, Athena, Poseidon

                              for Trojans: Aphrodite, Ares, Apollo, Zeus

               Achilles's mom Thetis mad and asked Zeus to help Troy

               Zeus sent false dream telling Agamemnon to fight without Achilles

               Menelaus and Paris fought alone, Paris lost and fled

               Troy would have returned Helen and ended war but Hera and Athena made Lycian archer

                              Pandarus break the truce and war started again

               Greeks Ajax and Diomedes killed many, Diomedes wounded Aeneas, his mom Aphrodite tried to

                              save him but was wounded herself, Apollo then saved Aeneas

               Greeks feared Ares with Hector but Hera helped Diomedes wound Ares and he returned whining

                              to Olympus

               Hector's mom prayed to Athena but was denied

               Hector bid farewell to wife Andromache and son Astyanax

               Achilles, upset at wrongful stealing of Briseis by Agamemnon, stayed in tent

               wise Nestor told Agamemnon to appease Achilles but sending Briseis back along with many

                              treasures would not appease him

               Hera put Zeus to sleep and helped Greeks advance, Ajax threw down Hector but Aeneas saved him

               Zeus awoke but Hera blamed Poseidon

               Apollo and Hector led Tory on advance

               Achilles's beloved friend Patroclus borrowed his armor and fought to help his countrymen despite

                              Agamemnon's wrong, led Achiles's men (the Myrmidons), Hector slew Patroclus and took

                              Achilles's armor

               Nestor's son Antilochus told Achilles Patroclus was slain

               Achilles vowed to avenge but mom warned that he was fated to die right after Hector, but she

                              brought him arms made by Hephaestus

               river Scamander tried to drown Achilles

               Athena took form of Hector's brother Deiphobus to trick him

               Achilles pursued Hector 3 times around Troy

               Achilles slew Hector with spear into hole in armor at throat

               dragged body behind his chariot around Troy

               Zeus sent Iris to Priam and told him to ransom Hector's body back

               Achilles agreed and declared a 9-day truce for mourning Hector in Troy

               burned Hector on big pyre and buried his bones in urn

Fall of Troy

               Achilles killed Prince Memnon of Ethiopia who fought with Troy

               Paris's arrow hit Achilles in the heel, only vulnerable spot because mom Thetis had held him by

                              heel when dipping in Styx to make him invincible, Achilles died, put in urn with Patroclus

               Greeks voted on whether Odysseus or Ajax would get Achilles's armor, Odysseus won, in anger

                              Ajax came to kill Agamemnon and Menelaus but Athena made him go mad and he slaughtered

                              cattle and rams, thinking they were Greeks, then became sane and killed self

               Calchas told Greeks to ask Trojan prophet Helenus, Odysseus captured him and he said Greeks

                              must use Hercules's bow and arrow, which Philoctetes, who had been bitten by serpent on way

                              to Troy and abandoned on an island, owned

               Odysseus retrieved Philoctetes and physician healed him, he then shot Paris who went to magical

                              nymph Oenone (his first wife) for healing but she refused because he had left her for Helen, and

                              Paris and Oenone died

               Greeks had to steal Troy's image of Athena before it would fall so Diomedes, with Odysseus, did

                              so at night

               Odysseus devised plan of wooden horse to sneak army into city, all afraid except Achilles's son


               Trojans found Greeks' ships gone, camps deserted, and a big horse at Troy's gates

               Sinon, only visible Greek, told story that Athena was upset her image was stolen and demanded a

                              sacrifice and he was chosen but escaped and wanted to be a Trojan now, said horse was gift to

                              Athena and Greeks wanted Trojans to burn it and incur Athena's wrath, not bring it in city and

                              bring her favor

               priest Laocoon and 2 sons doubted the story but Poseidon sent 2 serpents to strangle them and

                              Trojans took this to mean story was true

               took horse inside gates, at night Greeks got out, opened city gates to let returned army in, and

                              butchered sleeping Trojans and burned Troy

               vicious fighting in streets, Achilles's son killed Priam

               only Aphrodite's son Aeneas, with her help, escaped, along with his father and son

               Helen returned to Menelaus

               women captives included Queen Hecuba and Hector's wife Andromache

               Hecuba's daughter Polyxena killed on Achilles's grave and Hector's son Astyanax thrown from

                              wall to death

Adventures of Odysseus

               gods mad at Greeks for forgetting to honor gods in victory over Troy

               a lesser Ajax committed sacrilege of dragging Cassandra, whom Apollo had given power to

                              prophesy but no one to believe her, out of Athena's sanctuary

               Ajax drowned by Poseidon when he bragged to sea

               many suitors came to apparently widowed Penelope (Odysseus's wife), and lived arrogantly and

                              recklessly in their house

               Penelope wouldn't marry until wove a shroud for father-in-law Laertes, but she unwove it every

                              night until suitors discovered the trick

               after 10 years of wandering gods, especially Athena but not Poseidon, took mercy on Odysseus

               when Poseidon was away in Ethiopia Athena convinced gods to free Odysseus from Calypso, a

                              nymph who loved him and kept him on her isle

               Athena disguised as a seafarer told Odysseus's son Telemachus to go to Nestor and Menelaus to

                              get info on dad

               Athena disguised as trusted Mentor went with Telemachus on voyage to Pylos home of Nestor

                              after suitors refused to help

               Nestor told Telmachus to go to Menelaus, who on return from Troy had been blown off course to

                              Egypt, before returning to Sparta

               Telemachus and Nestor's son went to Menelaus, who received them with great hospitality and told

                              how he had been trapped on Pharos by bad weather but with help of sea-goddess captured her

                              dad sea-god Proteus on seal beach who told how to get home and that Odysseus was on

                              Calypso's isle

               Zeus sent Hermes to tell Calypso to free Odysseus, and she sadly helped him build sturdy raft with

                              20 trees for 5 days

               on 18th day on sea Odysseus saw mountain but Poseidon returned and sent fierce winds, goddess

                              Ino helped him swim to shore in 2 days, slept under dry trees

                              was in land of kind Phaeacians with King Alcinous and wise Queen Arete

               king's daughter Nausicaa went to river to wash clothes and bathe, found naked Odysseus and

                              kindly agreed to bring him to palace

               Odysseus asked Arete for mercy and was given good hospitality

               asked next day to tell Phaeacians of his journey returning from Troy

                              landed at land of Lotus-eaters, those who ate lost desire to go home and had to be chained

                                             to ships

                              lost several men to Cyclops Polyphemus (see above)

                              came to King Aeolus of the winds, given bag with all bad winds so would sail peacefully

                                             but sailors opened it and storms hit

                              finally saw land but all ships except Odysseus's destroyed by cannibalistic giants the


                              came to Aeaea, realm of Circe, who turned men to swine, Hermes gave Odysseus herb to

                                             protect him from Circe's magic, she was amazed her powers failed on him and fell in love

                                             with Odysseus, turned swine back to men and treated them very well for a year

                              as Circe told them they had to do, Odysseus went to entrance to Hades at Erebus and

                                             filled trench with sheep blood to lure spirits of the dead and ask ghost of Teiresias of

                                             Thebes for help

                              Teiresias warned not to hurt the Sun's oxen and that Odysseus would be safe, other spirits

                                             talked with Odysseus

                              to pass Sirens, who lured men to deaths with beautiful songs, Odysseus was tied to mast

                                             and all others put wax in their ears

                              passed Scylla monster and Charybdis whirlpool although Scylla killed several

                              landed at Island of the Sun and men foolishly killed and ate oxen, mad Sun shattered ship

                                             with thunderbolt and all but Odysseus drowned

                              Odysseus drifted to Calypso's island, then after many years made it to Phaeacian's land

               Alcinous sent Odysseus back to Ithaca on one of his ships with many gifts

               Athena disguised as shepherd met Odysseus and he, cautious, told false story of self, she then

                              revealed self and they made plans, disguised him as beggar

               disguised Odysseus given hospitality by loyal swineherd Eumaeus

               Telemachus returned and Odysseus revealed himself, agreed to hide all weapons from suitors

               old dog Argos recognized Odysseus, then died

               suitors mocked beggar but Penelope was kind, beggar told story of seeing Odysseus, but didn't

                              reveal self, old nurse Eurycleia when washing his feet noticed Odysseus's scar from boyhood hunt,

                              promised not to tell anyone

               Penelope asked suitors for costly gifts which they gave her, then told them that whoever could

                              string Odysseus's bow and shoot arrow through 12 rings would be new husband but no one could

                              string it

               beggar was mocked but Telemachus let him try feat which he did with ease, then Eumaeus closed

                              women's quarters, cattle keeper shut gates of court, Telemachus with spear guarded exit, Athena

                              protected Odysseus from attack, and Odysseus killed suitors with arrows

               suitors' priest prayed for mercy but was killed with sword, bard was spared

               Penelope didn't believe when Eurycleia told her Odysseus returned but went down and found him

               still wasn't sure it was him but had 2 ways to know

Adventures of Aeneas

               escaped from Troy with dad and son, sailed with other Trojans

               started several cities but gave up because of bad omens

               dream told him to build in Hesperia (Western Country, Italy), left from Crete

               driven away by Harpies

               met Hector's wife Andromache who had been given to Neoptalemus (Achilles's son) who left her

                              for Helen's daughter and then died, then she married Trojan prophet Helenus and ruled this land

               Helenus told Aeneas to land on west coast of Italy and avoid Scylla and Charybdis between Italy

                              and Sicily

               landed in southern Sicily but warned by one of Odysseus's abandoned men that Cyclopses were

                              there, escaped just in time as Polyphemus waded out to sea

               Juno caused storm with waves from ocean floor to start, Juno knew Fates had said Aeneas's

                              descendants would conquer her beloved Carthage, asked Aeolus to send winds, but Neptune

                              calmed sea and reprimanded Aeolus, Aeneas landed near Carthage

               Juno wanted Dido, Carthage's founder, and Aeneas to fall in love, but Venus made Jupiter promise

                              to foil plan, sent Cupid to make Dido love Aeneas but not Aeneas to love her

               Aeneas and friend Achates explored land and told by Venus disguised as huntress to go to Queen

                              at Carthage

               saw carvings of Trojan War and were encouraged

               Dido loved Aeneas and made him co-ruler and gave him and his men many gifts

               after a while of living happily Jupiter sent Mercury to tell him to go found city

               Aeneas was sad to leave Dido but had to on Jupiter's orders, left at night, Dido killed herself

               trusty pilot Palinurus died at sea

               landed in western Italy and found wise Sibyl of Cumae as Helenus had said to, she guided

                              Achilles and Achates to underworld to speak to Achilles's dad Anchises

               killed 4 black bullocks for Night Goddess Hecate, then went down past Disease, Hunger, Discord,

                              etc. on way to underworld

               gave a golden bough to Charon to ferry them across (ususally only took dead who had been given

                              proper burial, others had to wander for 100 years), gave cake to Cerberus

               saw Dido in Fields of Mourning for suicide lovers but she didn't respond

               to left Rhadamanthus punished the bad, to right were Elysian Fields where dad was

               Anchises showed Aeneas future descendants, the great Romans, at the River of Forgetfulness for


               Aeneas returned to Italy

               Latinus (great-grandson of Saturn) of Latium told by spirit of dad Faunus to marry daughter

                              Lavinia only to foreigner whose descendants would rule world

               Latinus thought Aeneas was this man but Juno made Fury Alecto make Queen Amato oppose

                              marriage and jealous suiter King Turnus of Rutulians attack, Latinus hid and let events unfold

               Juno opened doors of her war temple

               Mezentius helped the Rutulians, was so cruel the Etruscans had overthrown him, Camilla, who

                              killed cranes and swans and led marriage-hating maiden army, also fought with them

               Father Tiber told Aeneas to go to King Evander of what would later be Rome, he received Aeneas

                              kindly, told how Saturn led Golden Age in town followed by tyrants before he came from Arcady

                              in Greece and became king naming city Arcady also, gave Aeneas son Pallas and horses and sent

                              to much stronger Etruria who hated Mezentius (who had killed people by linking them with

                              corpses) for help

               Trojans without Aeneas defended selves but took no offensive, as Aeneas had instructed

               veteran Nisus decided to go through enemy lines to send message to Aeneas, friend Euryalus

                              insisted on going also, Ascanius said he would treat Euryalus's mom as his own if he was killed,

                              Nisus and Euryalus killed many silently in enemy lines but at daylight troopers caught Euryalus

                              and killed him, Nisus died trying to rescue him

               fierce battle, all enemies and many with Aeneas including Pallas were killed

               superhuman Aeneas killed Turnus, married Lavinia, and founded Roman race

The House of Atreus

               Tantalus, son of Zeus, ate with gods and was honored by gods but played evil trick: when gods

                              gave him honor of dining at his palace he fed them his son Pelops, gods realized this and punished

                              him by putting him near pool and fruit trees in Hades that disappeared when he tried to eat or drink,

                              Pelops restored to life but had to have ivory shoulder because Demeter had accidentally eaten his

               Pelops won chariot race against Hippodamia's dad who had beaten and killed many others with his

                              horses from Ares, was helped by Hippodamia, horses from Poseidon, and King's charioteer Myrtilus

                              (whom he later killed), Pelops married Hippodamia

               Tantalus's daughter Niobe became great with husband Amphion who played music so well stones

                              followed him to help brother Zethus (both sons of Zeus) build walls of Thebes, ruled Thebes and

                              had 14 great kids but in arrogance Niobe made Leto's temple her own, Leto's children Apollo and

                              Artemis killed all her kids with arrows and she turned into a crying stone

               Pelops's son Atreus killed brother Thyestes's 2 kids and made Thyestes eat them because he had

                              affair with Atreus's wife

               Odysseus heard spirit of Agamemnon tell of his wretched death: wife Clytemnestra killed

                              Cassandra and Clytemnestra's lover Aegisthus killed him

               Alternate story of Agamemnon's death

                              Atreus's son Menelaus lived happily with Helen after returning from Troy via Egypt

                              Agamemnon returned without trouble and received as hero but old men worried because

                                             they knew curse of House of Atreus and that Agamemnon had sacrificed daughter

                              Queen Clytemnestra did not send Aegisthus away, only Agamemnon didn't know of her

                                             infidelity, she greeted Agamemnon lovingly in public

                              Cassandra, war captive who prophesied correctly but no one believed her, told old men

                                             that two, including her, would die that night because of curse of House of Atreus, men

                                             tried to keep her from going into house but she refused

                                             heard Agamemnon cry out and blood-stained Clytemnestra emerged and told all she

                                             had executed husband for sacrificing daughter

                              Aegisthus son of Thyestes helped to avenge wrong Agamemnon's dad Atreus had done to


                              Agamemnon's son Orestes was away with trusted friend, daughter Electra was mistreated

                                             and hoped only for brother's return

                              Orestes asked oracle's help to decide if it was right to kill mom to avenge dad, Apollo

                                             told him to kill her

                              Orestes and friend Pylades came to Electra, proving identity with cloak she made, and

                                             planned to pretend to be messenger with good news that Orestes was dead

                              Orestes killed Aegisthus and mom despite her pleas, was plagued by visions of black

                                             women with snake hair, wandered and suffered for many years, purifying self

                              asked Athena for purification and Apollo helped him, tormenting Furies the Erinyes

                                             became Benignant Ones the Eumenides to protect suppliants, curse of the House of

                                             Atreus ended

               Iphigenia Among Taurians

                              later Greeks, despising human sacrifice story, changed story of Agamemnon sacrificing

                                             Iphigenia to Artemis because it slandered goddess as bloodthirsty

                              on altar Artemis made Iphigenia disappear and provided deer instead, good news sent to

                                             mom via messenger

                              Iphigenia taken to Tauria (now Crimea) and made priestess at Artemis's temple, job was

                                             to prepare captured Greeks for sacrifice

                              after a few years Orestes, with Pylades, landed there to bring image of Artemis to Greece

                                             to purify self from mom's murder, but was very dangerous

                              were captured and taken to Iphigenia for sacrifice, she asked about their home in

                                             Mycenae and asked Orestes (unrecognized) to take message but he told Pylades to take

                                             it and be saved, message was to Orestes to come rescue her, delivered immediately,

                                             Orestes told her details of home and she knew it was him

                              she devised plan to tell King Thoas that Artemis said the Greeks were impure from

                                             killing mom and had to take them alone to sea to purify, and he allowed it

                              set out to sea but winds blew them back, Thoas was about to kill them but Athena

                                             appeared in air and told him not to, so he stopped, and Poseidon calmed sea and they

                                             sailed away

Royal House of Thebes


                              Europa's dad sent brothers to look for her, brother Cadmus asked oracle for help, told to

                                             found city where a cow rested, there established Thebes in Boeotia (heifer's land), slew

                                             dragons at nearby springs, Athena told him to sow dragons' teeth, armed men grew up

                                             and killed each other except 5 who helped Cadmus build Thebes

                              introduced alphabet, married Harmonia, daughter of Ares and Aphrodite (who gave them

                                             necklace made by Hephaestus)

                              4 daughters and 1 son

                                             Semele mom of Dionysus was killed by seeing Zeus in his glory

                                             Ino step-mom of Phrixus, her husband went mad and killed son Melicertes and

                                                            she jumped into sea, but she was made into a sea-goddess and later saved

                                                            Odysseus, in later myths renamed Leucothea and her son Palaemon

                                             Dionysus made Agave go mad and he killed son Pentheus thinking he was a lion

                                             Autonoe had to watch innocent son die because he accidentally saw Artemis

                                                            naked and was turned to stag and killed by dogs

                              Cadmus and Harmonia fled from Thebes and were unjustly turned into serpents


                              Laius (great-grandson of Cadmus), king of Thebes with wife Jocasta queen, told by

                                             oracle his son would kill him, sent baby son to mountain to die, then he and 3

                                             attendants were killed, 1 who survived told Thebes that robbers had attacked them

                              lion/woman Sphinx killed wayfarers who couldn't answer her riddle: what animal walks

                                             on 4 feet in morning, 2 at noon, and 3 in the evening?

                              Oedipus fled Corinth because oracle said he would kill dad, who he thought was King

                                             Polybus, and marry mom

                              answered Sphinx's riddle (man) and it killed itself

                              grateful Thebes made him king, married Jocasta

                              famine came and Oedipus sent Jocasta's brother Creon to oracle, told to punish murderer

                                             of Laius, Oedipus glad but prophet Teiresias, upon threats and accusations, finally told

                                             him he was the murderer but Oedipus thought Teiresias had gone mad

                              Jocasta told how robbers killed Laius on road, Oedipus told how he had attacked and

                                             killed rude travellers on way to Thebes

                              messenger said Polybus was dead but Oedipus wasn't his son, Oedipus had been given to

                                             messenger as baby by shepherd who then appeared and was recognized and finally


                              Oedipus realized he had killed dad Laius and married mom, Jocasta then killed self,

                                             Oedipus blinded self


                              Jocasta's brother Creon ruled Thebes, all treated Oedipus well but after several years

                                             banished him with consent of sons Polyneices and Eteocles, daughter Antigone traveled

                                             with him and daughter Ismene stayed in Thebes to send him news

                              younger Eteocles took throne, Polyneices went to Argos to raise an army

                              Oedipus cared for by Benignant Goddesses and Theseus of Athens, died happy with

                                             daughters by side

                              Polyneices with 6 chieftans including King Adrastus of Argos and his brother-in-law

                                             Amphiaraus (unwillingly, knowing only Adrastus would survive, but made to come by

                                             bribed wife Eriphyle whom he had sworn could decide disputes between him and

                                             Adrastus), attacked Thebes, sisters couldn't take sides

                              Teiresias said Thebes would fall unless Eteocles's son Menoeceus died, dad refused but

                                             selfless son fought and died when dad went to get gold to send him away

                              armies agreed to let brothers fight it out alone, both killed each other

                              armies fought on, attackers driven away

                              Creon declared Eteocles should be buried but not Polyneices, Thebes agreed

                              Antigone upset because unburied wouldn't be ferried by Charon and so she buried him

                                             during dust storm

                              a guard told Creon Antigone had disobeyed his order, sister Ismene said she helped but

                                             hadn't actually, Antigone led to death

               Seven Against Thebes

                              5 chieftains remained unburied, moms and sons came to Theseus for help, Theseus's mom

                                             Aethra convinced him to put matter to vote, Athens voted to demand burial but Creon


                              Athens attacked and won but didn't destroy city or kill citizens

                              Theseus buried Capaneus, Eteocles, Hippomedon, Parthenopaeus (Atalanta's son), and

                                             Tydeus, Adrastus spoke last words for each

                              Capaneus's wife Evadne leaped into pyre to kill self

                              sons of dead chieftans vowed vengeance on Thebes, 10 years later they destroyed

                                             Thebes, Harmonia's necklace taken to Delphi, despite success they were known as


                              Tydeus's son Diomedes was hero at Troy

Royal House of Athens


                              first king of Attica was dragon/man Cecrops

                              Poseidon wanted to be Athen's benefactor and made salt water flow from Acropolis but

                              Athena also wanted this and made prized olive tree for Athens

                              Athena won

                                             Story 1: arbiter Cecrops chose Athena, mad Poseidon sent flood

                                             Story 2: all men voted for Poseidon, women for Athena, 1 more woman so

                              Athena won, mad men took vote away from women

                              some said Cecrops was normal human, great-granddad of Theseus, Demeter began

                                             agriculture in reign of Theseus's dad King Erechtheus's

               Procne and Philomela

                              Procne was daughter of Erechtheus, married Tereus of Thrace, son of Ares

                              when son Itys was 5 Procne asked him to let her sister visit

                              Tereus escorted her sister Philomela but fell in love with her, told her that Procne was

                                             dead, pretended marriage to her, she later found out and threatened to tell on

                                             him, he cut out her tongue and left her guarded, told Procne she had died on journey

                              Philomela wove her story into tapestry, old woman took it to Procne who was outraged

                                             and went to sister, killed son Itys and served him to Tereus for dinner

                              when she told him what he had eaten he chased her, near Daulis he almost caught her but

                                             all were turned into birds: Procne nightengale, Tereus hawk, and Philomela swallow

                                             (can't sing)

                              Romans mixed up sisters: Philomela a nightengale (despite having no tongue)

               Procris and Cephalus

                              Procris, niece of Procne and Philomela, married Cephalus, grandson of Aeolus

                              few days later Aurora (Dawn) carried off Cephalus whom she saw hunt at dawn and fell

                                             in love with him, he refused her and she returned him but hinted that Procris might be


                              to test wife he disguised self as stranger and tried many days to have affair, one day she

                                             paused in her refusals and he revealed self and accused her of treachery, she fled

                              he realized he was wrong and begged forgiveness when he found her, she finally forgave

                              on hunt together they separated and he threw javelin which never missed at moving

                                             thicket and killed Procris accidentally

               Orithyia and Boreas

                              Procris's sister Orithyia was courted by North Wind Boreas but all feared those from

                                             North because Tereus was from North

                              Boreas carried her away from river bank, had sons Zetes and Calais, who both went on

                                             Quest of the Golden Fleece

               Creusa and Ion

                              another of Procris's sisters, Creusa, was kidnapped when young by Apollo, taken to cave

                              in shame she left her son in same cave to die so no one would know

                              her dad King Erechtheus gave her as wife to Greek foreigner Xuthus who had helped him

                                             in war, Xuthus wanted son but didn't have one, went to oracle for help

                              young priest Ion at Delphi said priestess Pythoness had found him as baby and he was

                                             happy to serve gods

                              she told him her story but said it was about a friend

                              Xuthus came and said Apollo had told him Ion was his son

                              priestess gave swaddling clothes to Ion and Creusa recognized them, proved she was his

                                             mother by describing embroidery and golden serpents on clothes

                              Athena, sent by Apollo, told them Ion was her son and had been rescued by Apollo and

                                             that Ion was worthy to rule kingdom

Less Important Myths


                              King Midas of Phrygia entertained drunk Silenus, whom servants had found and tied up

                                             with roses, for 10 days

                              took him back to Bacchus who was so delighted he promised any gift

                              Midas asked that all he touched turn to gold, couldn't eat or drink, asked to take gift back,

                                             Bacchus said to wash in source of river Pactolus, this is why gold is found in river's banks

                              Midas foolishly chose Pan over Apollo to win music contest (mountain-god Tmolus

                                             chose Apollo) and was punished by getting donkey ears

                              wore hat so only his hair-cutter knew about ears, he whispered secret into ground and

                                             when reeds grew and stirred by wind they repeated secret


                              maiden Coronis of Thessaly loved mortal not Apollo who loved her

                              Apollo's white raven told of her unfaithfulness and Apollo turned it black in anger

                              either Apollo killed Coronis or got sister Artemis to shoot her

                              in grief he took baby to be raised by wise Centaur Chiron on Mt. Pelion

                              son Aesculapius learned art of healing and helped all who came

                              once paid much to bring Theseus's son Hippolytus back to life who became immortal

                                             Virbius worshipped in Italy

                              Zeus slew Aesculapius with thunderbolt because a mortal should not have power over death

                              Apollo, upset at son's death, shot Zeus's Cyclopses or their sons

                              Zeus condemned Apollo to be slave of King Admetus for 1-9 years

                              sick went to Aesculopius's temples where his spirit told them what to do, often using snakes

               The Danaids

                              50 daughters of Danaus (descendants of Io) lived by Nile and didn't want to marry their

                                             50 cousins, sons of Aegyptus

                              fled with dad to city of Argos which vowed to protect them

                              all did marry cousins but dad gave them daggers and that night all killed husbands except

                                             Hypermnestra who had mercy on Lynceus who fled

                              dad threw Hypermnestra into prison for treachery, Lynceus rescued her and lived happily

                                             together, son Abas was great-granddad of Perseus

                              49 sisters sent to Hades and had to try forever to carry water in leaky jars

               Glaucus, Scylla, and Circe

                              fisherman Glaucus saw his fish go back to sea and he wanted to also

                              sea-gods made Ocean and Tethys make him into a sea-god with green hair and fish tail

                              loved nymph Scylla but she fled

                              asked Circe for help, she fell in love with him but he would only love Scylla, Circe gave

                                             Glaucus poison instead of love potion and turned Scylla into beast with heads of serpents

                                             and dogs, in misery ate passing sailors


                              Erysichthon chopped down tallest oak in Ceres's sacred grove, she punished him by

                                             giving him a hunger no food could satisfy

                              to get money for food sold daughter but she had power to change into different forms,

                                             owners didn't know where she had gone, she returned to dad who sold her over and

                                             over to get money

                              finally he ate himself

               Pomona and Vertumnus (Roman only)

                              Pomona, only nymph who hated wild woodland, also hated men

                              Vertumnus courted her but was refused

                              he disguised himself as an old woman and told her to accept man who loved garden like

                                             her and loved her and to fear Venus who opposed maidens who wouldn't marry (e.g. in

                                             story of Anaxarete who refused Iphis and was turned into a stone)

                              he then revealed himself and she accepted him

Brief Myths


                              goat (or nymph who owned it) named Amalthea gave milk to baby Zeus

                              horn always full of food, known as Cornucopia (Horn of Plenty)

                              Latins said Cornucopia was from horn of river-god Achelous which Hercules broke off


                              Amazons were men-hating women warriors

                              lived in Caucasus, main city was Themiscyra

                              beaten by Bellerophon in Lycia and Theseus in Attica, invaded Phrygia when Priam was young

                              Achilles killed Queen Penthesilca who fought with Troy


                              Poseidon saved Amymone, one of the Danaids, from a satyr who chased her and made a

                                             spring with his trident in her honor


                              Thebes Princess Antiope left her sons (fathered by Zeus) Zethus and Amphion on

                                             mountain in shame but were raised by herdsman

                              later found sons in cottage and together with friends killed King Lycus and Queen Dirce,

                                             who had been cruel to her, by tying hair to bull

                              brothers threw body into spring named for her


                              Arachne claimed she weaved better than Minerva, challenged by Minerva to contest and won

                              Minerva attacked girl and Arachne hanged herself

                              guilty Minerva turned her into spider with same great weaving power


                              poet Arion won music prize

                              sailors wanted to steal prize but he asked to play one last song, as Apollo in dream had

                                             told him to do, and then jumped in ocean, rescued by dolphins drawn by music


                              Aristaeus, son of Apollo and nymph Cyrene, kept bees but they died

                              mom told him to capture sea-god Proteus who changed forms but finally told him to

                                             leave sacrificed carcasses for 9 days

                              he did and then found swarm of bees in a carcass and never again were his bees hurt by disease

               Aurora and Tithonus

                              Aurora (Dawn) asked Zeus to make husband Tithonus (dad of Memnon of Ethiopia who

                                             died at Troy) immortal and he agreed

                              Tithonus got old and miserable but couldn't die

                              Aurora finally turned wretched old man into grasshopper

                              statue to Memnon in Thebes makes harp sound when struck by dawn

               Biton and Cleobis

                              Hera's priestess Cydippe wanted to see Polyclitus's statue of Hera but had no horses

                              sons Biton and Cleobis pulled her car to statue in Argos but then died from exhaustion


                              Callisto was daughter of King Lycaon of Arcadia who had served Zeus human flesh and

                                             was turned into wolf as punishment

                              hunted with Artemis

                              she had son with Zeus but jealous Hera turned her into a bear hoping her son would shoot her

                              Zeus placed her and son Arcas in sky as Great and Lesser Bear

                              Hera persuaded god of sea not to let them descend into sea like other constellations


                              good wise Centaur entrusted to teach many including Achilles, physician Aesculapius,

                                             and hunter Actaeon

                              Hercules convinced Centaur Pholus to give him wine from jar belonging to all Centaurs

                              many Centaurs attacked but defeated by Hercules

                              innocent Chiron accidentally injured, hurt so badly Zeus let him die even though immortal


                              maiden Clytie loved Sun-god but not loved back, watched him move across sky daily

                              turned into sunflower which follows sun


                              Dryope with sister Iole went to pool, plucked blossoms of lotus tree which bled because it

                                             was nymph Latis who had become a tree to flee a pursuer

                              as punishment Dryope was turned into a tree while her dad and son watched, she warned

                                             son not to pluck flowers as it could be a goddess


                              while looking for lost sheep Epimenides fell asleep for 57 years

                              sent by oracle to purify Athens from plague, only asked for Athens-Cnossus (his

                                             hometown in Crete) friendship as his reward

               Ericthonius (Erechtheus)

                              serpent/man son of Hephaestus, Erichthonius was reared by Athena who put him in box

                                             and gave it to 3 daughters of Cecrops with warning not to open

                              they did open it, Athena made them go mad and jump from Acropolis to deaths

                              Ericthonius later became king of Athens

               Hero and Leander

                              every night Leander of Abydus swam to Hero (priestess of Aphrodite) in Sestus guided

                                             by lighthouse or torch

                              one night wind blew out light, he died, she committed suicide

               The Hyades

                              6 daughters of Atlas, the Hyades, were rainy stars, bringing rain May - November

                              Zeus entrusted baby Dionysus to them, rewarded them by setting them among stars

               Ibycus and the Cranes

                              Ibycus attacked by robbers, as dying told cranes to avenge him

                              during a play in Corinth cranes appeared and robber panicked, crowd put him and other

                                             robbers to death

               Leto (Latona)

                              Leto, daughter of Titans Phoebe and Coeus, pregnant by Zeus, was rejected by all lands,

                                             who feared Hera

                              finally welcomed by floating island Delos, had kids Apollo and Artemis, pillars formed

                                             to anchor island

                              formerly barren Delos now known as "heaven-built isle"


                              Linus, son of Apollo and Psamathe, was abandoned , raised by shepherds, killed by dogs

                              "ailion" (woe for Linus) means "alas"

                              another Linus taught music to Orpheus and Hercules, who killed him


                              Zeus made Marpessa choose between Apollo and Idas (a hero of Calydonian Hunt and an

                                             Argonaut) for husband

                              afraid a god would be unfaithful, chose mortal Idas


                              Athena invented flute but gave to Apollo

                              Marsyas, a satyr, challenged Apollo to flute contest but lost, punished by flaying


                              kept 2 snakes as pets (servants had killed parent snakes) who taught him language of

                                             animals, making him a great soothsayer

                              when enemies captured him worms told him roof would fall, he warned captors, when

                                             roof fell they freed him


                              Merope's husband King Cresphontes of Messenia (son of Hercules) killed in rebellion

                              next King Polyphontes took her as wife

                              she hid 3rd son Aepytus in Arcadia, who returned claiming to be slayer of Aepytus

                              Aepytus and Merope killed Polyphontes and Aepytus became king

               The Myrmidons

                              Zeus loved Aegina whose son Aeacus was king of Aegina island, Hera sent pestilence

                              Aeacus prayed to Zeus who turned an army of ants into people for desolated city

                              brave industrious people from ants called Myrmidons

               Nisus and Scylla

                              Minos of Crete laid siege to Megara but King Nisus was safe as long as he had his purple

                                             lock of hair on his head

                              Nisus's daughter Scylla fell in love with Minos and cut dad's lock and took it to Minos

                                             who sent her away, disgusted with her treachery

                              Cretans conquered city, Scylla seized rudder of Minos's boat, her dad (changed into an

                                             eagle) swooped down, but she was changed into a bird also


                              hunter Orion loved daughter of King Oenopion of Chios, cleared land of beasts and he

                                             promised to let him marry his daughter but put it off

                              Orion once insulted Oenopion's daughter Aero or Merope, and Oenopion blinded him in

                                             his sleep with the help of Dionysus

                              Orion went to Lemnos in the east and rising sun's rays healed his eyes as oracle had said

                              Orion couldn't find Oenopion to get vengeance so became hunter with Artemis in Crete

                              killed by Artemis either in jealousy because Dawn loved him or because he had angered


                              placed in sky as constellation


                              Blind soothsayer tormented by Harpies, who carried away his meals

                              Rescued by Argonauts

               The Pleiades

                              7 daughters of Atlas: Electra, Meia, Taygete, Alcyone, Merope, Celaeno, Sterope,

                                             known as the Pleiades

                              pursued unsuccessfully but persistently by Orion

                              Zeus placed them in sky but Orion still chases them

                              Maia was mom of Hercules, Electra of Dardanus (founder of Trojan race)

                              only 6 of 7 clearly visible


                              Rhoecus saved oak, actually a dryad in disguise, from falling, and asked only for her love

                                             as reward, and she agreed

                              he forgot her and injured her messenger bee

                              dryad blinded him in anger


                              on Zeus's festival day Salmoneus foolishly drove chariot in city pretending to be Zeus,

                                             perhaps mad or trying to bring rain

                              struck dead by Zeus's lightning


                              King Sisyphus of Corinth told river-god Asopus that he had seen an eagle carrying

                                             Asopus's daughter to an island

                              Zeus, who had carried her off, punished Sisyphus by making him forever roll a rock

                                             uphill in Hades

                              Zeus drove Asopus away with thunderbolt

                              island named Aegina for the maiden, her son Aeacus was Achilles's granddad


                              Tyro, daughter of Salmoneus, had sons Pelias and Neleus by Poseidon but abandoned

                                             them in shame, found and raised by Salmoneus's horsekeeper

                              Tyro's husband Cretheus found out later and put her away and married her cruel maid


                              when Cretheus died foster-mom told kids that Tyro was their mom

                              Pelias slew Sidero in Hera's temple

                              Pelias's half-brother was dad of Jason whom he sent after Golden Fleece but Pelias was

                                             killed by his daughters under the direction of Jason's wife Medea, as punishment

                                             from Hera






               Shiva : appears in male (linga) or female (yoni) forms

               Parvati / Uma : wife of Shiva

               Vishnu : two main incarnations (avators)

                              Rama-Chandra, hero of the Ramayana

                              Krishna, hero of the Bhagavad Gita

               Lakshmi : wife of Vishnu; goddess of prosperity; incarnated as milkmaid Radha

               Skanda : god of war; son of Shiva and Parvati

               Ganesha : elephant-headed god who removes obstacles; son of Shiva and Parvati

               Shakti : universal mother; worship of Shakti is a form of Tantrism, which can be left-handed or


               Brahma : monistic god worshipped by those who have reached the peak of Hinduism

Caste System (called jati, meaning "group by rebirth")

               Brahmans : priests and scholars

               Kshatriyas : temporal rulers

               Vaishyas : commoners

               Sudras : servants

               Panchamas / Fifths / Pariahs / Outcastes / Harijan : lowest


               dvija : Brahmans, Kshatriyas, and Vaishyas are "twice-born"

               karma : rebirth

               samsara : cycle of rebirth

               dharma : man's duty

               ahinsa : nonviolence

               pralaya : dissolution of the universe

               pratisarga : recreation

               prakrti : matter, including goodness (sattval), passion (rajas), and darkness (tanas)

               purusa : spirit


               Rig Veda : written around 1000 BC; 1028 hymns written by rsi sages

                              Asura : superhumans

                              Indra : chief god

                              Sat and asat lands

                              Vritra : evil serpent from whose belly (cut open by Indra) the world was created

                              Agni : god of fire sacrifices

                              Yama : the first man

                              Sabala and Syama : dogs of heaven

               Yajur Veda : rituals in prose

               Sama Veda : chants

               Atharva Veda : household religions

Upanishads : 108 texts which expand on the Vedas; concerned with philosophy rather than mythology;

               contrast the atman (human soul) and brahman (universal soul)

Two great Sanskrit epics

               Mahabharata : traditionally by Vyasa; divided in to 18 parvans; tells of feud between cousins;

                              Kauravas and Pandavas; aided by Krishna (Vishnu), the Pandavas defeat the Kauravas at

                              Kuruksetra in 1302 BC; Bhagavad Gita ("Song of the Lord") section relates Krishna's

                              instructions to Arjuna, the army commander

               Ramayana : by Valmiki; shorter than the Mahabharata; Rama won Sita as his wife by bending

                              Shiva's bow; the demon Ravana kidnapped Sita, but Rama rescued her with help from

                              monkey-king Sugriva and monkey-general Hanuman; Sita banished for suspicion of adultery;

                              Sita returned after birth of her two sons but requested to be swallowed by the earth

Other works

               Puranas tell about cosmology; Mahatmya tells about local religions; Sutras were the old law

                              books; Shastras are the new law books



Norse Mythology


Signy and Sigmund - Signy's husband fed her dad Volsung and all her brothers, except Sigmund whom she

               rescued, to wolves, but Signy and Sigmund, with help of their incest son Sinfiotli, killed his kids and burned

               him in his home, Signy chose to die with him in burning house

Brynhild and Sigurd - Brynhild put to sleep by Odin in Ring of fire until a hero would wake her, Sigurd

               woke her but later put her back and was made to marry Gudrun and to wake Brynhild again to

               give her to Gunnar, a friend of Gudurn's dad, Brynhild found out in quarrel with Gunnar and vowed revenge,

               Gunnar got Gudrun to kill Sigurd and Brynhild killed self

Norse gods

               doomed to be conquered by evil Giants

               live in Asgard and heros live in Valhalla Hall (Val means "slain") but all will eventually lose to Giants

               Odin sky-father, informed of world happenings by ravens Thought (Hugin) and Memory (Munin),

                              trys to postpone Rognarok (day of doom), lost eyes to Mimir to gain knowledge of the

                              Well of Wisdom, suffered also to learn from the Ruses, took skaldic mead (which makes men into

                              poets) from the Giants, was man's benefactor in many ways, attended by Valkyries, maidens who

                              carried slain warriors to Valhalla

               Balder was most beloved god, Loki (mischievious son of a Giant whom Odin had inexplicably

                              sworn brotherhood with) tricked Balder's brother into killing Balder with mistletoe despite mom

                              Frigga's (Odin's wife) efforts to protect him, Hela goddess of Niflheim (land of dead) promised to

                              restore Balder to life if all mourned for him but one giantess refused to, Loki punished by dropping

                              serpent's venom on his face in cavern although his wife Sigyn usually catches venom in cup

               Thor - thunder-god, strongest of Aesir

               Freyr - cared for the fruits of the earth

               Heimdall - warder of Bifrost (rainbow bridge to Asgard)

               Tyr - god of war

               Frigga - Odin's wife, wise but silent, works at spinning wheel using gold thread

               Freya - goddess of love and beauty, claimed half of those slain in battle

               Hela - goddess of dead

               Midgard - battlefield of men

               days with Norse names

                              Tuesday - Tyr, Wednesday - Odin (Woden), Thursday - Thor, Friday - Freya


                              first creatures were frost maidens and Giant Ymir (Odin's granddad), Odin and 2 brothers

                              killed Ymir, made sea from his blood, Earth from his body, and heavens from his skull

                              man created from ash tree, woman from elm tree, dwarfs and elves also on Earth

                              ash tree Yggdrasil supported universe, none could drink from holy Urda's Well

                              universe will end when serpent gnaws through root of tree near Niflheim

                              Frost Giants and Mountain Giants of Jotunheim enemies of all good

                              all are eventually doomed

               Norse Wisdom in Elder Edda - based on common sense, similar to Proverbs but not nearly as

                              profound, includes humor, shrewd knowledge of human nature, some cheerfulness, tolerance, and

                              sometimes depth of understanding and wisdom, "the mind knows only what lies near the heart"



Sumerian Mythology


Big 4 gods

               An - Heaven

               Ki - Earth

               Enlil - Lord Air

               Enki - Lord of the Deep (water and wisdom)

Me is the universal law


               Enlil was banished to the Nether World and was accompanied by his beloved Ninlil

               Enki brought man civilization and saved him from the Flood but ate of the forbidden fruit in

                              Dilmun, paradise of the gods

               Dumuzi took the place of his cruel wife Inanna who had gone to the Nether World despite laws

                              forbidding it

Epic of Gilgamesh

               Goddess Aruru made hairy wild man Enkidu out of clay to oppose oppressive King Gilgamesh of

               Erech; Enkidu protected the beasts; Gilgamesh sent a woman to seduce him; Enkidu defeated Gilgamesh in

               wrestling, and they became friends; Gilgamesh and Enkidu cut down a cedar in the sacred woods and

               beheaded the one-eyed monster Humbaba with the help of Gigamesh's mom Ninsun; Ishtar tried to seduce

               Gilgamesh but he knew how she had treated others such as Tammuz and refused; Enkidu died because he

               killed the storm bull of heaven; Gilgamesh consulted Utnapishtim, who had been warned of a flood by

               wisdom god Ea and survived by building an arc; got herb of youth from bottom of sea but stolen by a snake

War of the Gods

               "Enuma elish"; fresh water Apsu and salt water wife Tiamat had kids gods of the deep

               Lahmu and Lahamu who had Anshar and Kishar, parents of sky Anu, father of wisdom god Ea; Ea drugged

               and killed Apsu and dwarf counselor Mummu; Tiamat took Kingu as consort; Ea and Damkina had storm

               god Marduk; Tiamat warred with principals gods who supported Marduk; Marduk destroyed Tiamat and

               formed firmament and earth foundations from her body; Anu rules area above firmament, Enlil between

               firmament and earth, and Ea waters below earth; Kingu killed to make man puppet; gods built Babylon as

               shrine for Marduk