Important Leaders of Other Nations and Empires





               Mullah Mohammad Omar 1996-2001; leader of the Taliban; gave refuge to bin Laden's Al

                              Qaeda terrorist group

               Hamid Karzai 2001-2014


Akkadian Empire

               Sargon I 2335-2279 BC; united Akkad and Sumer; conquered most of Mesopotamia



               Ahmed Ben Bella 1962-1965; won independence from France

               Abdelaziz Bouteflika 1999-present; made peace with rebels in civil war



               Agostinho Antonio Neto 1975-1979; won independence from Portugal; established Popular

                              Movement for the Liberation of Angola Party (MPLA)

               Jose Eduardo dos Santos 1979-present; leader of MPLA; signed peace with UNITA leader

                              Savimbi in 1991; agreed to share power with Savimbi in Lusaka Protocol



               Juan Peron 1946-1955, 1974-1976; married popular Eva (Evita); Peronista party formed to

                              support him; later married Isabel

               Isabel Peron 1974-1976; third wife of Juan Peron; first woman president in Western


               Jorge Rafael Videla 1976-1981; led military junta; guerilla warfare "dirty war" throughout

                              country for years

               Leopoldo Galtieri 1981-1982; resigned after losing Falklands War

               Raul Alfonsin 1983-1989

               Carlos Menem 1989-1999

               Fernando de la Rua 1999-2001; resigned amid economic crisis, led to 5 presidents in 2 weeks

               Eduardo Duhalde 2002-2003; Peronist candidate who had lost in 1999 to de la Rua

               Nestor Kirchner 2003-2007

               Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner 2007-2015; Succeeded her husband as President

               Mauricio Macri 2015-?



               Shalmaneser III 859-824 BC; failed to conquer Aram; monuments include the Black

                              Obelisk and the Gates of Balawat

               Tiglath-pileser III 745-727 BC; took over Babylonia

               Shalmaneser V 727-722 BC; conquered Israel

               Sargon II 722-705 BC; deported Israelites; expanded empire; made capital at Calah and built

                              new city Dar Sharrukin

               Sennacherib 705-681 BC; moved capital to Nineveh; razed Babylonia; commemorated in poem

                              by Byron

               Ashurbanipal 669-627 BC; collected large library in Nineveh; attacked Memphis and Susa

               Ashur-uballit II 612-609 BC; last Assyrian king



               John Adrian Louis Hope 1901-1903; first governor-general

               Edmund Barton 1901-1903; first prime minister

               John Curtin 1941-1945; allied with US in WWII; member of Labor party

               Robert Gordon Menzies 1949-1966; founded Liberal Party; longest term as prime minister

               Gough Whitlan 1972-1975; leader of Labor Party; dismissed by governor-general

               Malcolm Fraser 1975-1983; led Liberal Party

               Robert Hawke 1983-1991; brought Labor Party to power

               Paul Keating 1991-1996; led Labor Party

               John Howard 1996-2007; restored Liberal Party to power

               Kevin Rudd 2007-2010, 2013; Labor

               Julia Gillard 2010-2013; Labor; First female Australian Prime Minister

               Malcolm Turnbull 2015-? ; Liberal


Aztec Empire

               Montezuma II 1502-1520; killed by his own people when Cortes made him appeal for an end to

                              the revolt against the Spaniards

               Cuauhtemoc 1520; last emperor



               First Babylonian Empire

                              Hammurabi 1792-1750 BC; defeated King Rim-Sin of Larsa; established code of

                                             laws (Code of Hammurabi)

                              Samsu-iluna 1750-1712 BC; son of Hammurabi

               Chaldean Period

                              Nebuchadnezzar II 605-562 BC; defeated Egyptians at Carchemish; captured

                                             Jerusalem and Judah; restored Babylonian empire

                              Nabonidus 546-539 BC; son Belshazzar given most power; defeated by Persian

                                             Cyrus the Great



               Mujibur Rahman 1971-1975; killed in coup

               Ziaur Rahman 1977-1981; killed in coup

               Hossain Mohammad Ershad 1983-1990; leader of Jatiya party; jailed for corruption

               Begum Khaleda Zia 1991-1996; widow of Ziaur Rahman; led Bangladesh Nationalist Party



               Antonio Jose de Sucre 1826-1828; helped win independence for South America from Spain;

                              fought with Bolivar at Ayacucho

               Hilarion Daza c. 1880; fought with Peru against Chile in War of the Pacific; ceded Atacama

                              Province to Chile

               Victor Paz Estenssoro 1952-1956, 1960-1964, 1985-1989; founded Nationalist Revolutionary

                              Movement; nationalized tin industry



               Pedro I 1822-31; son of Portuguese John VI, who had fled to Brazil as Napoleon invaded Portugal

               Getulio Vargas 1930-1945; dictator took control in junta

               Fernando Cardoso 1995-2002

               Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva 2003-2010; popular during term but convicted of corruption 2017

               Dilma Rousseff 2011-2016; first female president of Brazil; impeached and removed from office

                              for breaking budgetary laws

               Michel Temer 2016-?



               Early Period

                              Muhammad 619-632; raised by Abu Talib; married Khadija; made Hegira from

                                             Mecca to Medina; became ruler of Medina and defeated Mecca; wrote

                                             Koran; founded Islam

                              Abu Bakr 632-634; Muhammad's father-in-law

                              Umar I 634-644; defeated Persia; conquered Egypt, Syria, and Iraq

                              Uthman ibn Affan 644-656; assassinated by rebel troops

                              Ali 656-661; fought Muawiyah at Siffin; assassinated by the Kharijites; his

                                             followers were the Shiites

               Umayyad Dynasty

                              Muawiyah 661-680; revolted against Caliph Ali; moved capital from Mecca to

                                             Damascus; successors conquered North Africa and Spain until stopped

                                             by Martel at Poitiers

                              Yazid I 680-683; slaughtered Husayn and the Kufan Shiites at Karbala

                              Muwan II ?-750; overthrown by Abbasids

               Abbasid Dynasty

                              Abu al-Abbas 750-754; overthrew Umayyads

                              al-Mansur 754-775; built capital at Baghdad

                              Harun al-Rashid 786-809; court described in Arabian Nights; member of

                                             Barmecides family was grand vizier; exchanged gifts with Charlemagne;

                                             vizier Jaffar and chief executioner Mesrour

                              al-Mustasim ?-1258; killed by Mongol Hulagu, ending dynasty

               Fatimid Dynasty

                              Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi 909-?; established dynasty in Tunisia; he was a Shiite

                                             claiming descent from Mohammad's daughter Fatima and Caliph Ali;

                                             proclaimed Moslem messiah (Mahdi)

               Spanish Umayyads

                              Abd-ar-Rahman 929-?; descendants ruled from Cordoba until 1031



               Norodom Sihanouk 1941-1955; king; still head of state

               Pol Pot 1975-1985; leader of Khmer Rouge; arrested 1997

               Hun Sen 1998-?



               John MacDonald 1867-1873, 1878-1891; Conservative; first prime minister

               Alexander Mackenzie 1873-1878; Liberal

               Wilfrid Laurier 1896-1911; Liberal

               Robert Laird Borden 1911-1920; switched from Conservative to Union party

               W.L. Mackenzie King 1921-1926, 1926-1930, 1935-1948; Liberal

               Richard Bennett 1930-1935; Conservative; proposed the Bennett New Deal during Depression

               Louis St. Laurent 1948-1957; Liberal

               John Diefenbaker 1957-1963; Progressive Conservative

               Lester Pearson 1963-1968; Liberal; won 1957 Nobel Peace Prize for diplomatic work in

                              Korea and the Suez

               Pierre Trudeau 1968-1979; Liberal

               Brian Mulroney 1984-1993; Progressive Conservative; negotiated Meech Lake Accord with

                              Quebec Premier Bourassa in 1987 included Native Americans

               Kim Campbell 1993; Progressive Conservative; first female prime minister

               Jean Chretien 1993-2003; Liberal

               Paul Martin 2003-2006; Liberal

               Stephen Harper 2006-2015; Conservative

               Justin Trudeau 2015-? ; Liberal ; son of Pierre Trudeau



               Bernardo O'Higgins 1817-1823; leader in South American independence from Spain

               Salvador Allende Gossens 1970-1973; niece is author Isabel Allende

               Augusto Pinochet Ugarte, 1974-1990; led anti-Marxist coup; committed human rights abuses

               Patricio Aylwin Azocar 1990-1994

               Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle 1994-2000

               Ricardo Lagos Escobar 2000-2006; first socialist president since Pinochet's coup



               Xia Dynasty 2205-1766 BC

               Shang Dynasty 1500-1027 BC

               Western Chou Dynasty 1027-770 BC

               Eastern Chou 770-256 BC

                              Spring and Autumn Period 722-481 BC

                              Warring States 403-221 BC

               Ch'in (Qin) Dynasty 221-206 BC

                              Shih Huang-Ti 221-210 BC; originally Cheng; advised by Li Ssu; built Grand Canal

               Western Han Dynasty 202 BC - 9 AD

               Hsin Dynasty 9 - 23, interrupting Han

                              Wang Mang - usurper; reformer; murdered by Liu clan

               Eastern Han Dynasty 25-220

               Three Kingdoms (Wei, Shu, Wu) 220-265

               T'ang Dynasty 618-906

               Sung Dynasty 960-1279

               Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty 1279-1368

                              Kublai Khan 1279-1294; grandson of Ghengis; built court at Cambaluc (Beijing);

                                             visited by Marco Polo (Venice); Buddhist

               Ming Dynasty 1368-1644

               Ch'ing (Manchu) Dynasty 1644-1912

                              Pu Yi 1908-1912; last emperor; appointed head of Manchukuo by Japan in 1932

               Republic 1911-1937

                              Yuan Shikai 1912-1916; former Manchu general

                              Chiang Kai-shek 1927-1937; led Kuomintang (Nationalist) Party founded by Sun

                                             Yat-sen; purged communists

               Occupied by Japan 1937-1945

               Communist Paramount Leaders 1949-?

                              Mao Tse-Tung 1949-1976; led Long March; established Communist

                                             government in China; policies included Hundred Flowers, Great Leap

                                             Forward, and Cultural Revolution

                              Deng Xiaoping 1978-1989; encouraged "Four Modernizations" and

                                             instituted reforms leading to more market-style economy

                              Jiang Zemin 1989-2002; former Shangai mayor; continued Deng's reforms

                              Hu Jintao 2002-2012

                              Xi Jinping 2012-?

               Secondary Communist leaders

                              Zhao Enlai : Premier under Mao

                              Hu Yaobang : Gen. Sec. 1982-1987, reformer supported by Tiananmen protesters

                              Li Peng : Premier 1987-1998
Wen Jiabao : Premier 2003-2013



               Simon Bolivar 1821-1830; won independence from Spain, freeing Colombia at Boyaca;

                              continued to liberate Ecuador and Peru while Santander ran government of Gran

                              Colombia, including Venezuela and Panama

               Francisco de Paula Santander 1832-1837; Colombia and Panama became New Granada

               Ernest Samper 1994-1998; Liberal Party; accused of accepting bribes from drug cartels

               Andres Pastrana 1998-present; Conservative Party


Democratic Republic of the Congo (former Zaire)

               Patrice Lumumba 1960; first premier; removed by President Kasavubu and murdered by

                              Tshombe's Katangan rebels

               Mobutu Sese Seko 1965-1997; renamed nation Zaire

               Laurent Kabila 1999-2001; leader of rebels who ousted Mobutu; assassinated by bodyguard;

                              renamed nation Democratic Republic of the Congo

               Joseph Kabila 2001-?



               Fulgencio Batista y Zaldivar 1952-1959

               Fidel Castro Ruz 1959-2008; ousted dictator Batista and established Communist government;

                              avoided overthrow in Bay of Pigs invasion

               Raul Castro Ruz 2008-? ; brother of Fidel Castro


Dominican Republic

               Rafael Trujillo 1930-1961; dictator; assassinated

               Joaquin Balaguer 1961-1962, 1966-1996; defeated Bosch in 1966 election after US intervention



               Predynastic Period c.3500-c.3100 BC

               Early Dynastic Period c.3100-2686 BC, 1-2 dynasties

                              Menes c. 3100 BC; also Narmer; united Upper and Lower Egypt; killed by hippopotamus

               Old Kingdom c.2686-2181 BC, 3-6 dynasties, capital at Memphis

                              Djoser c. 2600 BC; his architect Imhotep build Step Pyramid

                              Khufu 2551-2528 BC; also Cheops; built Great Pyramid at Giza

               First Intermediate Period c.2181-2040 BC, 7-10 dynasties, capital at Thebes and Herakleopolis

               Middle Kingdom c.2040-1786 BC, 11-12 dynasties

                              Amenemhet I c. 1991 BC; controlled Nubia; capital at Itjtawy; began Dynasty 12

               Second Intermediate Period 1786-1567 BC, 13-17 dynasties (Hyksos ruled during 15)

               New Kingdom 1570-1085 BC, 18-20 dynasties

                              Ahmose I 1550-1525 BC; established New Kingdom; drove out Hyksos

                              Thutmose I 1504-1492 BC; defeated Nubians

                              Thutmose II 1492-1479 BC; husband of Hatshepsut

                              Hatshepsut 1473-1458 BC; daughter of Thutmose I;

                              Thutmose III 1479-1425 BC; ruled as coregent with stepmother Hatshepsut;

                                             expanded empire; defeated Syria at Plain of Jezreel

                              Ahmenhotep III 1391-1353 BC; built palace at Thebes; encouraged arts

                              Ahmenhotep IV 1353-1335 BC; introduced monotheistic Aton religion; changed

                                             name to Akhenaton and built capital at Akhenaton

                              Tutankhamun 1333-1323 BC; restored Thebes and Amon worship; tomb discovered

                                             by Carter and Carnarvon in 1922

                              Ramses II 1290-1224 BC; fought Hittites at Kadesh

                              Ramses III 1194-1163; fought Lydians and Sea People; defeated Harem conspiracy

               Late Dynastic Period 1085-332 BC, 21-31 dynasties

               Ptolemaic Dynasty 323 BC - 30 AD

                              Ptolemy I 323-283 BC; general of Alexander the Great; built library at Alexandria

                              Cleopatra VII; committed suicide with Marc Antony at Actium; Rome took Egypt

               Ayyubid Family

                              Saladin 1169-1193; vizier of Egypt nominally under the Fatimids; captured

                                             Damascus and the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem from Crusaders; signed

                                             armistice with Richard I (England) in Third Crusade, keeping Jerusalem

                                             in Muslim control

               Mamluks (Bahri and Burji sultans) 1250-1517


                              Mohammed Ali 1805-1848; Ottoman viceroy of Egypt but operated independently

                                             of Ottomans

                              Ibrahim Pasha 1848; general and son of Mohammed Ali

                              Ismail Pasha 1863-1879; opened Suez Canal; westernized Egypt

                              Fuad I 1922-1936; king

                              Faruk I 1936-1952; king

                              Gamal Nasser 1954-1970; led coup ousting Faruk in 1952, then ousted Naguib; built

                                             Aswan High Dam; ended British occupation; Suez Crisis; lost Six Day

                                             War; formed United Arab Republic with Syria 1958-1961

                              Anwar al-Sadat 1970-1981; lost Arab-Israeli War; signed Camp David Accords;

                                             encouraged foreign investment (infitah); assassinated by Islamic


                              Hosni Mubarak 1981-present


El Salvador

               Jose Napoleon Duarte 1979-1989; leader of Christian Democratic Party; military, out of his

                              control, killed many during civil war

               Alfredo Cristiani 1989-1994; leader of Nationalist Republican Alliance (ARENA); negotiated

                              end to civil war



               Menelik II 1889-1909; united tribes; made capital at Addis Ababa; defeated Italians at Adowa

               Haile Selassie I 1930-1974; last emperor



               Dawda Jawara 1970-1994; formed Senegambia with Senegal 1981-1989; deposed by Jammeh



               Kwame Nkrumah 1957-1966; won independence for British Gold Coast; became first prime

                              minister then president; overthrown by military coup; advocated forming United

                              States of Africa

               Jerry Rawlings 1982-2001



               Jose Rafael Carrera 1840-1865; ended United Provinces of Central America, liberating

                              Guatemala, by defeated Morazan

               Manuel Estrada Cabrera 1898-1920; US United Fruit company exported many bananas

               Jorge Ubico 1931-1944; liked Hitler but joined US in WWII

               Juan Jose Arevalo 1944-1951; began "Ten Years of Spring" reforms



               Chandragupta 320-353; founded dynasty; capital at Patna on the Ganges

               Samudragupta 353-375; conquered much of India; pillar at Allahabad describes his exploits



               Toussaint L'Ouverture 1801-1802; had led 1791 slave revolt; established republic but was

                              defeated by Leclerc, sent by Napoleon, and jailed

               Jean-Jacques Dessalines 1804-1806; won independence from France; proclaimed himself

                              emperor; called the Tiger

               Henri Chrisophe 1806-1820; plotted assassination of Dessalines; ruled north as Henri I;

                              committed suicide with silver bullet

               Francois Duvalier 1957-1971; "Papa Doc"; used Tontons Macoutes forces to intimidate


               Jean-Claude Duvalier 1971-1986; "Baby Doc"

               Jean-Bertrand Aristide 1991, 1994-1996; priest; ousted by coup led by Cedras but restored with

                              US intervention

               Rene Preval 1996-2001, 2006-2011



               Balamir 300s; defeated Alans, conquering land between Volga and Don

               Roas 400s; collected tribute from Roman Theodosius I

               Attila 433-453; murdered brother Bleda; defeated Byzantine Theodosius II; invaded Gaul but

                              lost to Romans at Chalons; ended advance on Rome after meeting with Pope Leo I


Incan Empire

               Topa Inca to 1493

               Huayna Capac 1493-1525

               Atahualpa ~1525-1532; executed brother Huascar; conquered by Spanish under Pizarro



               Robert Clive 1750s; British governor of Bengal; won control of India at Plassey in 1757

               Warren Hastings 1772-1784; British colonial governor of Bengal; worked for British East India

                              Company; tried by Francis, supported by Burke, in Parliament

               Jawaharlal Nehru 1949-1964; led independence movement

               Indira Gandhi 1966-77, 1980-84; ordered attack on Sikh's Golden Temple at Amritsar;

                              assassinated by Sikh bodyguards

               Rajiv Gandhi 1984-1989; son of Indira; assassinated by Tamil terrorist

               Narasimha Rao 1991-1996

               Atal Bihari Vajpayee 1996, 1998-2004; member of Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party

               Manmohan Singh 2004-2014; member of Indian National Congress party

               Narendra Modi 2014-? ; member of Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party



               Sukarno 1950-1968; led independence from Netherlands; killed many Communists after coup

               Suharto 1968-1998

               Jusuf Habibie 1998-1999

               Abdurrahman Wahid 1999-2000; many East Timorese killed after voting for independence

               Megawati Sukarnoputri 2001-present



               Reza Shah Pahlavi 1925-1941; ousted by Britain during WWII

               Mohammed Reza Shah Pahlavi 1941-1979; Premier Mossadegh led oil nationalization drive

               Ayatollah Khomeini 1979-1989; led Islamic revolution

               Ali Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani 1989-1997

               Mohamed Khatami 1997-2005; supported liberalization and reform

               Mahmoud Ahmadinejad 2005-2013; conservative

               Hassan Rouhani 2013-?; moderate



               Faisal I 1921-1933; aided Britain in WWI; secured full independence for Iraq in 1932

               Faisal II 1939-1958; became king at age three; formed pro-Western Arab Union with Jordan,

                              opposed by United Arab Republic, which supported a coup by Kassem in which

                              Faisal II was assassinated

               Saddam Hussein 1979-2003; leader of Arab Baath Socialist Party; fought Iran in Iran-Iraq

                              War and UN in Persian Gulf War after invading Kuwait; persecuted Kurds; ousted

                              by U.S.-led invasion 2003, hanged 2005

               President Jalal Talabani 2005-2014, Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki 2006-2014

               Fuad Masum 2014-?



               United Kingdom

                              Saul 1020-1000 BC; defeated Philistines and Ammonites; jealous of David

                              David 1000-961 BC; son of Jesse; anointed by Samuel; slew Goliath; defeated Saul;

                                             friends with Saul's son Jonathan and married Michal; committed adultery

                                             with Uriah's wife Bathsheba, denounced by Nathan; son Absalom rebelled

                                             and was killed by general Joab

                              Solomon 961-922 BC; son of David and Bathsheba; built Temple; wrote Proverbs

               Israel (capital at Samaria)

                              Jeroboam 922-901 BC; became king of the northern ten tribes

                              Ahab 869-850 BC; married Jezebel; worshipped Baal

                              Jehu 850-? BC; killed Jezebel; appointed king by Elijah

                              Hoshea ?-722 BC; Assyrians conquered Israel

               Judah (capital at Jerusalem)

                              Rehoboam 922-? BC; northern tribes rebelled under Jeroboam, leaving only Judah

                                             and Benjamin

                              Asa 910-870 BC; defeated Egyptian invasion


                              Josiah 648-609 BC; discovered Deuteronomy; slain by Egypt at Megiddo

                              Zedekiah 597-586 BC; defeated by Nebuchadnezzar II, and Babylon conquered


               Modern Israel

                              Chaim Weizmann 1949-1952; first president

                              David Ben-Gurion 1948-1953, 1955-1963; first prime minister; member of Zionist

                                             labor Mapai party; 1956 Suez Crisis

                              Golda Meir 1969-1974; resigned after Arab-Israeli War; leader of Labor party

                              Menachem Begin 1977-1983; Likud party; signed Camp David Accords with al-

                                             Sadat (Egypt); shared 1978 Nobel Peace Prize; invaded Lebanon

                              Yitzhak Shamir 1983-1992; Likud leader shared power with Labor leader Peres

                              Yitzhak Rabin 1974-1977, 1992-1995; signed Declaration of Principles with PLO

                                             leader Arafat; assassinated at peace rally

                              Simon Peres 1995-1996; continued peace negotiations

                              Benjamin Netanyahu 1996-1999, 2009-? ; Likud party

                              Ehud Barak 1998-2001; Labor party

                              Ariel Sharon 2001-2006; Likud / Kadima; Peres appointed foreign minister



               Michael Manley 1972-1980, 1989-1992; advocated Nonaligned status; wrote book on cricket

               Percival Patterson 1992-2006



               Yamato Rulers

                              Shotoku Taishi 594-622; introduced Chinese-style rule; 17 Injunctions constitution

                              Tenji 645-692; Taika reforms

                              Jimmu c. 660 BC; legendary king who supposedly unified Japan

               Heinan Period

                              Fujiwara Michinaga 995-1028; model for Murasaki's Genji

               Kamakura Shogunate

                              Minamoto Yoritomo 1185-1199; leader of Minamoto clan; defeated Taira clan in

                                             Gempei War and established shogunate

                              Go-Toba 1221; former emperor tried to retake power from Hojo family

               Ashikaga Shogunate

                              Go-Daigo and Ashikaga Takauji 1333; led Kemmu Restoration, ending Kamakura

                              Shogunate; established rival courts at Kyoto (Ashikaga) and Yoshino (Go-Daigo)


                              Oda Nabunaga 1568-1582; daimyo who reunified much of the country and ousted

                                             last Ashikaga shogun; assassinated by a vassal

                              Toyotomi Hideyoshi 1581-1598; continued Nabunaga's reunification work

               Tokugawa Shogunate

                              Tokugawa Ieyasu 1603-1605; won civil war at Battle of Sekigahara and built capital

                                             at Edo (Tokyo); bakuhan system of shared rule with daimyos

               Meiji Restoration

                              Meiji 1868-1912; overthrew Tokugawa shogunate; modernized, unified and

                                             industrialized Japan

                              Ito Hirobumi late 1800s; four-time prime minister; wrote constitution

                              Emperor Yoshihito 1912-1926

                              Emperor Hirohito 1926-1989; allowed to remain as emperor, though with no real

                                             powers, by US occupation under MacArthur

                              Emperor Akihito 1989-?; son of Hirohito

               Prime Ministers

                              Konoe Fumimaro 1937-1938, 1940-1941; prime minister who joined Axis powers

                                             and started invasions of Indochina to create "Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity


                              Tojo Hideki 1941-1944; led Japan in WWII; forced to resign after loss at Saipan

                              Yoshida Shigeru 1946-1947, 1948-1954

                              Tanaka Kakuei 1972-1974; member of Liberal Democratic Party; arrested for taking

                                             bribes from Lockheed Martin

                              Junichiro Koizumi 2001-2006; Liberal Democratic Party

                              Shinzo Abe 2006-2007, 2012-? ; Liberal Democratic Party



               King Hussein 1952-1999; cousin of King Faisal (Iraq)

               King Abdallah II 1999-



               Idris Alooma 1500s; acquired firearms from Turks and expanded empire



               Nursultan Nazarbayev 1991-?



               Jomo Kenyatta 1963-1978; studied under Malinowski; wrote Facing Mount Kenya; arrested

                              after Mau Mau rebellion; won independence for Kenya

               Daniel arap Moi 1978-2002; truck bomb exploded at US embassy in 1998



               Silla Dynasty 668-918

               Koryo Period 918-1392

               Yi (Choson) Dynasty 1391-19010

               Japanese Rule 1910-1945

               South Korea

                              Rhee Syng-man 1948-1960; UN prevented North Korean conquest of South Korea in

                                             Korean War; resigned after student protests 1960

                              Park Chung-hee 1963-1979; led military coup; assassinated by Korean CIA chief

                              Chun Dao-hwan 1980-1987; allowed elections after massive protests

                              Roh Tae-woo 1988-1993

                              Kim Young-sam 1993-1998; arrested Chun and Roh for treason; renamed

                                             Democratic Liberal Party the New Korea Party

                              Kim Dae-jung 1998-2003; won 2000 Nobel Peace Prize

                              Park Geun-hye 2013-2017; First female President of SK; impeached and removed

                              Moon Jae-in 2017-?

               North Korea

                              Kim Il-sung 1948-1994; failed to extend Communist to South Korea in Korean War

                              Kim Jong-il 1994-2011

                              Kim Jong-un 2011-?



               Emir Sheikh Jabir al-Ahmad al-Jabir as-Sabah 1978-2006



               Askar Akayev 1990-2005



               Fa Ngum 1300s; founded Lan Xang (Million Elephants) kingdom

               Souvanna Phouma 1953-1954, 1956-1958, 1960, 1962-1975; won independence from France;

                              tried to integrate the Communist Pathet Lao rebels led by half-brother

                              Souphanouvong into government, but they took full control when US withdrew



               Amin Gemayel 1982-1988; became president after president-elect brother Bashir Gemayel was

                              assassinated; Maronite Christian; civil war ravaged Lebanon

               Elias Hrawi 1989-1998; became president after Moawad was assassinated; ended revolt by

                              Aoun; ended Lebanese Civil War



               Samuel Doe 1980-1990; deposed Tolbert in a coup; killed in civil war

               Ruth Perry 1996-1997; first female head of state in modern Africa

               Charles Taylor 1997-2003; warlord who helped overthrow Samuel Doe

               Ellen Johnson Sirleaf 2006-? ; first elected female head of state in Africa



               Muammar al-Qaddafi 1969-2011; US bombed Libya in 1986; sanctioned imposed on Libya

                              when it refused to hand over suspects in Pan Am 103 bombing; overthrown and

                              killed during Arab Spring



               Croesus 560-546 BC; capital at Sardis; defeated by Cyrus the Great of Persia



               Didier Ratsiraka 1975-1993, 1997-2002



               Tunku Abdul Rahman 1957-1970; won independence from Britain; joined Malaya, Singapore,

                              Sabah, and Sarawak in 1963; Singapore left federation in 1965

               Mahathir bin Mohamad 1981-2003; leader of National Front; "Vision 2020" industrialization

                              plan; arrested Deputy Prime Minister Anwar who charged corruption



               Sundiata Keita 1235-1260; defeated the Susa under Sumanguru Kante at Kirina and established

                              empire; built capital at Niani

               Mansa Musa 1312-1337; made pilgrimage to Mecca with much gold and adopted Islam; made

                              Tombouctou a cultural center

               Moussa Traore 1968-1991

               Alpha Oumar Konare 1992-2002


Mauryan Dynasty

               Chandragupta Maurya 321-298 BC; founded dynasty in Magadha kingdom; conquered much of

                              India; defeated Seleucids

               Bindusara 298-273 BC; extended empire south

               Ashoka 273-232 BC; became disillusioned with war and adopted Buddhism; issued Edicts of




               Emperor Augustin de Iturbide 1822-1823; leader of war for independence, authoring Plan of

                              Iguala with Guerrero; declared himself emperor but forced to abdicate

               Guadalupe Victoria 1823-1829; first president; succession of the United Provinces of Central

                              America; 1824 constitution

               Vicente Guerrero 1829-1831; leader of war for independence; assassinated by Bustamante's


               Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna 1833-1837, 1841-1845, 1846-1847, 1853-1855; fought Spaniards

with Iturbide but then ousted him in 1823; defeated Texans at the Alamo but lost at San

Jacinto; lost a leg defeating French at Veracruz; lost to US in Mexican-American War;

fled to Jamaica but was recalled and became dictator; exiled to Caribbean

               Emperor Maximilian 1863-1867; installed as emperor by Napoleon III (France), but was

defeated by troops under Diaz at Queretaro and executed after French troops left

               Benito Pablo Juarez 1867-1872; Zapotec who instituted liberal reforms; helped oust French

               Porfirio Diaz 1877-1880, 1884-1911; long rule called the Porfiriato; encouraged foreign

                              investment, stability, and modernization; resigned 1911

               Francisco Madero 1911-1913; ousted Diaz but instituted few reforms, upsetting Zapata and

                              Villa; murdered by his general Huerta

               Victoriano Huerta 1913-1914; not recognized by US, which seized Veracruz

               Venustiano Carranza 1915-1920; he and general Obregon restored order, but Villa continued

                              raids in the north, prompting US to send Pershing after him; 1917 constitution

               Alvaro Obregon 1920-1924; led revolt against Carranza, who did not implement reforms from

                              1917 constitution

               Plutarco Elias Calles 1924-1928; instituted reforms but conflict with the church led to Cristero

                              Rebellion, mediated by US ambassador Morrow; founded PNR (later PRI) and

                              controlled later presidents until 1934 during Maximato period

               Lazaro Cardenas 1934-1940; nationalized oil (Pemex)

               Manuel Avila Camacho 1940-1946; joined US in WWII, supplying labor in Bracero program

               Gustavo Diaz Ordaz 1964-1970; many killed at Tlateloco Plaza of the Three Cultures massacre;

                              1968 Mexico City Olympics

               Jose Lopez Portillo 1976-1982

               Miguel de la Madrid Hurtado 1982-88; accepted IMF loan

               Carlos Salinas de Gortari 1988-1994; negotiated NAFTA; Zapatistas in Chipas rebelled; his

                              brother Raul Salinas was convicted of assassination and drug dealing

               Ernesto Zedillo 1994-2000; repla ced assassinated PRI candidate Colosio; devalued currency

               Vicente Fox 2000-2006; PAN candidate Fox ended PRI's rule; former Coca-Cola executive

               Felipe Calderon 2006-2012; PAN (Partido Accion Nacional)

               Enrique Pena Nieto 2012-? ; PRI (Partido Revolucionario Institucional)



               Genghis Khan 1206-1227; real name Tamujin; capital at Karakorum; established Great Yasa

                              code; conquered empire from China Sea to Dneiper

               Ogodei 1227-?; ruled East Asia after Genghis's death

               Kublai Khan 1279-1294; grandson of Ghengis; ruled in China, establishing Yuan dynasty; built

                              court at Cambaluc (Beijing); visited by Marco Polo (Venice); Buddhist; brother

                              Mangu Khan

               Jagatai 1227-?; ruled Turkistan; established Jagatai dynasty

               Hulaga 1231-1265; ruled Iran; established Il-Khanid dynasty

               Batu Khan 1237-1255; led Tatar army in conquering Eastern Europe; recalled to Asia when

                              uncle Ogodei died, preventing conquest of Western Europe

               Tamerlane 1370-1405; called the Lame after sheep-stealing accident; conquered much of Asia;

                              made capital at Samarqand; defeated Bayazid I (Ottoman) at Ankara



               King Hassan II 1961-1999

               King Muhammad VI 1999-?



               Samora Machel 1975-1986; won independence from Portugal; Maoist; killed in plane crash in

                              South Africa

               Joaquim Chissano 1986-2005


Mughal Empire

               Babur 1526-1530; defeated Ibrahim Lodi at Panipat and captured Agra

               Humayun 1530-1556; defeated by Afghan leader Sher Shah

               Akbar 1556-1605; re-conquered empire; promoted Dini-Ilahi religion; allied with Hindus

               Jahangir 1605-1628; wife Nur Jahan assumed most power

               Shah Jahan 1628-1658; built capital at Delhi and Taj Mahal (tomb for his wife and later

                              himself) and the Pearl Mosque at Agra

               Aurangzeb 1658-1707; took the name Alamgir (Conqueror of the World); expanded empire to

                              largest extend; executed Sikh guru



               King Anawrahta 1044-1077; founded unified Myanmar kingdom at Pagan

               Kyanzittha 1084-1112; brought Pagan Kingdom to zenith

               Bayinnaung 1551-1581; reunited Myanmar under Toungoo Dynasty

               Alaungpaya 1752-1763; founded Konbaung Dynasty

               Hsinbyushin 1763-1776; destroyed Thai capital at Ayutthaya

               U Nu 1948-1958, 1960-1962; won independence from Britain; led Anti-Fascist People's

                              Freedom League, founded by U Aung San during WWII

               Ne Win 1962-1988; dictator; U Aung San's daughter Daw Aung San Suu Kyi began nonviolent

                              resistance to military rule in late 1980s and won 1991 Nobel Peace Prize

               Than Shwe 1992-2011



               King Birendra 1972-2001; son Dipendra killed himself, Birendra, and eight other members of

                              the royal family June 1, 2001

               King Gyanendra 2001-2008; monarchy abolished 2008


New Zealand

               Jim Bolger 1990-1997; led National Party

               Jenny Shipley 1997-1999; first female New Zealand prime minister

               Helen Clark 1999-2008

               John Key 2008-2016

               Bill English 2016-?



               William Walker 1855-1857; American filibuster

               Jose Santos Zelaya 1893-1909; Taft's Dollar Diplomacy encouraged a revolt that ousted him

               Anastacio Somoza 1936-1956; tried to win favor of US and FDR

               Luis Somoza Debayle 1956-1967

               Anastacio Somoza Debayle 1967-1979; corrupt; stole relief money from 1972 Managua


               Daniel Ortega Saavedra 1979-1990, 2007-?; led Sandinista rebellion against Somoza; opposed by US-

                              aided contras; elected president again in 2006; allied with Hugo Chavez

               Violeta Chamorro 1990-1997; widow of assassinated newspaper editor; ended Sandinista rule

               Arnoldo Aleman 1997-2002; Liberal Party; Hurricane Mitch 1998; convicted of corruption



               Nnambdi Azikiwe 1963-1966; won independence from Britain

               Yakubu Gowon 1966-1975; defeated Biafra succession attempt

               Sani Abacha 1993-1998; committed human rights abuses; hanged Ken Saro-Wiwa

               Olusegun Obasanjo 1976-1979 military ruler, 1999-2007 returned country to civilian rule

               Goodluck Jonathan 2010-2015



               Masinissa 201-? BC; supported Rome in the Second Punic War

               Jugurtha 113-104 BC; defeated by Sulla in the Jugurthine War



               Sultan Qabus bin Said 1970-present


Ottoman Empire

               Osman 1289-1326; founded Ottoman dynasty; established small state in NW Anatolia

               Orhan 1326-1362; conquered Bursa and made in the capital; Ottomans served as mercenaries

                              for Byzantine usurper John VI Cantacuzene; crossed Dardanelles into Europe;

                              married Theodora, daughter of Cantacuzene; occupied Galllipoli

               Murad I 1362-1389; captured Adrianople (now Edirne) in 1361; made Byzantine emperor his

                              vassal; founded Janissary military unit; conquered much of Balkans; killed at Battle

                              of Kosovo

               Bayazid I Yilderim (Lightning) 1389-1402; first with title sultan; blockaded Constantinople;

                              defeated by Mongol Tamerlane near Ankara in 1402

               Murad II 1421-1451; took Thessaloniki from Ventians in 1430 and defeated Polish Wladyslaw

                              II at Battle of Varna in 1444; abdicated to son Muhammad II 1444-1446 but returned;

                              defeated Hungarian Janos Hunyadi at Second Battle of Kosovo in 1448

               Muhammad II the Conqueror 1451-1481; captured Constantinople in 1453 and made it the

                              capital; codified law; took lands around Black Sea

               Bayazid II 1481-1512; built Mosque of Bayazid in Constantinople; fought many wars against

                              Hungary, Poland, Venice, Egypt, and Persia; depended on Janissaries

               Selim I 1512-1520; subdued ersian Safavids; executed Mameluke sultan of Egypt

               Suleiman I the Magnificent 1520-1566; captured Belgrade in 1521; killed Hungarian Louis II;

                              besieged Vienna and Baghdad; allied with France against HRE Charles V

               Murad IV 1623-1640; executed more than 100,000; commanded troops against Baghdad in

                              1638; fought Poland

               Sultanate of the Women 1640-1656; several women served as regents for young sultans

               Grand Vizierates 1656-1683; Koprulu Muhammad Pasha defeated Venice navy; Koprulu Fazil

                              Ahmad Pasha captured Ukraine and Crete; Kara Mustafa Pasha lost at Vienna

               Abd Al-Hamid I 1774-1789; reformer; lost to Austria and Russia

               Selim III 1789-1807; introduced Western reforms; Russo-Turkish War 1787-1792; Egyptian

                              invasion of Napoleon; war with Russia and Britain; opposed by Janissaries who

                              deposed him in 1807

               Mahmud II 1808-1839; ceded Black Sea to Russia; lost Greece in 1827; forced to cede Syria to

                              Egypt by Muhammad Ali

               Abd Al-Madjid 1839-1861; introduced Western Tanzimat ("reorganization") reforms; Crimean

                              War 1853 - 1856; reformist grand viziers Ali and Fuad Pasha

               Abd Al-Hamid II 1876-1909; lost war to Russia; lost most European possessions in Treaty of

                              San Stefano 1878; allowed massacres of Armenians; deposed by Young Turks 1909

               Young Turks 1909-1918; wanted to continue reforms of Selim III; nominally Islamic; Abdullah

                              Cevdet and others at Royal Medical Academy founded Committee of Union and

                              Progress in 1889; Enver Bey and Niyazi Bey led mutiny demanding restoration of

                              1876 constitution; conservatives mutinied in 1909 demanding restoration of Sharia

                              holy law; dissention within CUP; Enver Pasha, Talat Pasha, and Cemal Pasha

                              dominated; lost WWI



               Gov. Gen. Muhammad Ali Jinnah 1947-1948; won independence from Britain; leader of Muslim League

               Pres. Mohammad Ayub Khan 1958-1969

               Pres. / P.M. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto 1970-1977; Bangladesh succeeded after civil war; executed in 1979

               Pres. Muhammad Zia ul-Haq 1978-1988; ousted Bhutto; killed in plane crash

               P.M. Benazir Bhutto 1988-1990; daughter of Zulfikar Bhutto; first female leader of Muslim country

               P.M. Nawaz Sharif 1990-1993, 1997-1999, 2013-2017; ousted by coup after firing General Musharraf

               Pervez Musharraf 1999-2008; led coup; agreed to assist US against Taliban in Afghanistan



               Harmodio Arias 1931-1940; led coup by Common Action group; lessened US influence

               Arnulfo Arias 1940-1941, 1949-1951, 1968; brother of Harmodio Arias

               Omar Torrijos 1969-1981; signed treaty with Carter (US) to transfer Panama Canal to Panama

                              by 1999; died in plane crash

               Manuel Noriega 1983-1990; arrested by US troops in 1989-1990 invasion; convicted of drug

                              trafficking in Miami

               Guillermo Endara 1990-1994; led Arnulfista Party; won 1989 election that was nullified by

                              Noriega; installed as president by US invading force

               Ernesto Balladares 1994-1999

               Mireya Elisa Moscoso 1999-2004; widow of Arnulfo Arias



               Alfredo Stroessner 1954-1989; led coup against Chavez; led Colorado party; ousted by

                              coup led by Rodriguez

               Juan Carlos Wasmosy 1993-1998; first civilian leader in many years


Parthian Empire

               Arsaces I 247-? BC; rebelled against Seleucids; made capital at Dara, later Hecatompylos



               Prado Ugarteche 1939-45, 1956-62

               Alberto Fujimori 1990-2000; captured leader of Shining Path guerrillas Guzman Reynoso;

                              ordered attack on Tupac Amaru guerrillas who had taken hostages at Japanese

                              embassy; accused of complicity in murders; resigned from Japan

               Alejandro Toledo 2001-2006


Persian Empire

               Cyrus I the Great 550-530 BC; defeated the Medes, Lydia, and Babylonia

               Cambyses II 530-522 BC; son of Cyrus I; conquered Egypt

               Darius I 522-486 BC; crushed revolt of Ionian Greeks; defeated by Greeks at Marathon; built

                              canal from the Nile to the Red Sea; built capital at Persepolis

               Xerxes I 486-465 BC; defeated by Greeks at Salamis

               Artaxerxes I 465-? BC; Egyptians revolted

               Darius III 336-330 BC; defeated by Alexander the Great at Issus and Gaugamela



               Manuel Roxas 1946-1948; won independence from US; faced rebellion by Communist Huks

               Ferdinand Marcos 1965-1986; declared martial law 1972; wife Imelda held significant power;

                              opposition leader Aquino was murdered; fled to Hawaii after 1986 election

               Corazon Aquino 1986-1992; widow of opposition leader Benigno Aquino; US helped defeat

                              coup; Mt. Pinatubo erupted; forced US to close Clark and Subic Bay bases

               Fidel Ramos 1992-1998; leader of People Power Movement that ousted Marcos; made peace

                              with Moro rebels

               Joseph Estrada 1998-2000; former actor; populist; impeached

               Gloria Macapagal Arroyo 2001-2010

               Rodrigo Duterte 2016-? ; supports extrajudicial killing of drug users and other criminals



               Juvenal Habyarimana 1973-1994; killed in plane crash with Burundi president Ntaryamira,

                              leading to much fighting between Tutsis and majority Hutus



               Abbas I 1588-1629; rebuilt capital at Esfahan; won back lands ceded to Uzbeks and Ottomans



               Ardashir I 224-241; defeated Parthians at Hormuz and established dynasty in Persia; established

                              Zoroastrianism as official religion

               Khosrau I 529-590; fought Byzantine Justinian I, extending empire to the Black Sea; restored



Saudi Arabia

               King Ibn Saud 1932-1953; Wahhabis leader; conquered Al Hijaz and established Saudi Arabia

               King Saud 1953-1964

               King Faisal 1964-1975; fought Israel in Six-Day and Arab-Israeli Wars; assassinated by nephew

               King Khalid 1975-1982; sickly; brother Faud held most power

               King Fahd 1982-2005; allowed US troops in Saudi Arabia for Persian Gulf War; 1995 stroke

               King Abdullah 2005-2015

               King Salman 2015-?



               Seleucus I 312-280 BC; received Babylon and Syria upon Alexander the Great's death; built


               Antiochus II 261-246 BC; freed Miletus from Timarchus; his satrap Diodotus I seized Bactria

               Antiochus III the Great 223-187 BC; defeated Ptolemy V (Egypt) but lost to Rome at

                              Thermopylae and Magnesia

               Antiochus IV Epiphanes 175-164 BC; captured Jerusalem but was driven out by the Maccabees


Seljuk Turks

               Togrul Beg 1040-1055; conquered Iraq and Iran

               Alp Arslan late 1000s; defeated Byzantines at Manzikert

               Malik Shah early 1100s



               Thomas Raffles 1819; British founder of Singapore

               SR Nathan 1999-2011



               Muhammad Siad Barre 1970-1991; led coup; established socialist state; fled during civil war



               Sunni Ali 1464-1492; capital at Gao; captured Djenne and Tombouctou; Niger River empire


South Africa

               Paul Kruger 1883-1902; president of South African Republic in Transvaal; leader of the

                              Afrikaners; declared war on Cape Colony but was defeated by the British

               Cecil Rhodes 1890-1895; prime minister of Cape Colony; founder of DeBeers diamond

                              company; resigned after failed Jameson Raid

               Alfred Milner 1897-?; prime minister of Cape Colony; defeated South African Republic in the

                              Boer War

               Louis Botha 1910-1919; leader of South African Party; Native Lands Act prevented blacks from

                              owning land outside of reserves

               Jan Christiaan Smuts 1919-1924, 1939-1948; pro-British

               JBM Hertzog 1924-1939; Afrikaner; leader of National Party

               Daniel Malan 1948-1954; instituted apartheid; established 10 homelands for blacks; leader of

                              National Party

               PW Botha 1984-1989; tried to retain Namibia; allowed coloureds and Indians in Parliament but

                              not blacks; resigned after a stroke

               FW de Klerk 1989-1994; ended apartheid; freed political prisoners including Mandela; met with

                              Archbishop Tutu

               Nelson Mandela 1994-1999; leader of African National Congress; had spent 27 years as

                              political prisoner at Robben Island and Pollsmoor; wrote Long Walk to Freedom;

                              Truth and Reconciliation Commission investigated apartheid crimes

               Thabo Mbeki 1999-2008; ANC

               Jacob Zuma 2009-? ; ANC



               Omar Hassan Ahmad Al-Bashir 1989-? ; accused of war crimes in Darfur



               Hafez al-Assad 1971-2000; Syrian troops fought in Arab-Israeli War and Lebanon civil war;

                              allied with Iran in Iran-Iraq War; leader of Baath Party

               Bashar al-Assad 2000-present; son of Hafez al-Assad; accused of war crimes in Syrian Civil War



               Chiang Kai-shek 1949-1975; leader of Kuomintang fled mainland after losing to Communists

               Chiang Ching-kuo 1975-1988; Chiang Kai-shek's son

               Lee Teng-hui 1988-2000

               Chen Shui-bian 2000-2008; leader of Democratic Progressive Party; first non-KMT president

               Ma Ying-jeou 2008-2016

               Tsai Ing-wen 2016-? ; first female president of Taiwan



               Imomali Rakhmon 1992-?



               Julius Nyerere 1964-1985; won independence from Britain

               Benjamin Mkapa 1995-2005



               Kingdom of Ayutthaya

                              King Ramathibodi I 1351-1448; conquered Angkor and Sukhothai

                              Naresuan 1590s; freed Thailand from Burma

                              Taksin 1790s; built capital at Thon Buri

               Chakri Dynasty

                              King Rama I 1782-1809

                              King Rama IV (Mongkut) 1851-1868; prevented European colonization of Thailand

                              King Rama V (Chulalongkorn) 1868-1910; continued to prevent European

                                             colonization of Thailand

                              King Rama VII (Prajadhipok) 1930-1935; forced to accept a constitution by a coup

                                             led by Phanomyong

                              King Blumibol Adulyadej 1946-2016; reigned for 70 years



               Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali 1987-2011; ousted in Arab Spring



               Mustafa Kemal Ataturk 1923-1938; opposed foreign occupation, allowed by sultan in Treaty of

                              Sevres giving Greece part of Anatolia; set up government in Ankara; occupied

Izmir; proclaimed republic 1923; introduced Western reforms and abolishing Islamic institutions

               Ismet Inonu 1938-1950; remained neutral during most of WWII; accepted aid from Truman

                              (US) to prevent Communist influence

               Tansu Ciller 1993-1996; first female prime minister of Turkey; leader of True Path Party

               Ahmet Necdet Sezer 2000-2007

               Recep Tayyip Erdogan 2014-? ; Prime Minister 2003-2014; Islamist; purged enemies after failed 2016 coup,

                              blaming Fethullah Gulen (in exile in US)



               Saparmurat Niyazov 1990-2006



               Yoweri Kaguta Museveni 1986-?


United Nations

               Trygve Lie 1946-1953; Norway

               Dag Hammarskjold 1953-1961; Sweden; died in plane crash in Africa

               U Thant 1961-1972; Burma

               Kurt Waldheim 1972-1982; Austria; accused of Nazi war crimes

               Javier Perez de Cuellar 1982-1992; Peru

               Boutros Boutros-Ghali 1992-1997; Egypt

               Kofi Annan 1997-2006; Ghana

               Ban Ki-moon 2007-2016; South Korea

               Antonio Guterres 2017-? ; Portugal


United Provinces of Central America

               Manuel Jose Arce 1825-1827; Salvadoran; allied with Guatemalan conservatives

               Francisco Morazan 1830-1834; Honduran general; natives under Aquino revolted; defeated by

                              Guatemalan Carrera, liberating Guatemala and dissolving the United Provinces



               Jose Maria Bordaberry 1972-1976; leader of Colorado Party; defeated rival Blanco Party

                              candidate; ousted by military

               Jose Mujica 2010-2015; known as "world's humblest president"; lived on little money



               Islam Karimov 1990-2016



               Jose Antonio Paez 1829-1846; Venezuela succeeded from Gran Colombia

               Antonio Gomez Blanco 1870-1888; built railroads; reduced power of the church; US arbitrator

                              gave most land in boundary dispute with Guyana to Britain

               Cipriano Castro 1899-1908; European nations blocked ports, demanding payment of debts

               Juan Vicente Gomez 1908-1935; used newfound oil to pay off foreign debts

               Romulo Betancourt 1945-1948, 1958-1963; leader of Democratic Action Party; instituted land

                              reforms; Trujillo (Dominican Republic) and Castro (Cuba) tried to oust him

               Romulo Gallegos Freire 1948; founder of Democratic Action Party; novelist; first

                              democratically elected president; ousted by army coup

               Perez Jimenez 1952-1958; leader of military junta; jailed opposition leaders including Social

                              Christian Party leader Caldera Rodriguez; ousted by Patriotic Junta coup

               Rafael Caldera 1968-1974, 1993-1999; leader of Social Christian Party; nationalized industries;

                              in second term nationalized many banks

               Carlos Perez 1974-1978, 1988-1993; leader of Democratic Action Party; defeated two coups;

                              ousted by the Senate on charges of embezzlement

               Hugo Chavez 1999-2013; led two coup attempts against Perez; adopted new constitution;

                              renamed nation Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela; 1999 mudslides killed many; briefly

                              ousted by coup but returned; led "Bolivarian Revolution" socialism

               Nicolas Maduro 2013-? ; authoritarian; economic collapse



               Ly Dynasty 1010-1225

               Tran Dynasty 1225-1407

               Le Dynasty 1428-1789

               Nguyen Dynasty

                              Nguyen Anh 1802-?; defeated Tay Son brothers who had ended Le Dynasty; moved

                                             capital to Hue

                              Tu Duc 1848-1883; persecuted Christians; France began conquest of Indochina

                              Bao Dai 1926-1945, 1949-1955; ruled under French and Japanese protection; ousted

                                             by Viet Minh; brought back by French in 1949 to rival Ho Chi Minh;

                                             leader of South Vietnam after partition in 1954


                              Ngo Dinh Diem 1955-1963; refused to hold re-unification elections according to

                                             Geneva Protocols in 1956; Viet Cong Communists staged guerilla warfare in

                                             Vietnam War; assassinated after becoming brutal and corrupt

                              Nguyen Van Thieu 1967-1975; leader in coup against Diem; weakened by Tet

                                             Offensive; ousted by Communists as Saigon and South Vietnam fell

                              Ho Chi Minh 1945-1969; trained in Moscow; established Communist Viet Minh,

                                             which fought Japan in WWII and the French in the First Indochina War;

                                             fought US and South Vietnam in Second Indochina War

                              Le Duan 1969-1986; led reunited Communist Vietnam



               Kenneth Kaunda 1964-1991; won independence from Britain



               Ian Smith 1964-1979; declared independent Rhodesia from Britain under white rule; sanctioned

                              by UN; opposed by Nkomo's Zimbabwe African People's Union; nation recognized

                              as independent as Zimbabwe in 1980 under black rule

               Robert Mugabe 1980-? ; redistributed land owned by minority whites