Important US Leaders



United States Presidents and History


1492 - 1760 : Pre-Revolutionary

John Cabot explored Delaware 1497; Juan Ponce de Leon explored Florida 1513; Giovanni da Verrazano

entered NY Harbor 1524; Hernando de Soto crossed Mississippi 1541; Francisco Vasquez de Coronado

explored SW; Hernando de Alarcon reached Colorado River; Don Garcia Lopez de Cardenas reached

Grand Canyon; Pedro Menendez established St. Augustine 1565; Francis Drake entered SF Bay and

razed St. Augustine; John Smith and 105 caveliers settled at Jamestown 1607; Henry Hudson sailed to

Albany; Samuel de Champlain explored Lake Champlain; House of Burgesses elected in Jamestown 1619;

103 Pilgrims reached Cape Code 1620 and signed Mayflower Compact; Peter Minuit bought New Amsterdam

from Man-a-hat-a Indians for $24; John Winthrop founded Boston 1630; Maryland founded for Catholics;

Roger Williams founded Providence; Harvard founded 1636; Navigation Act regulated commerce 1660;

Charles II gave New Amsterdam to Duke of York 1664; Nathaniel Bacon's rebellion against Governor Berkeley

failed 1676; wars against Wampanoags under King Philip and Narragansetts; Robert Cavelier Sieur de La Salle

claimed Louisiana 1682; William Penn bought Pennsylvania from Delaware Indians; One issue of Publick

Occurences 1690; 1692 Salem witch trials; William Kidd hired to fight pirates but became a pirate; Indians

killed 40 in Deerfield MA 1704; John Campbell founded Boston News-Letter 1704; British captured Port

Royal in Nova Scotia in Queen Anne's War (Spanish Succession) 1701-1713; NY slave revolts 1712 and

1741; Williamsburg theater opened; Poor Richard's Almanac published 1732-1757; John Peter Zenger of

Weekly Journal in NY acquitted of libel against Governor Cosby 1735; Russian Vitus Bering reached

Alaska; British captured Louisburg during King George's War (Austrian Succession) 1744 but returned to

France under Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle;


1754 - 1763 : French and Indian War (Seven Years' War)

French occupied Ft. Duquesne (Pittsburgh); Acadian French moved from Nova Scotia to Louisiana;

Montcalm and Wolfe killed at Quebec; Treaty of Paris 1763


1763 - 1788 Revolutionary

Sugar Act 1764 for French and Indian War debt; Stamp Act 1765 led to Stamp Act Congress in NY adopting

Declaration of Rights, act repealed 1766; Townshend Acts 1767, all but tea repealed 1770; Crispus Attucks

and 4 others killed at Boston Massacre 1770; tea protests in Annapolis, NY, Philadelphia, and Boston 1773;

Intolerable Acts closed Boston Harbor; First Continental Congress in Philadelphia 1774; Patrick Henry

speech; Paul Revere and William Dawes at Lexington and Concord; Ethan Allen and Benedict Arnold

captured Ft. Ticonderoga and Crown Point 1775; fortified Breed's Hill and repulsed William Howe at Bunker

Hill; Richard Henry Lee of VG introduced resolution leading to Declaration of Independence; Moultrie won

at Charleston; Washington lost Battle of Long Island; Nathan Hale executed; Arnold lost at Valcour on Lake

Champlain; Howe won at White Plains; Hessians captured Ft. Washington and Ft. Lee; Washington won at

Trenton and Princeton; John Burgoyne recaptured Ft. Ticonderoga but surrendered at Saratoga; Marquis de

Lafayette made major general; Articles of Confederation adopted 1777; Bonhomme Richard with John Paul

Jones defeated Serapis in North Sea; British won at Charleston but lost at Kings Mountain NC; Arnold

defected to British; Washington, Rochambeau, and French Adm. De Grasse forced Cornwallis to surrender

at Yorktown 1781; RI abolished slavery 1774 and MA 1783; Treaty of Paris 1783 negotiated by Jay, Franklin,

and Adams; Washington's farewell at Fraunces Tavern NYC; Noah Webster's spelling book published;

Pennsylvania Packet & General Advertiser started 1784; 5 state Annapolis Convention 1786 called for

convention in Philadelphia to write new constitution; 1787 Shay's Rebellion of MA farmers failed; Northwest

Ordinances supported schools and religious freedom, no slavery; 1787 Constitutional Convention,

Sherman / Ellsworth's CT Compromise between Randolph / Madison's VG Plan and Paterson's NJ Plan


1788 : George Washington (Federalist) unanimous (John Adams VP)

first Congress at Federal Hall NYC; Federal Judiciary Act established Supreme Court; Bill of

Rights in effect 1791; Mad Anthony Wayne defeated Indians at Fallen Timbers on Maumee River and

British at Ft. Miami OH


1792 : George Washington (Federalist) unanimous (John Adams VP)

Eli Whitney invented cotton gin 1793; Whiskey Rebellion in W PN suppressed 1794; $1 million

ransom paid o Algerian pirates; Wayne signed Treaty of Greenville; UNC first state university; Britain

abandons forts between Great Lakes and Ohio River under Jay's Treaty 1794; Washington's farewell address


1796 : John Adams (Federalist) def. Thomas Jefferson (Dem-Rep)

frigates United States (Philadelphia), Constellation (Baltimore), and Constitution (Boston)

launched; French X, Y, and Z try to extort Americans Pinckney, Marshall, and Gerry 1797; Federalists passed

Alien and Sedition Acts 1798; 84 French ships captured including Constellation taking Insurgente; capital

moved to Washington 1800


1800 : Thomas Jefferson (Dem-Rep) def. John Adams (Federalist); Aaron Burr VP with second most votes

war with Tripoli 1801-1805; doubled area with $15 million Louisiana Purchase, explored by

Lewis and Clark with Sacagawea; VP Burr shot Hamilton in Weehawken duel


1804 : Thomas Jefferson (Dem-Rep) def. Charles Pinckney (Federalist)

Robert Fulton steamboat trip NY to Albany; Embargo Act 1807; slave importation outlawed 1808


1808 : James Madison (Dem-Rep) def. Charles Pinckney (Federalist)

William Henry Harrison of IN defeated Indians under the Prophet at Tippecanoe; Cumberland

Road begun in MD; W supported war with Britain but NE opposed; British took Detroit 1812; Essex took

Alert, Constitution destroyed Guerriere, Wasp took Frolic, US defeated Macedonian, Constitution beat Java


1812 : James Madison (Dem-Rep) def. DeWitt Clinton (Federalist)

Oliver Hazard Perry won at Lake Erie; US won at Battle of the Thames Ontario; York (Toronto),

Buffalo, and Washington (1814) burned; Francis Scott Key wrote "Star-Spangled Banner" during

bombardment of Ft. McHenry; US won Battle of Lake Champlain; Treaty of Ghent 1814; Andrew Jackson

defeated Edward Pakenham at New Orleans 1815; Second Bank of US chartered 1816 (presidents Jones,

Cheves, and Biddle)


1816 : James Monroe (Dem-Rep) def. Rufus King (Federalist)

Rush-Bagot Treaty 1817 limited arms on Great Lakes; Florida ceded by Spain by Adams-Onis

Treaty 1819; Savannah steamship crossed Atlantic; Henry Clay's Missouri Compromise 1820 prevented

slavery north of 36o 30', repealed 1854


1820 : James Monroe (Dem-Rep) def. John Quincy Adams (Dem-Rep)

Emma Willard founded Troy Female Seminary; Monroe Doctrine opposed European intervention in

Americas 1823; Pawtucket RI women weavers' strike


1824 : John Quincy Adams (Dem-Rep) def. Andrew Jackson, Henry Clay, and William Crawford (all Dem-Rep)

Erie Canal opened 1825; John Stevens of Hoboken built first steam locomotive; SC declared right

of nullification against Tariff of Abominations; Baltimore and Ohio railroad opened


1828 : Andrew Jackson (Democrat) def. John Quincy Adams (National Republican)

Joseph Smith established Mormon church in Fayette NY 1830; William Lloyd Garrison founded

The Liberator; Nat Turner rebellion killed 57 whites and 100 slaves in VG 1831


1832 : Andrew Jackson (Democrat) def. Henry Clay (National Republican) and William Wirt (Anti-Masonic)

Black Hawk War against Sauk and Fox Indians; SC repealed Ordinance of Nullification when compromise

tariff passed; Oberlin College accepted blacks; 8-year war against FL Seminoles under Osceola; Texas

Revolution 1835-1836 under Sam Houston, battles at Alamo and San Jacinto against Santa Anna; Cherokees

forced out of GA; Marcus Whitman and HH Spaulding and wives reached Walla Walla


1836 : Martin Van Buren (Democrat) def. William Henry Harrison (Whig)

Cherokee Trail of Tears 1838;


1840 : William Henry Harrison (Whig) def. Martin Van Buren (Democrat)


1841 : John Tyler became president upon Harrison's death

Brook Farm MA under George Ripley and Charles Fourier; Webster-Ashburton Treaty 1842 fixed border in

ME and MN; Samuel Morse invented telegraph ("What hath God wrought" Washington-Baltimore 1844);

Texas annexed 1845


1844 : James Polk (Democrat) def. Henry Clay (Whig) and James Birney (Liberty)

US under Zachary Taylor and Winfield Scott defeated Mexico, took Vera Cruz and

Mexico City 1847, Mexico ceded land in Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo for $15 million; Wilmot Proviso

forbade slavery in Mexican lands;  Oregon Treaty set border at 49o not 54o 40'; Mormons left Nauvoo IL

for Salt Lake; John Noyes founded Oneida Community in NY; Elias Howe invented sewing machine; 1848

gold rush in CA; Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Stanton led Seneca Falls Convention 1848


1848 : Zachary Taylor (Whig) def. Lewis Cass (Democrat) and Martin Van Buren (Free Soil)


1850 : Millard Fillmore became President upon Taylor's death

Clay's Compromise of 1850 admitted CA as 31st state, UT and NM territories, end DC slave trade, and

strength Fugitive Slave Law


1852 : Franklin Pierce (Democrat) def. Winfield Scott (Whig)

Matthew Perry negotiated treaty with Japanese Lord of Toda; Republican party founded at Ripon WI

1854 opposing KS-NE Act; first Mississippi railroad bridge Rock Island-Davenport; Lawrence KS sacked;

John Brown led abolitionists at Osawatomie KS; Charles Sumner (MA) delivered "Crime Against Kansas"

Speech and was clubbed by Sen. Andrew Butler (SC)'s nephew Rep. Preston Brooks


1856 : James Buchanan (Democrat) def. James Fremont (Republican) and Millard Fillmore (American)

Cyrus Field laid first Atlantic cable; Lincoln-Douglas debates in IL 1858; Edwin Drake established Titusville

PA oil well; John Brown seized US Armory at Harpers Ferry VG, hung; NE shoe worker strike; Pony Express

St. Joseph-Sacramento


1860 : Abraham Lincoln (Republican) def. Stephen Douglas (Democrat), John Breckinridge (Southern Democrat), and

John Bell (Constitutional Union)

seven states set up Confederate States of America Feb 8 1861 under Jefferson Davis; Beauregard fired on

Ft. Sumter SC; Beauregard defeated McDowell at Bull Run VG; blockade of Southern ports begun;

Homestead Act 1862 gave free farms to settlers; Land Grant Act provided land for state universities;

McClellan forced Lee to retreat at Antietam MD 1862; Emancipation Proclamation issued 1863; Meade

defeated Lee and Picket's charge at Gettysburg PA; NYC draft riots 1863; Sherman took Atlanta and

Savannah 1864; Cheyennes an Arapahos massacred at Sand Creek CO by John Chivington


1864 : Abraham Lincoln (Republican) def. George McClellan (Democrat)

Lee surrendered to Grant April 9 1865 at Appomattox Court House VG; Johnston surrendered to

Sherman at Durham Station NC April 18 1865; Lincoln shot by John Booth in Ford's Theater April 14 1865


1865 : Andrew Johnson became president upon Lincoln's assassination

Ku Klux Klan organized 1866; William Seward bought Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million; Grange organized

1867 for farmers; Andrew Johnson impeached for violating Tenure of Office Act in removing Secretary of

War Edwin Stanton


1868 : Ulysses Grant (Republican) def. Horatio Seymour (Democrat)

Black Friday Sept 24 1869 from gold cornering by Jim Fisk and Jay Gould; Central Pacific and Union Pacific

join at Promontory UT 1869; Knights of Labor formed in Philadelphia; women allowed to vote in Wyoming

1869; October 8-11 1871 fire in Chicago; Amnesty Act for southerners; Yellowstone established 1872


1872 : Ulysses Grant (Republican) def. Horace Greeley (Democrat) and Victoria Woodhull (Equal Rights,

with Frederick Douglass)

1873-1878 depression; Union Pacific construction company Credit Mobilier scandal implicated Oakes Ames,

VP Colfax, and Garfield; Boss William Tweed of NYC Tamaney Hall convicted; Bellevue Hospital in NYC

opened nursing school; Bristow implicated Babcock in IRS Whiskey Ring scandal; 1875 Civil Rights Act;

George Custer (under Alfred Terry) and 264 of 7th Cavalry killed at Little Big Horn MT in Sioux War, led by

Sitting Bull (Hunkpapa Sioux) and Crazy Horse (Oglala Sioux) 1876


1876 : Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican) def. Samuel Tilden (Democrat) and Peter Cooper (Greenback)

when awarded 22 disputed electoral votes

Reconstruction ended; Molly Maguires riot in Scranton PA mining areas; Thomas Edison founded Edison

Electric Light Company 1878; FW Woolworth opened store in Utica


1880 : James Garfield (Republican) def. Winfield Hancock (Democrat) and James Weaver (Greenback)

Stalwarts supported Grant and Half-Breeds supported Blaine; Garfield shot by Stalwart Charles Guiteau


1881 : Chester Arthur became president upon Garfield's assassination

Booker T Washington founded Tuskegee Institute 1881; Pendleton Act 1883 reformed civil service; Brooklyn

Bridge opened 1883 by John Roebling


1884 : Grover Cleveland (Democrat) def. James Blaine (Republican) and John P. St. John (Prohibition)

Haymarket riot in Chicago 1886, 8 anarchists convicted by Gov. John Altgeld denounced trial; Apache

Geronimo surrendered; Statue of Liberty by Bartholdi dedicated 1886; American Federation of Labor

founded under Samuel Gompers 1886; 1888 blizzard killed 400


1888 : Benjamin Harrison (Republican) def. Grover Cleveland (Democrat)

OK Land Run 1889; Johnstown PA flood 1889 killed 2200; William Kemmler electrocuted in Auburn NY

1890; battle at Wounded Knee SD 1890 killed 200; Sherman Antitrust Act 1890 curbed monopolies; Forest

Reserve Act passed; Homestead PA strike at Carnegie steel mills 1892


1892 : Grover Cleveland (Democrat) def. Benjamin Harrison (Republican) and James Weaver (Peoples)

1893-1897 panic; Jacob Coxey led unemployed Midwesterners to DC 1894; William Jennings Bryan "Cross

of Gold" speech against gold standard


1896 : William McKinley (Republican) def. William Jennings Bryan (Democrat)

260 killed in Maine explosion in Havana 1898; US defeated Spain in Philippines, Guam and Puerto Rico;

Hawaii annexed; 1899-1901 Philippine Insurrection under Emilio Aguinaldo; Hay established Open Door

policy with China; Carry Nation raided saloons with hatched; boxers suppressed in China; Int'l Ladies'

Garment Workers Union founded in NYC 1900


1900 : William McKinley (Republican) def. William Jennings Bryan (Democrat) and Eugene V. Debs (Socialist)

Texas oil strike at Spindletop; Leon Czolgosz shot McKinley in Buffalo; US signed Hay-Pauncefote Treaty

with Britain and Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty with Panama to built canal, making Panama independent of

Columbia; WI direct primaries 1903; Orville and Wilbur Wright first airplane 1903 at Kitty Hawk NC


1904 : Theodore Roosevelt (Republican) def. Alton Parker (Democrat) and Eugene V. Debs (Socialist)

April 18 1906 SF earthquake killed 503; Pure Food and Drug Act and Meat Inspection Act passed 1906;

16-ship Great White Fleet world tour 1907; Henry Ford introduced Model T 1908


1908 : William Howard Taft (Republican) def. William Jennings Bryan (Democrat) and Eugene V. Debs (Socialist)

Robert Perry and Matthew Henson reached North Pole 1909; NAACP founded by National Conference on

the Negro 1909; 146 died in NYC Triangle Shirtwaist fire 1911; Forestry Service head Pinchot accused Interior

Secretary Ballinger of wrongdoing; CP Rodgers flew NY-Pasadena; Marines sent to Nicaragua 1912


1912 : Woodrow Wilson (Democrat) def. Theodore Roosevelt (Progressive) and William Taft (Republican) and Eugene

V. Debs (Socialist)

NY Armory Show 1913; US blockaded Mexico; Federal Reserve System authorized 1913; Panama Canal

opened 1914; 1914 Clayton Antitrust Act strengthened Sherman Act; Alexander Graham Bell - Thomas

Watson telephone 1915; British Lusitania sunk with 128 Americans 1915; US invaded Haiti 1915; John

Pershing sent to Mexico after Pancho Villa who had raided Columbus NM; Rural Credits Act and

Warehouse Act 1916; Thomas Mooney and Warren Billings convicted of bombing SF Preparedness Day

parade; bought Virgin Islands from Denmark 1916; Jeannette Rankin (R, MT) first woman in Congress;

invaded Dominican Republic


1916 : Woodrow Wilson (Democrat) def. Charles Hughes (Republican)

declared war on Germany April 6 1917; Prohibition began with 18th Amendment 1917; 1918 influenza epidemic;

Rockaway NY - Lisbon transatlantic flight 1919; Boston police strike 1919; Red Scare, H Mitchell Palmer Raids

1920 arrested 2700 Communists; Senate refused League of Nations; Nicola Sacco (shoe factory worker) and

Bartolomeo Vanzetti (fish peddler) convicted of MA murders, executed 1927, decision reversed 1977 by

Dukakis; League of Women Voters founded 1920; Wall Street bombing killed 30 1920


1920 : Warren Harding (Republican) def. James Cox (Democrat) and Eugene V. Debs (Socialist)

treaties with Germany, Austria, and Hungary 1921; Limitation of Armaments Conference in DC; Ku Klux Klan

revival 1921; coal strike at Herrin IL 1922; Phonofilm with sound by Lee de Forest at Rivoli Theater NYC;


1923 : Calvin Coolidge became president upon Harding's death

Nellie Ross (WY) and Miriam Ferguson (TX) women governors 1924; Indians given citizenship 1924


1924 : Calvin Coolidge (Republican) def. John Davis (Democrat) and Robert LaFollette (Progressive)

John Scopes fined $100 for teaching evolution in Dayton TN, Clarence Darrow vs. William Jennings Bryan

lawyers; Robert Goddard liquid fuel rocket 1926; Army Air Corps established; Air Commerce Act passed;

1000 Marines landed in China 1927; Charles Lindbergh Roosevelt Field NY - Le Bourget Paris in 33.5 hours

1927; Al Jolson Jazz Singer; Amelia Earhart crossed Atlantic 1928


1928 : Herbert Hoover (Republican) def. Al Smith (Democrat) and Norman Thomas (Socialist)

7 members of George Bugs Moran's gang killed probably by Al Capone's gang in Chicago St. Valentine's

Day Massacre 1929; Sec. of Interior Albert Fall convicted of bribe in Elk Hills / Teapot Dome naval oil

reserve scandal; October 29 1929 stock market crash; Hawley-Smoot Tariff raised tariffs 1930; Empire State

Building opened 1931; Al Capone convicted of tax evasion; Reconstruction Finance Corporation established

1932; Charles Lindberg Jr kidnapped, Bruno Hauptmann convicted; Bonus March by WWI veterans 1932


1932 : Franklin Roosevelt (Democrat) def. Herbert Hoover (Republican) and Norman Thomas (Socialist)

Frances Perkins (Labor) first woman in Cabinet; banks closed March 6; 100 Days New Deal legislation

March 9 - June 16 1933; Tennessee Valley Authority established; gold standard dropped; Prohibition

ended; withdrawal from Haiti 1934; Will Rogers and Wiley Post killed in Alaska plane crash 1935; Social

Security Act passed 1935; Huey Long assassinated; Committee for Industrial Organization formed 1935;

Boulder Dam finished 1936


1936 : Franklin Roosevelt (Democrat) def. Al Landon (Republican), William Lemke (Union) and Norman Thomas (Socialist)

Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan lost near Howland Island; 6-justice court packing plan defeated; 1938

Naval Expansion Act; October 30 1938 Orson Welles War of the Worlds scare; 1939 NY World's Fair; 1940

sale of 50 destroyers to Britain


1940 : Franklin Roosevelt (Democrat) def. Wendell Willkie (Republican) and Norman Thomas (Socialist)

Four Freedoms speech (speech, religion, fear, want); 1941 $7 billion Lend-Lease Act for Britain then USSR;

Atlantic Charter 8-points signed August 14 1941 by Roosevelt and Churchill; bombing of Pearl Harbor

December 7 1941 killing 2300; declaration of war December 8 1941; Nimitz defeated Yamamoto at Midway

but Yorktown sunk; Guadalcanal landing 1942; Arthur Compton and Enrico Fermi produced nuclear chain

reaction at University of Chicago 1942; race riots in Detroit and Harlem 1943; Normandy invasion under

Eisenhower and Montgomery June 6 1944; GI Bill of Rights passed 1944; Halsey defeated Toyoda at Leyte

Philippines 1944


1944 : Franklin Roosevelt (Democrat) def. Thomas Dewey (Republican) and Norman Thomas (Socialist)

February 1945 Yalta conference in Crimea; Marine landings in Iwo Jima (Feb 19) and Okinawa (Apr 1) 1945;

Roosevelt cerebral hemorrhage in Warm Springs GA April 12 1945; Germany surrendered May 7 1945;


1945 : Harry Truman became president upon Roosevelt's death

atomic bombings of Hiroshima (August 6) and Nagasaki (August 9); Japan surrendered on Missouri

August 14 1945;  Potsdam Conference established occupation zones; Douglas MacArthur put in change of

Japan; 1946 mine worker strikes; 1946 Philippine independence; Truman Doctrine aided Greece and Turkey;

Taft-Hartley Labor Act passed on veto override, curbing strikes; $12 billion Marshall plan approved for

rebuilding Europe;  17-month Berlin airlift 1948-1949; OAS founded 1948; Whittaker Chambers accused Alger

Hiss of communist spying; Kinsey Report published


1948 : Harry Truman (Democrat) def. Thomas Dewey (Republican), Strom Thurmond (States Rights), and Norman

Thomas (Socialist), and Henry Wallace (Progressive)

NATO established 1949; I. Toguri D'Aquino (Tokyo Rose) convicted of treason; 1950 robbery of Brink's

Boston; Korean conflict begun 1950; railroads seized by Truman 1950-1952; Inchon landing September

1950 advanced until Chinese troops entered; Puerto Rican assassination attempt of Truman; Estes Kefauver

Senate investigation of organized crime and gambling; Julius and Ethel Rosenberg and Morton Sobell

convicted of espionage; MacArthur removed by Truman; Japanese Peace Treaty signed 1951 in SF; Truman

seized steel mills in 1952; Immigration and Naturalization Act of 1952; hydrogen bomb tested at Eniwetok

Atoll 1952


1952 : Dwight Eisenhower (Republican) def. Adlai Stevenson (Democrat)

nuclear sub Nautilus launched at Groton CT 1954; five congressmen wounded by Puerto Rican

independence supporters; Joseph McCarthy (WI) Communism hearings later condemned by Senate;

SEATO formed 1954; Rosa Parks bus protest in Montgomery 1955; AFL-CIO merger 1955; Federal-Aid

Highway Act passed 1956


1956 : Dwight Eisenhower (Republican) def. Adlai Stevenson (Democrat)

1957 Civil Rights Bill; troops sent to allow 9 black students to attend Little Rock Central High despite

opposition by Governor Orval Faubus 1957; Explorer I launched and discovered Van Allen radiation belt

1958; 5000 Marines sent to Lebanon; National Airlines NY-Miami air service; Alaska and Hawaii admitted

1959; St. Lawrence Seaway opened 1959; Nikita Khurshchev visited US September 1959; sit-ins began at

Greensboro NC Woolworth; Francis Powers U-2 plane shot down in USSR 1960, canceling Paris conference


1960 : John F. Kennedy (Democrat) def. Richard Nixon (Republican)

April 17 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba failed; Peace Corps established under Sargent Shriver; Alan

Shepard in Mercury first American in space; 1961 Freedom Rides; John Glenn in Mercury Friendship 7 first

American in orbit 1962; James Meredith first black at University of Mississippi; US agreed to remove missiles

in Turkey to resolve Cuban Missle Crisis 1962; above-ground nuclear tests banned by US, USSR, and UK 1963;

Martin Luther King Jr. March on Washington August 28 1963; South Vietnam Ngo Dinh Diem assassinated;

Kennedy assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald in Dallas, who was shot by Jack Ruby, Governor Connoly also



1963 : Lyndon B. Johnson became president upon Kennedy's assassination

Medger Evers killed in Mississippi 1963, Byron De La Beckwith convicted in 1994; Civil Rights Act of

1964 passed; Medicare established 1964; Tonkin Gulf Resolution escalated Vietnam Conflict 1964; War on

Poverty, Job Corps, and domestic Peace Corps (VISTA) established 1964; Warren Commision said Oswald

acted alone


1964 : Lyndon B. Johnson (Democrat) def. Barry Goldwater (Republican)

North Vietnam bombed below 20o; troops sent to Dominican Republic; Selma to Montgomery march 1964;

Voting Rights Act of 1965; Watts riots in LA 1965; US bombed Hanoi 1966; Edward Brooke of MA first

black senator in 85 years; Rep. Adam Powell fined by Congress; Johnson met with Aleksei Kosygin at

Glassboro State College; Detroit and Newark riots 1967; Carl Stokes (Cleveland) and Richard Hatcher (Gary)

first black mayors of major cities; Pueblo seized by North Korea in Sea of Japan 1968; Tet Offensive reached

Saigon 1968;  Vietnam bombing halted 1968; Martin Luther King Jr assassinated by James Earl Ray in

Memphis 1968; Robert Kennedy assassinated by Jordanian Sirhan Sirhan in LA; Chicago 7 riots at Democratic

Convention; Shirley Chisolm (NY) first black woman in Congress; massacre at Mylai under William Calley 1968


1968 : Richard Nixon (Republican) def. Hubert Humphrey (Democrat) and George Wallace (Am. Indep.)

Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin reach moon on Apollo 11 July 20 1969 with Michael Collins orbiting;

Woodstock near Bethel NY 1969; United Mine Workers chief Tony Boyle convicted of killing Joseph Yablonski;

four killed at Kent State protests 1970; Charles Manson convicted of murder of Sharon Tate; NY Times and

Washington Post printed Pentagon papers given by Daniel Ellsberg; 8-day Nixon trip to China 1972; Equal

Rights Amendment approved by Congress 1972 but never ratified; US bombed Hanoi and Haiphong for first

time in 4 years; Arthur Bremer shot AL Gov. George Wallace at Laurel MD 1972; Nixon visited Moscow; 5

arrested for Watergate break-in 1972


1972 : Richard Nixon (Republican) def. George McGovern (Democrat) and George Schmitz (American)

Treaty of Paris ended Vietnam conflict 1973; Haldeman (chief of staff), Ehrlichman (domestic policy advisor

who authorized break-in to office of Ellsberg's psychiatrist), Dean (White House counsel), and Kleindienst

(Attorney General) resigned 1973; VP Spiro Agnew resigned because of tax evasion charges as MD governor;

1973-1974 Arab oil embargo; in Saturday Night Massacre October 20 1973, Attorney General Richardson

resigned and Ruckelshaus and Cox were fired by Nixon; Jaworski replaced Cox as special prosecutor, John

Sirica was Watergate judge; War Powers Act passed over veto; House Judiciary Committee recommended

three articles of impeachment; Nixon resigned August 9 1974;


1974 : Gerald Ford became president upon Nixon's resignation

Mitchell, Ehrlichman, and Haldeman convicted; Saigon evacuation April 29 1975; Cambodia seized Mayaguez,

Marines attacked Tang Island; Nelson Rockefeller panel described illegal CIA operations; Patty Hearst

arrested after being kidnapped by Symbionese Liberation Army; NYC Operation Sail 1976; legionnaire's

disease killed 29 in Philadelphia; Viking I and II landed on Mars 1976


1976 : Jimmy Carter (Democrat) def. Gerald Ford (Republican)

Carter pardoned Vietnam draft evaders; Gary Gilmore (Utah firing squad) was first to be executed in ten

years; Energy Department created 1977; accident at Three Mile Island near Middletown PA 1979; $1.5 federal

bailout of Chrysler; 63 taken hostage by followers of Ayatollah Khomeini in Iran, demanding return of Shah

Muhammad Reza Pahlavi 1979; grain embargo and Olympic boycott of USSR after Afghanistan invasion; 8

killed in failed Iranian rescue; Mt. St. Helens killed 60 in WA; John Lennon assassinated in NYC by Mark



1980 : Ronald Reagan (Republican) def. Jimmy Carter (Democrat) and John Anderson (Independent)

52 hostages released after 444 days in Iran January 20 1981; John Hinckley shot Reagan to impress Jodie

Foster 1981, crippling Press Secretary James Brady; first shuttle Columbia launched; Reagan dismissed

striking air traffic controllers 1981; AT&T split into 22 Baby Bells in 1982; South Korean passenger jet shot

down over USSR 1983; 241 Marines killed in Beirut Airport suicide bombing October 23 1983; US Marines

invaded Grenada October 25 1983 by request of OECS; suit settled by Vietnam veterans against herbicide

Agent Orange; Geraldine Ferraro (NY) first woman VP candidate


1984 : Ronald Reagan (Republican) def. Walter Mondale (Democrat)

London-Philadelphia Live Aid concert raised $70 million for Africa 1985; TWA plane hijacked from Athens

1985; Achille Lauro hijacked near Port Said and Leon Klinghoffer killed; Geneva summit 1985; Challenger

exploded January 28 1986 killing 7 including NH teacher Christa McAuliffe; Ivan Boesky pled guilty to illegal

stock trading; 1987 first trillion dollar budget; Iraqi missile killed 37 on USS Stark 1987; Iran Contra Affair

investigations by Special Prosecutor Lawrence Walsh and John Tower led to charges against NSC heads

Robert McFarlane and John Poindexter and staff member Oliver North 1987; October 19 1987 Wall Street

508-point fall; mid-range armament dismantling agreement; 1988 immigration amnesty policy; missile from

USS Vincennes shot down Iranian airliner; Drexel Lambert pled guilty to illegal stock trading


1988 : George Bush (Republican) def. Michael Dukakis (Democrat)

Exxon Valdez under Joseph Hazelwood struck Bligh Reef in Prince William Sound and spilled 260,000 barrels

of oil; SF Bay earthquake killed 60 1989; Douglas Wilder (VG) elected first black governor since

Reconstruction; US arrested Manuel Noriega from Vatican embassy in Panama (Operation Restore Hope)

1989; Americans with Disabilities Act passed 1990; 100-day Operation Desert Shield and 100-hour Operation

Desert Storm liberated Kuwait from Iraq by February 27 1991; OU Law Professor Anita Hill accused Clarence

Thomas of harassment; Charles Keating convicted of securities fraud; 52 killed in South-Central LA riots after

acquittal of 4 officers charged in Rodney King beating 1992, Koon and Powell later convicted of civil rights



1992 : Bill Clinton (Democrat) def. George Bush (Republican) and Ross Perot (Independent)

Hillary Clinton headed health care task force; World Trade Center bombed 1993 by group led by Sheik

Rahman, Ramzi Ahmed Yousef and Eyad Ismoil Yousef convicted 1997; 51-day siege of Branch Davidian

compound in Waco under David Koresh, 80 killed in April 19 1993 fire; Great Flood of 1993 left 70,000

homeless; Vincent Foster found dead in VG park; Brady Bill signed; Endeavor repaired Hubble telescope;

NAFTA took effect 1994; Northridge earthquake killed 61 in 1994; Reno appointed Whitewater special

prosecutors Robert Fiske, then Kenneth Starr, then Robert Ray, investigating actions of James and Susan

McDougal's Madison Guaranty; Adrich Ames convicted of spying 1994; Paula Jones filed harassment 

charges against Clinton; OJ Simpson acquitted of murder of Nicole Brown Simpson and Ronald Goldman

1995; World Trade Organization established by Uruguay Round of GATT; Republicans gained majority in

both Houses with Contract with America 1994, Majority Leader Bob Dole and Speaker Newt Gingrich; 169

killed in bombing of Murray Building in Oklahoma City April 19 1995, Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols

arrested; Henry Foster rejected as surgeon general nominee to replace Jocelyn Elders; Webster Hubbell

convicted of tax evasion; Atlantis and Mir docked 1995; Scott O'Grady rescued from Bosnia; Arkansas

Governor Jim Guy Tucker convicted; Shannon Faulkner admitted to The Citadel but soon dropped out; Bob

Packwood (OR) resigned; Louis Farrakhan led Million Man March 1995; former White House Travel head Billy

Dale acquitted; Bosnian treaty signed at Wright-Patterson AFB near Dayton 1995; 7 killed in Riyadh explosion;

budget impasse led to 1995 government shutdown


1996 : Bill Clinton (Democrat) def. Robert Dole (Republican) and Ross Perot (Reform)

Harold Nicholson pled guilty to spying; 39 Heaven's Gate members committed suicide at Rancho Santa Fe

CA 1997 in connection with Comet Hale-Bopp; Theodore Kaczynski pled guilty to Unabomber charges 1998;

Karla Faye Tucker first female executed in Texas in 135 years 1998; Mitchell Johnson and Andrew Golden

killed five in Jonesboro; Clinton impeached on charges of grand jury perjury and obstruction of justice based on

Starr report December 1998; Matthew Shepard murdered in Wyoming; John Glenn returned to space on the Discovery;

Johnny Chung convicted of illegal campaign contributions; Amadou Diallo killed by NYC police; John William King,

Lawrence Brewer, and Shawn Allen Berry convicted of murdering James Byrd Jr in Jasper TX; Jack Kevorkian

sentenced to prison 1998 for assisted suicide; Susan Webber Wright held Clinton in contempt of court; Eric Harris

and Dylan Klebold killed 13 at Columbine in Littleton April 20 1998; Charlie Trie convicted of illegal fundraising 1999;

two NYC police sentenced for torture of Abner Louima; JFK Jr., Carolyn Bessette Kennedy and Lauren Bessette

died in plane crash off Martha's Vineyard; Eileen Collins was first woman to command shuttle flight (Columbia);

Hurricane Floyd killed 68, mainly in NC 1999; 12 killed in Texas A&M bonfire collapse; Elian Gonzalez returned

to father in Cuba 2000; Bombing of USS Cole in Yemen 2000


2000 : George Bush Jr. (Republican) def. Al Gore (Democrat), Ralph Nader (Green), and Pat Buchanan (Reform)

Supreme Court ends recount in Florida in Bush v. Gore; AOL-Time Warner merger 2001; Robert Hanssen

arrested for spying; September 11 2001 attacks by al-Qaeda on World Trade Center towers in NYC, the Pentagon,

and Shanksville PA; Zacarias Moussaoui of al-Qaeda indicted; USA Patriot Act passed; US operation against

Taliban in Afghanistan; Osama bin Laden not captured in Tora Bora caves; Richard Reid attempted to bring down

plane with shoe bomb; Guantanamo Bay used to house captured terrorists; McCain-Feingold campaign finance

reform bill 2002; Cardinal Bernard Law of Boston resigned for covering up sexual abuse by priests; Senate

Majority Leader Trent Lott resigned; Space shuttle Columbia broke apart on re-entry 2003; US invaded Iraq and

captured Saddam Hussein; California governor Gray Davis replaced in recall election by Arnold Schwarzenegger;

John Muhammad and Lee Malvo sniper attacks in DC area; Photos of abuse of Abu Ghraib prisoners released 2004;

9/11 Commission report issued


2004 : George W. Bush (Republican) def. John Kerry (Democrat), Ralph Nader (Green)

Hurricane Katrina breached Lake Pontchartrain and flooded New Orleans 2005; House Majority Leader Tom DeLay

indicted for money laundering; Lobbyist Jack Abramoff pled guilty to bribery 2006; Surge in troops in Iraq led by

General David Petraeus; Poor conditions at Walter Reed Army Medical Center revealed; Scooter Libby convicted of

perjury in Valerie Plame (Wilson) leak investigation; Seung-Hui Cho killed 27 at Virginia Tech 2007; Federal

Government took over Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae mortgage finance companies and AIG insurance, Lehman

Brothers declared bankruptcy in financial crisis, and Troubled Assets Relief Program (TARP) bailout approved 2008;

California Proposition 8 banned gay marriage; Bernard Madoff arrested for Ponzi scheme 2008


2008 : Barak Obama (Democrat) def. John McCain (Republican), Ralph Nader (Green)

Nidal Malik Hasan killed 13 at Fort Hood 2009; Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Obamacare) passed

2010; Explosion on Deepwater Horizon drilling platform in Gulf of Mexico 2010; Julian Assange's Wikileaks

published documents; Simpson-Bowles commission recommended spending cuts; Representative Gabrielle Giffords

shot by Jared Loughner in Tucson 2011; Osama bin Laden killed by Navy SEALs in Abbottabad, Pakistan 2011;

Tornado in Joplin, MO killed 160; Former IL Gov. Rod Blagojevich convicted for corruption; Atlantis flew last space

shuttle mission 2011; Occupy Wall Street demonstrations; U.S. citizen Anwar al-Awlaki killed by drone in Yemen;

WI Gov. Scott Walker survived recall election 2012; Penn State football assistant coach Jerry Sandusky convicted

of sexual abuse, and Head Coach Joe Paterno died 2012; James Holmes killed 12 at an Aurora, CO movie theater;

Curiosity rover landed on Mars; Ambassador Chris Stevens killed in Benghazi, Libya; Operation Fast and Furious

gun-buying program criticized; Hurricane Sandy killed 200 in Mid-Atlantic 2012; Adam Lanza shot 26 at Sandy

Hook Elementary School in Newtown, CT


2012 : Barak Obama (Democrat) def. Mitt Romney (Republican), Gary Johnson (Libertarian)

Bzhokhar and Tamerlan Tsarnaev bomb Boston Marathon 2013; IRS executive Luis Lerner apologized for

targeting conservative groups; Edward Snowden leaked documents about surveillance programs; George

Zimmerman found not guilty for killing Trayvon Martin in Sanford FL; Chelsea (formerly Bradley) Manning

sentenced for leaks; Partial government shutdown 2013; Janet Yellen confirmed as first female Federal Reserve

chair 2014; Bowe Bergdahl freed in prisoner exchange with Taliban; Eric Shinseki resigned over wait times at VA

hospitals; House Minority Leader Eric Cantor lost in Primary to Tea Party; U.S. attacks Islamic State of Iraq and Syria

(ISIS); Protests in Ferguson, MO after Michael Brown shot; Former VA Governor Bob McDonnell convicted on

corruption (later overturned by Supreme Court); U.S. sent troops to help fight Ebola outbreak in West Africa; Blackwater

security guards convicted for shootings in Iraq; One World Trade Center opened 2014; Former CIA Director David

Petraeus pled guilty for sharing classified information with biographer/lover; Dylann Roof killed 9 at Emanuel

African Methodist Episcopal Church in Charleston, SC; Kim Davis jailed in Rowan County KY for not

Issuing same-sex marriage licenses; New Horizons spacecraft flew by Pluto; Obama declined to support

Keystone XL oil pipeline; State of emergency in Flint, MI due to lead levels in water supply 2016; Omar

Mateen killed 49 at the Pulse gay nightclub in Orlando, FL 2016; Zika virus transmitted by mosquitos in Miami;

Donald Trump won Republican nomination over Ted Cruz, John Kasich, and others; Hillary Clinton won

Democratic nomination over Bernie Sanders; FBI Director James Comey and Attorney General Loretta Lynch

announced no charges in probe of Clintons private e-mail server; Protests at Standing Rock Indian Reservation in

ND of oil pipeline construction 2016; Russia suspected of interfering in 2016 U.S. election


2016 : Donald Trump (Republican) def. Hillary Clinton (Democrat), Gary Johnson (Libertarian), Jill Stein (Green)


Other Leaders and Officials


Vice Presidents

                John Adams (Washington) : MA; first VP; elected President 1796

                Thomas Jefferson (Adams) : VG; played little role in Adams Administration; drafted

                                Kentucky Resolutions for nullification 1798; elected President 1800

                Aaron Burr (Jefferson) : NY; killed rival Alexander Hamilton in 1804 duel; purchased land in

                                Louisiana and planned to invade Spanish territory

                George Clinton (Jefferson, Madison) : first NY governor; opposed ratifying Constitution; died in

                                office; Anti-Federalist

                Elbridge Gerry (Madison) : anti-Federalist; gerrymandered MA districts while governor

                Daniel Tompkins (Monroe) : NY governor during War of 1812

                John Calhoun (JQ Adams, Jackson) : SC; House 1811-1817; Secretary of War 1817-1824; Vice

                                President 1825-1832; opposed tariffs of 1828 and 1832 and was first VP to resign; supported

                                nullification; Senate 1832-1848; Secretary of State 1841-1845; Senate again

                Martin Van Buren (Jackson) : NY; as Secretary of State was rival of VP Calhoun; 1832 VP

                                nominee; elected President 1836

                George Dallas (Polk): PA; minister to Russian and GB; cast deciding vote for Walker Tariff


                John Breckinridge (Buchanan) : KY; lost 1860 Presidential election; Secretary of War under Davis

                Hannibal Hamlin (Lincoln) : ME; anti-slavery; supported Wilmot Proviso

                Andrew Johnson (Lincoln) : TN; War Democrat who remained loyal to Union after TN secession;

                                became President when Lincoln shot

                Schuyler Colfax (Grant) : NY/IN; Speaker of the House; not renominated for VP in 1872;

                                implicated in Credit Mobilier scandal

                Henry Wilson (Grant) : NH; shoe worker; helped equip and train Union as chairman of Senate

                                Committee on Military Affairs

                Adlai Stevenson (Cleveland) : KY; ran with Bryan in 1896; grandson lost 1952, 1956 elections

                Charles Fairbanks (Roosevelt) : OH; negotiated US-Canada border 1898; ran with Hughes 1916

                James Sherman (Taft) : NY; died just before 1912 election

                Thomas Marshall (Wilson) : IN; said "What this country needs is a good five-cent cigar"

                Charles Dawes (Coolidge) : OH; banker who created 1924 Dawes Plan to ease Germany's

                                reparations burden (later reduced by 1929 Young Plan); shared 1925 Nobel with Austen


                John Garner (Roosevelt) : TX; VP during FDR's first two terms but opposed his seeking a third

                                term; helped pass New Deal legislation

                Henry Wallace (Roosevelt) : IA; VP during FDR's third term; asked to resign as Truman's

                                Commerce Secretary because he opposed hard-line stance against USSR; edited New

                                Republic; ran as Progressive candidate in 1948

                Harry Truman (Roosevelt) : MO; Truman Committee in Senate uncovered fraud and waste in

                                defense; VP for 82 days before FDR died and he became President

                Richard Nixon (Eisenhower) : campaigned against Communism; prosecuted Alger Hiss; lost CA

                                governor election; lost 1960 Presidential election but won in 1968 and 1972

                Hubert Humphrey (LBJ) : SD/MN; proposed Peace Corps and Medicare; supported nuclear test

                                bans and civil rights; lost 1968 election

                Spiro T. Agnew (Nixon) : MD; resigned over charges of bribery and tax evasion as governor

                Gerald Ford (Nixon) : became VP after Agnew resigned and President after Nixon resigned;

                                pardoned Nixon

                Nelson Rockefeller (Ford) : ME/NY; NY governor 1958-1974; Latin American expert

                Walter Mondale (Carter) : MN; lost 1984 election

                George Bush (Reagan) : ran for 1980 nomination; elected President 1988

                Dan Quayle (Bush) : IN; Chairman of National Space Council; wrote Standing Firm

                Al Gore (Clinton) : TN; lost 2000 election

                Dick Cheney (GW Bush) : Secretary of Defense under Bush

                Joseph Biden (Obama) : Senator from DE

                Mike Pence (Trump) : IN governor


Secretaries of State

                Thomas Jefferson (Washington) : first secretary of state; differences with Hamilton over national

                                bank led to political parties - Federalist and Democratic-Republican

                Edmond Randolph (Washington) : VG; proposed VG Plan for Constitution; resigned after false

                                bribery accusations; defended Burr in treason trial

                Timothy Pickering (Washington) : MA; also postmaster and secretary of war; founded West Point

                Henry Clay (JQ Adams) : VG/KY; War Hawk; Whig; proposed 1820 and 1850 slavery

                                compromises; lost 3 Presidential elections

                Daniel Webster (Harrison, Tyler, Fillmore) : NH/MA; argued cases before Supreme Court; famous

                                orator; opposed nullification; opposed Mexican War

                John Calhoun (Tyler, Polk) : SC

                William Seward (Lincoln, Johnson) : NY; prevented European intervention in Civil War;

                                unsuccessful in annexations of Hawaii and Caribbean islands but bought Alaska from

                                Russia for $7.2 million

                Hamilton Fish (Grant, Hayes) : NY; arbitrated Alabama claims in 1871 Treaty of Washington with

                                GB; settled San Juan boundary dispute with GB; persuaded US to recognize Cuban


                James Blaine (Garfield, Arthur) : PN/ME; "The Plumed Knight"; lost 1884 Presidential election

                                because of "Mugwumps" Republican defectors; protected US commercial interests in

                                Pacific and Latin America

                John Hay (McKinley, Roosevelt) : co-authored two Lincoln biographies with John Nicolay;

                                negotiated Spanish-American War treaty; annexed Philippines; initiated Open Door policy

                                in China; signed Hay-Pauncefote and Hay-Buneau-Varilla treaties for Panama Canal

                Elihu Root (Roosevelt) : NY; won 1912 Nobel; leading Republican supporter of League of


                Philander Knox (Taft) : as attorney general won antitrust case against Northern Securities

                William Jennings Bryan (Wilson) : IL/NE; advocated free silver coinage ("Cross of Gold" speech

                                1896); resigned in opposition to hostilities with Germany; lost 3 Presidential elections;

                                prosecuted 1925 Scopes trial

                Charles Evans Hughes (Harding, Coolidge) : resigned from Supreme Court for 1916 Presidential

                                election but lost; secretary of state 1921-1925; Chief Justice 1930-1941

                Frank Kellogg (Coolidge) : shared 1929 Nobel with Arisitide Briand for 1928 Kellogg-Briand

                                Treaty renouncing war as an instrument of national policy

                Cordell Hull (FDR) : TN; signed many treaties with Latin America; met often with GB and USSR

                                ministers during WWII; supported founding UN; 1945 Nobel

                Edward Stettinius (FDR) : first US delegate to UN

                James Byrnes (Truman) : SC; resigned from Supreme Court to head WWII economic

                                commissions; represented US in peace talks; wrote Speaking Frankly and All in One Lifetime

                George Marshall (Truman) : PN; served in WWI and WWII as general; authored European

                                Recovery Program; 1953 Nobel

                Dean Acheson (Truman) : implemented Marshall Plan; helped found NATO; advised against US

                                involvement in Vietnam

                John Foster Dulles (Eisenhower) : helped establish European Defense Community, SEATO; and

                                Baghdad Pact (Central Treaty Organization); threatened "massive nuclear retaliation" against


                Dean Rusk (JFK, LBJ) : GA; chairman of Rockefeller Foundation; supported US involvement in


                William Rogers (Nixon) : arranged Suez truce 1970; headed Challenger investigation committee

                Henry Kissinger (Nixon, Ford) : German-born; national security advisor; shared 1973 Nobel with

                                Le Duc Tho for Vietnam cease-fire; negotiated Egypt-Israel disengagement

                Cyrus Vance (Carter) : WV; LBJ's secretary of defense; important in 1980 Camp David accords;

                                resigned in protest of Iran hostage rescue attempt; later mediated in South Africa and Bosnia

                Edmund Muskie (Carter) : ME senator; Humphrey's VP candidate

                Alexander Haig (Reagan) :  PN; NATO commander; opposed Soviet expansion; resigned 1982;

                                wrote How America Changed the World

                George Shultz (Reagan) : NY; Nixon's secretary of the treasury; head of Bechtel Corporation

                Jim Baker (Bush) : TX; Reagan's secretary of the treasury; organized 1991 Mideast Peace Conference

                Lawrence Eagleburger (Bush)

                Warren Christopher (Clinton) : SD; member of LA riot committees in 1960s and 1990s

                Madeleine Albright (Clinton) : born in Prague; first woman secretary of state; UN representative

                Colin Powell (GW Bush) : first black chairmen of the Joint Chiefs of Staff under Bush

                Condoleezza Rice (GW Bush) : first female National Security Advisor; first female African-American

                                Secretary of State; provost at Stanford

                Hillary Rodham Clinton (Obama) : NY Senator; First Lady; 2016 Democratic Presidential nominee

                John Kerry (Obama) : MA Senator, 2004 Democratic Presidential nominee

                Rex Tillerson (Trump) : Exxon CEO


Secretaries of the Treasury

                Alexander Hamilton (Washington) : born in Nevis; first treasury secretary; paid off national debt

                                and assumed states' revolutionary debts; established national bank; supported high tariffs;

                                killed in duel by Burr

                Albert Gallatin (Jefferson, Madison) : born in Geneva; PN senator; reduced debt; supported

                                Louisiana Purchase; opposed war; founded American Ethnological Society

                George Dallas (Madison)

                Salmon P. Chase (Lincoln) : NH/OH; helped found Free-Soil and Republican parties; appointed

                                chief justice 1864

                Andrew Mellon (Harding, Coolidge, Hoover) : PN; founded steel plant in Donora; refunded

                                European debts and reduced US debt; left art collection that became National Gallery of Art

                Henry Morgenthau Jr.(FDR) : NY; implemented FDR's New Deal and WWII monetary policies

                                for 11 years; wrote Germany Is Our Problem

                Donald Regan (Reagan)

                James Baker (Reagan)

                Nicholas Brady (Reagan, Bush)

                Lloyd Bentsen (Clinton) : TX

                Robert Rubin (Clinton)

                Lawrence Summers (Clinton)

                Paul O'Neill (GW Bush)

                Timothy Geithner (Obama) : Oversaw Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP) after Financial Crisis


Attorneys General

                Edmund Randolph (Washington) : VG; first attorney general

                William Wirt (Monroe, JQ Adams) : ran as Anti-Masonic candidate in 1832 election

                H. Mitchell Palmer (Wilson) : arrested 2700 suspected Communists in 1920

                Will Rogers (Eisenhower) : vigorously enforced civil rights laws and school integration

                Robert Kennedy (JFK, LBJ) : MA/NY; enforced civil rights laws; investigated Jimmy Hoffa;

                                assassinated by Sirhan Sirhan while campaigning for President in CA

                John Mitchell (Nixon) : imprisoned for Watergate charges

                Richard Kleindienst (Nixon) : criticized for not fully investigating Watergate; resigned 1973

                Elliot Richardson (Nixon) : resigned rather fire Special Prosecutor Archibald Cox in 1973

                                Saturday Night Massacre

                William Saxbe (Nixon, Ford)

                William Smith (Reagan)

                Edwin Meese (Reagan)

                Richard Thornburgh (Reagan, Bush)

                William Barr (Bush)

                Janet Reno (Clinton) : first woman attorney general; criticized for Waco incident

                John Ashcroft (GW Bush) : MO; lost 2000 senate election to deceased Mel Carnahan

                Alberto Gonzales (GW Bush) : First Hispanic Attorney General

                Eric Holder (Obama)

                Loretta Lynch (Obama)

                Jefferson Session (Trump) : AL Senator


Secretaries of Defense

                Robert McNamara (JFK, LBJ) : CA; president of Ford; initially supported involvement in

                                Vietnam but then sought peace; resigned to head World Bank

                Caspar Weinberger (Reagan)

                Dick Cheney (Bush) : NE/WY; proposed cutting $10 billion from defense budget; planned Persian

                                Gulf War strategy

                Les Aspen (Clinton)

                William Perry (Clinton)

                William Cohen (Clinton)

                Donald Rumsfeld (Ford and GW Bush) : led wars in Afghanistan and Iraq

                Robert Gates (GW Bush and Obama)

                James Mattis (Trump)


Secretaries of War

                Henry Knox (Washington) : MA; first secretary of war; brigadier general in Revolution

                John Calhoun (Monroe)

                Edwin Stanton (Lincoln, Johnson) : OH; opposed Johnson's leniency in Reconstruction; his

                                removal in violation of the Tenure of Office Act led to Johnson's impeachment


Secretaries of the Interior

                Richard Ballinger (Taft) : IA; accused of being too lenient in conservationism by Louis Glavis and

                                Gifford Pinchot

                Albert Fall (Harding) : KY/NM; accepted bribe for use of Teapot Dome WY and Elk Hills CA land

                Bruce Babbit (Clinton) : CA; AZ governor


Secretaries of Agriculture

                Mike Espy (Clinton) : investigated for accepting bribe from Tyson Foods

                Dan Glickman (Clinton)

                Ann Veneman (GW Bush)


Secretaries of Labor

                Frances Perkins (FDR) : first woman Cabinet member

                Elizabeth Dole (Bush)

                Robert Reich (Clinton)

                Alexis Herman (Clinton) : investigated for kickbacks but cleared


Secretaries of Health, Education, and Welfare

                Oveta Culp Hobby (Eisenhower)


Secretaries of Commerce

                Ron Brown (Clinton) : DNC chairman; died in plane crash in former Yugoslavia

                Mickey Kantor (Clinton)

                William Daley (Clinton)

                Norman Mineta (Clinton)

                Donald Evans (GW Bush)


Secretaries of Housing and Urban Development

                Robert Weaver (LBJ) : first HUD secretary and first black Cabinet member


Chief Justices of the Supreme Court

                1789 - 1795 John Jay : NY; negotiated Treaty of Paris and Jay's Treaty; wrote Federalist with

                                Hamilton and Madison; resigned from Court to be NY governor

                1795 - 1795 John Rutledge : SC; never confirmed by Senate because he opposed Jay's Treaty

                1796 - 1801 Oliver Ellsworth : CT; introduced CT Compromise with Roger Sherman; left court to

                                negotiate trade with Napoleon

                1801 - 1835 John Marshall : VA; established court's right to review legislation with Marbury v.

                                Madison; favored federal power in McCulloch v. Maryland and Gibbons v. Ogden;

                                acquitted Burr of treason

                1836 - 1864 Roger Taney : MD; refused confirmation as Jackson's treasury secretary and as court

                                justice; overturned federal law for second time ever in Dred Scott v. Samford

                1864 - 1873 Salmon P. Chase : OH; anti-slavery; presided at Johnson's impeachment; dissented in

                                Slaughterhouse cases; opposed greenbacks

                1874 - 1888 Morrison Waite : OH; resolved Alabama claims; favored states' rights; upheld

                                grangers' laws in Munn v. Illinois

                1888 - 1910 Melville Fuller : IL; broadened court's powers; served on Permanent Court on


                1910 - 1921 Edward White : LA; generally supported government in antitrust cases but used "rule

                                of reason" to weaken enforcement; dissolved Standard Oil and American Tobacco

                1921 - 1930 William Howard Taft : CT; secured passage of Judiciary Act of 1925 and separate

                                Supreme Court building; leader of conservative faction with Holmes, Brandeis, and Stone


                1930 - 1941 Charles Evans Hughes : NY; associate justice 1910-1916; lost Presidential election

                                1916; appointed chief justice 1930; upheld many New Deal programs such as National Labor

                                Relations Act

                1941 - 1946 Harlan Stone : NY; generally supported New Deal

                1946 - 1953 Fred Vinson : KY; generally supported Fair Deal

                1953 - 1969 Earl Warren : CA; liberal "Warren Court" made many important decisions in civil

                                rights and constitutional rights (Brown, Miranda, Roth, Mapp, Engle, Gideon); Warren

                                Commission determined Oswald acted alone

                1969 - 1986 Warren Burger : VA; very conservative

                1986 - 2005 William Rehnquist : AZ; conservative; supports judicial restraint

                2005 - ? John Roberts Jr. : MD; conservative but sided with majority in upholding most of the

                                Affordable Care Act in National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius


Selected Associate Justices

                First female justice - Sandra Day O'Connor

                First black justice - Thurgood Marshall

                First Jewish justice - Louis Brandeis

                First Hispanic justice - Sonia Sotomayor

                Longest serving justice - William Douglas (1939-1975)

                Justice who resigned to run for presidency - Charles Hughes


Speakers of the House

                1789 - 1791, 1793 - 1795 Frederick Muhlenberg : PA; Federalist; Lutheran pastor; first Speaker

                1791 - 1793 Jonathan Trumbull : CT; Federalist; only colonial governor to support independence

                1811 - 1814, 1815 - 1820, 1823 - 1825 Henry Clay : KY; Dem-Rep; Missouri Compromise

                1834 - 1835 John Bell : TN; Democrat

                1835 - 1839 James Polk : TN; Democrat

                1863 - 1869 Schyler Colfax : IN; Republican

                1869 - 1875 James Blaine; ME; Republican

                1903 - 1911 Joseph Cannon; IL; Republican; appointed allies and blocked reforms; power limited

                                by Democrats and George Norris in 1910

                1940 - 1947, 1949 - 1953, 1955 - 1961 Sam Rayburn; TX; Democrat; 48 years in House and 17

                                years as Speaker both records

                1947 - 1949, 1953 - 1955 Joseph Martin Jr : MA; Republican

                1962 - 1971 John McCormack : MA; Democrat

                1971 - 1977 Carl Albert : OK; Democrat

                1977 - 1987 Thomas "Tip" O'Neill Jr : MA; Democrat; opposed Reagan; wrote Man of the House

                1987 - 1989 James Wright : TX; Democrat; moderate; resigned amid allegations of ethics


                1989 - 1995 Thomas Foley : WA; Democrat

                1995 - 1999 Newt Gingrich : GA; Republican; engineered "Contract with America", bringing

                                Republicans control of the House for the first time in 40 years

                1999 - 2007 J. Dennis Hastert; IL; Republican; elected Speaker after Livingston resigned;

                                convicted 2016 for evading financial reporting related to his alleged victim of sexual abuse

                2007 - 2011 Nancy Pelosi; CA; Democrat; first female Speaker

                2011 - 2015 John Boehner; OH; Republican

                2015 - ? Paul Ryan; WI; Republican; 2012 Republican Vice-Presidential nominee 


Senate Floor Leaders

                Robert Taft (1953 Majority) : OH Republican; "Mr. Republican"; isolationist; co-sponsor of Taft-

                                Hartley Act limiting labor unions

                Lyndon B Johnson (1953-1955 Minority, 1955-1961 Majority) : TX Democrat

                Everett Dirksen (1959-1969 Minority) : IL Republican; supported civil rights legislation

                Robert Byrd (1977-1981 Majority, 1981-1987 Minority) : WV Democrat; conservative Democrat

                Howard Baker Jr (1977-1981 Minority, 1981-1985 Majority) : TN Republican; investigated

                                Watergate; married Nancy Kassebaum

                Robert Dole (1985-1987 and 1995-1996 Majority, 1987-1995 Minority) : KS Republican; lost

                                1996 Presidential election

                George Mitchell (1989-1995 Majority) : ME Democrat; declined Supreme Court appointment

                Thomas Daschle (1995-2005 Minority and Majority) : SD Democrat

                Trent Lott (1996-2001 Minority, 2001-2002 Majority) : MS Republican; resigned after controversial

                                remarks about segregation

                Harry Reid (2005-2017 Minority and Majority) : NV Democrat

                Mitch McConnell (2007-2015 Minority, 2015-? Majority) : KY Republican


Other Notable Early Senators

                Henry Clay, KY, 1806-07, 1810-11, 1831-42, 1849-52; "Great Compromiser" (1820 Missouri Compromise,

                              Compromise of 1850), advocated "American System" of tariffs and strong national bank; Presidential

                              candidate 1824, 1832, 1844

                Daniel Webster, MA, 1827-41, 1845-50; Whig; wanted to preserve Union; great orator; "Reply to Hayne" speech

                John Calhoun, SC, 1832-43, 1845-50; proponent of states' rights, nullification, and opposition to high tariffs

                Robert "Fighting Bob" La Follete, Sr., WI, 1906-25; founded Progressive Party; opponent of railroad trusts, bossism,

                              WW I, and League of Nations

                Arthur Vandenberg, MI, 1928-51; isolationist prior to WWII; then supported UN, NATO, and Marshall Plan

                Robert Wagner, NY, 1928-49; Wagner Act protected rights of laborers and labor unions

                Joseph McCarthy, WI, 1947-57; sought to expose alleged communists; "McCarthyism"


Notable Governors

                AL, George Wallace, D, 1963-67, 1971-79, 1983-87; American Independent Party 1968 Presidential nominee;

                              "segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever"; paralyzed when shot by Arthur Bremer

                AK, Sarah Palin, 2006-09, R; Republican Vice-Presidential nominee 2008

                AZ, Janet Napolitano, 2003-09, D; later Sec. of Homeland Security, President of Univ. of California

                AR, Orval Faubus, 1955-67, D; tried to prevent "Little Rock Nine" from integrating Little Rock Central High School

                AR, Bill Clinton, 1979-81, 83-93, D; later U.S. President 1993-2001

                AR, Mike Huckabee, 1996-2007, R; minister; ran for Republican Presidential nomination 2008 and 2016

                CA, Leland Stanford, 1862-63, R; railroad president; founder of Stanford University

                CA, Earl Warren, 1943-1953, R; later Supreme Court chief justice 1953-1969

                CA, Ronald Reagan, 1967-75, R; movie star (Knute Rockne, All American); later U.S. President 1981-1989

                CA, Edmund G. "Jerry" Brown, Jr. 1975-83, 2011-?, D; son of CA Gov. "Pat" Brown Sr.; longest term as CA Gov.

                CA, Pete Wilson, 1991-99, R; previously a senator and San Diego mayor

                CA, Gray Davis, 1999-2003, D; removed from office by recall election during budget crisis

                CA, Arnold Schwarzenegger, 2003-11, R; bodybuilder, movie star (Terminator); replaced Davis in recall

                FL, Jeb Bush, 1999-2007, R; brother of President George W. Bush; son of George H.W. Bush

                FL, Charlie Crist, 2007-11, R / I; switched from Republican to Independent and later Democratic

                FL, Rick Scott, 2011-?, R

                GA, Jimmy Carter, 1971-75, D; later U.S. President 1977-1981; graduated Naval Academy; peanut farmer

                IL, Adlai Stevenson, 1949-53, D; grandson of VP Adlai Stevenson; Democratic Presidential nominee 1952 and 56

                IL, George Ryan, 1999-2003, R; imposed moratorium on executions; convicted of corruption

                IL, Rod Blagojevich, 2003-09, D; impeached and convicted for corruption; solicited bribes for Senate appointment

                IN, Evan Bayh, 1989-97, D; later U.S. Senator

                IN, Mike Pence, 2013-17, R; later U.S. Vice-President 2017-?

                KS, Sam Brownback, 2011-?, R; cut taxes but led to budget deficit

                LA, Huey Long, 1928-32, D, "The Kingfish", Share Our Wealth plan, later U.S. Senator, assassinated by Carl Weiss

                LA, Kathleen Blanco, 2004-08, D; criticized for handling of Hurricane Katrina

                LA, Piyush "Bobby" Jindal, 2008-16, R; first Indian-American governor; youngest President of Universities of LA

                MD, Cecil Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore, 1632-1675; Proprietor of the MD Colony; son of George Calvert, 1st Baron

                              Baltimore; Catholic

                MD, Spiro T. Agnew, 1967-69, R; later U.S. Vice-President 1969-73; resigned due to bribery charges

                MA, John Carver, Gov. of New Plymouth Colony, 1620-21; wrote Mayflower Compact

                MA, William Bradford, Gov. of New Plymouth Colony, intermittently 1621-57; wrote Of Plimoth Plantation

                MA, John Winthrop, MA Bay Colony, 1629-34, 1637-40, 1642-44, 1646-49; wrote of Puritan "city upon a hill"

                MA, John Hancock, 1780-85, 1787-93; President of Second Continental Congress; first to sign Dec. of Independence

                MA, Samuel Adams, 1793-97; second cousin of John Adams; devised committee of correspondence to oppose Britain

                MA, Elbridge Gerry, 1810-12, Dem.-Rep.; later U.S. VP 1813-14; namesake of "gerrymandering" electoral districts

                MA, Edward Everett, 1836-40, Whig; later Sec. of State 1852-53; famous orator, spoke for 2 hours at Gettysburg

                MA, Calvin Coolidge, 1919-21, R; later U.S. President 1923-29; responded to Boston Police Strike 1919

                MA, Michael Dukakis, 1975-79, 1983-91, D; Greek-American; Democratic Presidential nominee 1988

                MA, William Weld, 1991-97, R; Libertarian V.P. nominee 2016

                MA, Willard Mitt Romney, 2003-07, R; Republican Presidential nominee 2012; CEO of 2002 Salt Lake Winter Olympics

                MI, George Romney, 1963-69, R; later Sec. of HUD 1969-73; President of American Motors Corp; father of Mitt Romney

                MI, William Milliken, 1969-83, R

                MI, Jennifer Granholm, 2003-11, D

                MI, Rick Snyder, 2011-?, R; criticized for lead water crisis in Flint

                MO, John Ashcroft, 1985-93, R; later U.S. Senator and Attorney General 2001-05

                MO, Mel Carnahan, 1993-2000, D; died in office in small plane crash; elected posthumously as U.S. Senator

                NE, Ben Nelson, 1991-99, D; later U.S. Senator; conservative Democrat

                NJ, William Paterson, 1790-93, Federalist; signed Constitution; later Supreme Court justice

                NJ, Woodrow Wilson, 1911-13, D; later U.S. President 1913-1921; President of Princeton

                NJ, Christine Todd Whitman, 1994-2001, R; later Administrator of EPA 2001-03

                NJ, Chris Christie, 2010-?, R; praised for Hurricane Sandy response; criticized for Fort Lee lane closure "Bridgegate"

                              scandal; ran for Republican Presidential nomination 2016

                NM, Gary Johnson, 1995-2003, R; Libertarian Presidential nominee 2012 and 2016; climbed Seven Summits

                NM, Bill Richardson, 2003-11, D; later UN Ambassador and Sec. of Energy 1998-2001

                NM, Susana Martinez, 2011-?, R; first Hispanic woman governor

                NY, Peter Minuit, Director New Netherland, 1626-32; bought Manhattan from Lenape Indians; founded New Sweden

                NY, Peter Stuyvesant, Director New Netherland, 1647-64; expanded New Amsterdam; built wall on Wall Street

                NY, George Clinton, 1777-95, 1801-04, Dem.-Rep.; later U.S. VP 1805-12

                NY, John Jay, 1795-1801; previously first Supreme Court Chief Justice 1789-95; Federalist leader

                NY, Daniel Tompkins, 1807-17, Dem.-Rep.; later U.S. VP 1817-25

                NY, DeWitt Clinton, 1817-22, 1825-28, Dem.-Rep.; nephew of George Clinton; built Erie Canal; 1812 Presidential candidate

                NY, Martin Van Buren, 1829, D; resigned in 2 months to be Sec. of State 1829-31, later VP 1833-37 and President 1837-41

                NY, William Seward, 1839-42, Whig; previously U.S. Senator and later Sec. of State 1861-69; opposed slavery

                NY, Hamilton Fish, 1849-50, Whig; later U.S. Senator and Sec. of State 1869-77

                NY, Horatio Seymour, 1853-54, 1863-64, D; Democratic Presidential nominee 1868

                NY, Samuel Tilden, 1875-76, D; Democratic Presidential nominee 1876; fought Tammany Hall

                NY, Grover Cleveland, 1883-85, D; later U.S. President 1851-89, 1893-73; opposed by Tammany Hall

                NY, Levi P. Morton, 1895-96, R; previously U.S. VP 1889-93; ally of Roscoe Conkling

                NY, Theodore Roosevelt, 1899-1900, R; later U.S. VP 1901 and President 1901-09; leader of Progressive Movement;

                              Rough Rider in Cuba during Spanish-American War

                NY, Charles Evans Hughes, 1907-10, R; later Supreme Court justice and Chief Justice 1930-41; 1916 Republican

                              Presidential nominee; Sec. of State 1921-25; defeated William Randolph Hearst in Gov. election

                NY, Alfred E. Smith, 1919-20, 1923-28, D; Democratic Presidential nominee 1928 (first Catholic); Efficiency Movement

                NY, Franklin D. Roosevelt, 1929-32, D; later U.S. President 1933-45; 1920 Republican V.P. nominee; contracted polio

                NY, Thomas Dewey, 1943-54, R; Republican Presidential nominee 1944 and 1948 (upset by Truman)

                NY, Nelson Rockefeller, 1959-73, R; later U.S. VP 1974-77 (appt. under 25th Amendment); moderate "Rockefeller

                              Republicans"; grandson of Standard Oil founder John D. Rockefeller

                NY, Mario Cuomo, 1983-94, D; liberal; declined to run for Presidential nomination

                NY, George Pataki, 1995-2006, R; governor during September 11 attacks

                NY, Eliot Spitzer, 2007-08, D; resigned due to prostitution scandal

                NY, Andrew Cuomo, 2011-?, D; son of NY Gov. Mario Cuomo

                OH, Salmon P. Chase, 1856-60, R; later U.S. Senator, Sec. of Treasury 1861-64, Chief Justice of Supreme Court 1864-73

                OH, Rutherford B. Hayes, 1868-72, 1876-77, R; later U.S. President 1877-81; Union Army officer

                OH, William McKinley, 1892-96, R; later U.S. President 1897-1901; Advisor Mark Hanna; as Representative proposed

                              McKinley Tariff 1890; assassinated by Leon Czolgosz

                OH, James M. Cox, 1913-15, 1917-21, D; Democratic Presidential nominee 1920; Cox Enterprises newspapers

                OH, John Kasich, 2011-?, R; ran for Republican Presidential nomination 2000 and 2016

                PN, William Penn, 1681-92, 1694-1718, proprietor and founder of Pennsylvania; Quaker; supported religious freedom

                PN, Benjamin Franklin, 1785-88, President of the Supreme Council; scientist (studied electricity), inventor;

                              published Poor Richard's Almanack; ambassador to France

                PN, Thomas Mifflin, 1788-99; first PN state gov.; previously Quartermaster Gen.; delegate to Constitutional Convention

                PN, Gifford Pinchot, 1923-27, 1931-35, R; previously Chief of U.S. Forestry Service

                PN, Tom Ridge, 1995-2001, R; later first Sec. of Homeland Security 2003-05

                RI, Roger Williams, 1654-57, Pres. of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations; expelled by Puritans in MA

                SC, Francis W. Pickens, 1860-62, D; governor during succession; cousin of John Calhoun

                SC, J. Strom Thurmond, 1947-51, D; later U.S. Senator; 1948 States Rights Democratic Party Presidential nominee

                SC, Nikki Haley, 2011-17; later UN ambassador 2017-?

                TN, Sam Houston, 1827-29, Dem.-Rep.; later general, President, and governor in Texas

                TN, James Polk, 1839-41, D; later U.S. President 1845-49; previously Speaker of the House

                TN, Andrew Johnson, 1853-57, 1862-65, D; later U.S. Senator, VP 1865 and President 1865-69; opposed secession;

                              military governor of TN after most retaken by Union

                TX, David G. Burnet, 1836, first (interim) President of the Republic of Texas

                TX, Sam Houston, 1836-38, 1841-44, President of the Republic of Texas; 1859-61 Governor; led defeat of Santa Ana

                              at Battle of San Jacinto; as governor opposed secession; previously governor of TN

                TX, Mirabeau Lamar, 1838-41, President of the Republic of Texas

                TX, Anson Jones, 1844-46, last President of the Republic of Texas; "Architect of Annexation"

                TX, John B. Connally, 1963-69, D; wounded in assassination of President John F. Kennedy in Dallas

                TX, Ann Richards, 1991-95, D; gave keynote address at the 1988 Democratic National Convention

                TX, George W. Bush, 1995-2000, R; later U.S. President 2001-2009; son of President George H.W. Bush

                TX, Rick Perry, 2000-15, R; later Sec. of Energy 2017-?; ran for Republican Presidential nomination 2012 and 2016

                TX, Greg Abbott, 2015-?, R; paralyzed by falling oak tree

                UT, Brigham Young, 1849-57; 2nd President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints; founded Salt Lake City

                UT, Jon Huntsman, 2005-09, R; later ran for Republican Presidential nomination 2012; ambassador to China

                VA, Edward Wingfield, 1607-08, First Council President of Virginia Colony (Jamestown)

                VA, John Smith, 1608-09, Council President of Virginia Colony (Jamestown); possibly saved by Pocahontas

                VA, Patrick Henry, 1776-79; "Give me liberty, or give me death!" speech

                VA, Thomas Jefferson, 1779-81; later Sec. of State 1790-93, U.S. VP 1797-1801, U.S. President 1801-09; primary

                              author of the Declaration of Independence; home at Monticello

                VA, James Monroe, 1799-1802, Dem.-Rep.; later Sec. of State 1811-17, U.S. President 1817-25

                VA, John Tyler, Jr. 1825-27, Dem.-Rep.; later U.S. Senator, VP 1841, and President 1841-45

                VA, John Letcher, 1860-64, D; governor during secession and Civil War

                VA, L. Douglas Wilder, 1990-94, D; first African-American governor of any U.S. state since Reconstruction

                VA, George Allen, 1994-98, R; later U.S. Senator

                VA, Tim Kaine, 2006-10, D; later U.S. Senator; 2016 Democratic VP nominee

                VA, Bob McDonnell, 2010-14, R; convicted of corruption but overturned by Supreme Court in McDonnell v. United States

                WV, John D. "Jay" Rockefeller IV, 1977-85, D; later U.S. Senator; Great-grandson of John D. Rockefeller

                WI, Robert La Follette, Sr., 1901-06, R; later U.S. Senator; 1924 Progressive Party Presidential nominee

                WI, Scott Walker, 2011-?, R; survived 2012 recall election after limiting collective bargaining of public employees